Henry VII came at the throne at the end of the Wars of the Roses. The first king of the Tudor dynasty had to deal with frequent conspiracies, but he tried to consolidate his position through a treaty with France, a treaty with Netherlands, and through the dynastic marriage between his son Arthur and the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. During his reign he strengthened the monarchy, extended its military power and turned England into a modern state.
Henry VIII was the second son of Henry VII. From the 1491 (his birth) until the death of his older brother Arthur in 1502 he was brought up in a female household. He was called “The golden Prince” both for his beauty and his education. In 1521 he gained the title of “Defender of the faith” by the pope.
After the death of Arthur he married his widow, Catherine of Aragon. In twenty years of marriage the only had a daughter, Mary, and Henry desperately wanted a male to keep the country united. So he asked the pope for a divorce in order to marry Anne Boleyn, a lady in waiting who was pregnant. The pope didn’t declare his first marriage invalid, so Henry broke with Rome and declared himself “Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England” through the Act of Supremacy. The king dissolved the monastery and social charities. Henry married Anne Boleyn in 1533 but she gave him a second daughter, Elizabeth. Then Henry went on to have four more wives in quick succession and one son, Edward.