- 700 BC (a.c) from north-west Germany to Britain.
Describing Celts: traders
- Emotional, passionate, heroic and wild.
- Proud, inventive, battle-loving.
- They farmers and traders and also did come agriculture.
- They traded metals, salt, pottery, glass and coin ornaments.
Family : clann
- The family was knows as a clan.
- Extended family of generations.
- Group members were responsible for everyone in the clann.
- They lived in huts made of wicker (vimini).
- “Beul aithris” (oral tradition) was passed down by grandparents, aunts, uncles, parents, forster parents.
- Children would be raised by another family “foster parents” to get educated in a certain trade.
- Foster parents (fratello della madre) were usually the brother of the birth-mother.
Hospitality : an important value
- Guests would make an offering.
- Guests would be expected to sing, play a tune (tipo mandolino) or tell a tale.
Marriage and Women
- The oaths (giuramento) are the only religious part of marriage which are specified by the marriage contract.
- Women were equal to men.
- They could own property, choose own husbands, and be war leaders.
- Equal part in putting together the marriage contract.
- They believed in life after death “otherworld”.
- To be killed or to kill was not thought of as a negative act.
- It would give honor to the victim.
- It crops were failing or animals were falling to disease they would offer human blood to insure health of the population.
- Human sacrifices were made to insure a successful battled.
Druids (stregoni, e amministratori, erano gli unici che sapevano scrivere)
- Druids “very knowledgeable one” were important to the Celtic culture.
- They could stop a battle.
- Responsibilities included: teaching the religious doctrine, medicine, civil justice, sacrifice, divination, and care of temples.
- To become a druid, school would take up to 20 years because it all had to be memorized.
- They performed animal and human sacrifices and practiced divination and other forms of magic.
- Believe in the “otherworld”.
- Their lives were a dangerous journey toward death.
- The circle on the cross in the halo of the Christ figure.
- They built monastic communities in a circular design.