To swap means to give something in order to receive something else in return. Swap can also be used as a noun to refer to the act of exchanging something.
Ex: Travis was tired of skiing and wanted to learn a new sport, so he swapped his skis for a snowboard.
Ex: In the last class, Sasha was sitting next to the window and Kevin was sitting in the front row. Today, they've swapped seats because Sasha has forgotten her glasses and needs to sit closer to the board.
The expression to swap notes means to exchange information about someone or something.
Ex: Since there are so many sessions at this conference that we're interested in, how about we each go to different ones and then at the end of the day we swap notes about the presentations.
Ex: At the end of the month, the two managers swapped notes about the interns so they could decide who to offer the job to.
To pass on means to give something to someone else. When referring to a skill or knowledge, the meaning of to pass on is similar to teach.
Ex: The stoneworker wanted to pass on his skills to his children so that the art of stone working would not be lost after he died.
Pass on can also be used with diseases to say that someone transmitted an infectious disease to someone else or that a parent transmitted an illness or condition to a child through their genes. Also, pass on and pass away are used as polite ways of saying that someone has died.
Ex: Although women rarely suffer from haemophilia, a disorder in which a person's blood doesn't clot properly, they pass on the condition to their sons.
Ex: I was reading the newspaper today, and I saw from the obituaries that your uncle Harold passed on. I'm so sorry for your loss.