After the 100 years’ War and the Tudor: This War created two separated States, France and England. Actually, this War lasted 300 years because of all the old problems between the two states. In England, the Civil War of the Two Roses was very cruel. It ended in 1485 with the introduction of the very first King of England. This happened with a Marriage between the Lancaster and York, that both supported a King, who was a Tudor, Henry VII: he will give peace for rebuilding the whole country with an important navy and development. Henry VII had three children: the first, Arthur the Prince of Wales married Catherine of Aragon, the Spanish King’s daughter, in order to create a powerful country. Henry VII sent his daughter Margot to Scotland for marrying James IV, the King of Scots. The third one Henry was seen as unlucky, but as the men’s line was very weak, Arthur died just after the marriage, Margot could not rule because she was a woman, so the crown passed to Henry who became Henry VIII. He married Catherine of Aragon too, a beautiful and clever woman but she couldn’t give an alive son to Henry VIII, and only a daughter survived, Mary Tudor. Catherine became old and couldn’t handle a pregnancy. Here comes Anne Boleyn, a beautiful girl, who is desired by Henry VII as a lover, but she refused because she told him that if he truly wants her, he must marry her. However, there was a problem: Henry VII was already married with Catherine of Aragon and the Clergy did not agree. So Henry VII invented that this marriage was and incest because he married his brother’s oldwife, so that is the reason why this marriage was bewitched and that is why Catherine could not have children. At the time the with the Lutheran reform, there was a change in the English church that started becoming protestant. People started refusing the church in Rome. Henry VIII was a very religious man, he did not want to be excluded by the Rome’s Church but in the other hand, and he wanted to give England an heir. At the end, Anne Boleyn became the Queen of England. Before the Protestantism, there was a religious hierarchy of power with the Pope, Archbishops, Bishops and Priests who could explain people the Bible. With the incoming of the Protestantism and the start of the Anglican Church, there was not a hierarchy of power; everyman could interpret the Bible on his own. Through an agreement, the King was confirmed as the main point of both the Anglican Church and State of England. If a person doesn’t accept this issue, he’ll be executed, that’s why Henry VIII ordered to kill Thomas Moore. Talking about Anne Boleyn, she couldn’t give a male birth to Henry VIII too, so she was executed in the Tower of London also because it was said that she had some lovers and incest but she may also had been innocent. At the time, having a relationship with another man was betrayal, and Henry VIII may had used it has an excuse. Their daughter, Elizabeth, became the most important Queen that England had.
Queen Elisabeth I: She used many paintings as a propaganda of her power: The Armada painting is the most famous one. It was the most efficient way to spread the Queen’s power, that’s way Elisabeth, is represented like a statue or a goodness, who shines after the victory; in fact her skin and the ruff are the lightest part of the painting, while the background is very dark. Women at the time used a lot of was during special occasion to cover wrinkles. Her magnificent dress is full of gold, pearls (as it is said that she was a massive pearls lover) and jewels in red and black, the colours of power. Usually, the Queen was painted in white to symbolize her being Virgin. The Queen is holding a Globe as she made England one of the most powerful countries in the world. From the two windows in the background, we can see the Spanish Armada and a giant storm, representing the two symbols of glory. There is also a mermaid behind her: it was believed that mermaids used to sing and bewitch sailors to drag those into the water, Elisabeth, like mermaids, brought Spain in disaster. She had a very complicated life because many people tried to plot against her, her mother was executed, the father used to consider her as a bastard. It’s said she was fascinating not for her beauty but for her knowledge of languages and cultures; marrying someone would have meant to give a piece of her fame to someone else; she wanted all the power and fame for herself.