The Protestant Reformation in Germany started with the doctrines of Martin Luther and in Switzerland with John Calvin. Henry VIII didn’t wish to transform England into a Protestant country in fact he was also honored by the Pope with the title Fidei Defensor. But his wife was too old to give him a son and Henry VIII needed a male heir so asked Pope Clement VII to declare this marriage invalid. Clement didn’t agree and refused. Henry’s new mistress, Ann Boleyn, was pregnant so the only way to legitimate male heir was to marry her. Henry was excommunicated by the Pope and then he declared himself with the Act of Supremacy “Head of the Church”. The break from Rome was legitimized by Parliament which established the supremacy of the State over the Church. Then the Bible was translate in English so the new Anglican Church was born. It was independent but the dogma was similar of Cristian’s dogma. After, under King of Edward VI, Anglican Church became Protestant in fact the Act of Uniformity enforced the use of the English book of Prayer instead of the Latin missal. The reading of the Bible became the central key to salvation. Without the hierarchy of the priesthood, the people had responsibility for their own salvation through studying the Bible and devout life. Mary I forced the people to attend mass again to accept the authority of the Pope over the Church of England. Acts of Supremacy and uniformity of Elizabeth I avoided the extremes of Catholic and Protestant. She was supreme Governor of the Church and her Book of Common Prayer was written so that moderate Catholics and Protestants could both read into it what they wanted.
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