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Cage

A cage is a small enclosure or pen associated with imprisonment. It usually consists of evenly spaced bars of a string material, such as metal. A cage is normally used to keep animals from escaping confinement.
Ex: After being caught by the poachers, the tiger was put into an extremely secure cage to be transported to the handlers.
Ex: The cage was just large enough for the family's pet birds to sleep inside, but if they purchased another, they would have to buy a larger one.
The expression to rattle someone's cage is used to describe the action of purposely irritating, or unsettling someone to make them look foolish.
Ex: Because he knew how irrational she would become when angered, he began to bombard her with increasingly insulting questions in an attempt to rattle her cage.
Ex: Her calm demeanor often helped her to avoid becoming angry when a mischievous person would try to rattle her cage to obtain a display of frustration.

Dungeon

A dungeon is similar to a vault, in that it is an area of confinement, but has more primitive connotations and is considered dirty. It is associated with periods such as the Dark Ages.
Ex: The peasant was thrown into the dank, smelly dungeon after offending the king. He had little chance for repentance, since he was promptly forgotten.
Ex: The medieval dungeon was the epitome of Dark Age criminal accommodation: dark, cold, and damp, with a high likelihood of illness.
A castle's keep is a place where prisoners can be held. As the innermost part of a castle or most fortified portion, it is unlikely to allow someone to escape.
Ex: The King ordered the spies placed in the castle's keep until the enemy kingdom could produce a ransom of gold and silver for their release.
Ex: Though they were deep within the castle walls, being held in the keep, the prisoners could detect the sounds of war.
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