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Logo a small design that is the official sign of a company or organisation.

USP unique selling proposition, is a particular feature of it which can be used in

advertising to show how it is different from, and better than, other similar products or


Durable goods:

- American English, large thing (cars), thay you don’t often buy;

- English equivalent, consumer durables vs FMCG.

A product is:

- A good;

- A service;

- An idea.

Consist of a bundle of tangible and intangible attributes that satisfies consumers and

is received in exchange for money.

Goods are tangibles, services are intangibles.

3 aspect to any tangible/intangible products:

- Core benefit, in use benefits, psychological benefit. The market must define the

core benefit the product will provide the customers;

- Tangible/actual products, quality, styling, packaging, label info, brand name. The

marketer must build the actual product around the core product.

- Augmented product, warrantly, installation, delivery, credit availability, after –

sale service and maintenance. Marketer must offers additional consumer

benefits and services.

Classifying products, products can be classified on who the final purchaser is:

- Consumer products - B to B products. Production goods, raw materials and

component parts; Support goods, major equipment, accessory equipment, b2b

services, marketing research.

- Commodities, undifferentiated products

Production life cycle

- Introduction, it can be a new product or a new model.

Push strategy: communication should stress the benefits of products to consumers. At

this stage little competition.

New product fails:

- Lack of differentiating advantage;

- Poor marketing plan;

- Poor tining;

- Poor product quality.

- Growth, need to encourage strong brand loyalty. There is more competition, you

should differentiate your offer from your competitors. PRICE DEALING – PRICE


- Maturity, a product can be rejuvenated through a change in packaging or a new

model. Modification of product line extension or re-positioning.

- Decline, sales fall off rapidly. Need to decide, eliminate, reposition or extend its


Pg. 60,61

Domande & risposte

Marketing skimming setting high price for a new product to make maximum

revenue before competing produtcts appear on the market.

To lunch a product to introduce a new product on the market.

Market research collecting, analysis and reporting data relevant a specific marketing


Packaging wrappers and containers in which products are sold.

Point of sale places where goods are sold to the public like shops, store, kiosk and

market stalls.

Product concept an idea for a new product which is tested with target consumers

before the actual product is develop.

10 domande e risposte.


- Advertising;

- Promotional tools.

Advertising media:

- Billboards;

- Printed flyers;

- Radio, cinema and tv ads;

- Web banners;

- Bus stop benches;

- Subway platforms and trains;

- Newspaper;

- Town criers;

- Sided of buses;

- Taxi cab doors;

- Musical stage shows;

- Stickers on apples in supermarkets;

Any place an identified sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is


To advertise(ment), advert.

Bilboards in America are posted in hoarding.

Classified ad are in newspapers (inserzioni pubblicitarie) with no image, no

colors, but only text.

Bus stop benches pubblicità sulle panche

Town crieers stand across road.

The tv commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market

advertising format and this is reflected by the high prices tv networks charge for

commercial airtime during pupular tv events.

Prime time commercial most expensive.

Airtime (broadcasting) trasmissione/andare in onda


- Our local radio station goes off(opposite on) the air at midnight;

- The interview with the president is going to air this Monday.

Advertising on the WWW is a widespread phenomenon. Prices of web-based

advertisement space are dependent on the relevance of the surrounding web


Unpaid advertising can provide good exposure at minimal cost.

Personal recommendations (bring a friend) or achieving the feat of equating a

brand a common noun.

Feat (impresa/prodezza) is an impressive achievement because it needs a lot of



UPC (bar code).


Viral ad an advertising extremely invaded like a virus.


Comprension questions



Advertising tries to persuade consumers to buy products and services. Even tough

there are different forms of advertising. The best form is what is noun as worth of

mouth advertising, that is when people tell their friends about a good new product

or service.

Companies cannot relies on this alone but use the services on advertising agencies

because they are specialists, with large resources and staff with expert knowledge.

The company generally agrees a budget with the agency and gives it the grief, that

is I dot I dot it that is statement of the overall objectives of the advertising

campaign, and the message it wants to communicate.

Then the agency create the ads and develops a media agency. The agencies media

planners have to decide what percentage of the target market they want to reach

and number of tiles they are likely to see the ads.


- Amazon, world’s buying leading online retailer;

- Ebay, global e-commerce platform that connects buyers and sellers;

- Walmart, word’s largest -------;

- Netflix, platforms providing video on demand and dvd.

Market structure, can be defines by:

- Number of firms;

- Their sizes;

- Amount of product differentiation;

- The ease of entry and exit;


Any market has a market leader who owns the maximum share, and market n9chers

ownining the minimum.

The market challenger and the market followers come in between. All of the together

form a hypothetical market structure.


A market situation in which there is only one buyer for an item. Also, duopsony and

oligpsony (a small number of buyers for a product).

Barriers to entry

Obstacles to creating a new company within a particular industry resulting from legal

or economic advanteages by existing companies.


A group of separate business organisations that have agreed to institure approaches

to altering competition by influencing prices, production or marketing.


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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in economia e finanza
A.A.: 2018-2019

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher marcoorla97 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Idoneità linguistica inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Modena e Reggio Emilia - Unimore o del prof Lavagno Attilia.

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