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Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

Emphasis on the role of the author

During the Victorian period the author is compared to God (analogy)

 Fowls author stands next to God (he’s second).

 F. says that the idea of God has changed, not the idea of the author. Since we have this new

perception of God, also that of the author has changed.

F. uses the grandnarrative of Religion, in analyzing the function of the author.

[L’autore ad inizio capitol è evocato come Dio (period vittoriano), ma F. usa poi stand next to ->

consapevolezza. Mette inoltre sempre in discussione le metanarrazioni, anche nel brano, ora ne usa

una per distruggerle]

GRANDNARRATIVES = METANARRATIVE

METAFICTION ≠ METANOVEL

Literary theory

It is a new way to study english literature.

In the past the idea of teach English -> people need to be civilized, it is used as tool to provide values

to uncivilized people.

F.Raymond/TS Elliot try to offer answers and certainties ≠ post modernists (contemporary critics)

who shows the diversity.

Understanding literature is not a natural process, we use tools to find meanings in texts.

No interpretation is neutral ‘cos when you interpreted a novel, it is full of presuppositions and

expectations.

[teoria letteraria: prima il testo letterario trasmette valore e certezze, civilizza le persone.

Interpretation:capire un testo non è un processo naturale, quando leggiamo ci focalizziamo su alcune

idee e ne scartiamo altre. Nessuna interpretazione è oggetiva; ci si basa su elementi innati in noi che

mi fanno leggere un testo in un determinato modo.

Traditional approach (Leavis method)

[C’è la necessità di un canone (insieme di opere migliori mai scritte). “Civilizing” è connesso a

forzare persone in uno schema di idee definito englishness.]

The reader must demonstrate sensibility and a natural reaction to the text -> this is impossible ‘cos

we use tools to understand it.

1. Practical criticism is an objective, almost scientific way to read literature.

2. Canon of literary works, but judgement a world can’t be neutral (?)

3. Intrinsic artistic worth of a literary text, but it is impossible to judge a worth…’cos we’re

influenced by…

[ Se tutti fossero stati uguali e avessero condiviso lo stesso sistema di valori allora sarebbe

esistito un solo modo di leggere

• Un’opera deve essere letta in modo oggettivo, ma ciò è impossibile;

• Il lettore deve dimostrare sensibilità di fronte al testo, ma non esiste altrimenti non

sarebbe insegnata letteratura. La sensibilità è condizionata da schemi mentali.

• Il practical criticism vorrebbe un obj. Reading di un testo, ma come abbiamo già

detto non è possibile.

• L’ipotesi del canone: esistono opere che si devono leggere e ammirare.

• Leggere per il valore intrinseco del testo letterario, ma chi è giudice di questo

valore? ]

Literary theory= ideas and methods that we use in the practical reading of literature.

-This approach formulates the relationship btw author and work.

- it develops the significance of race, class and gender for literary study.

-literary theory offers different approaches for understand the role of historical

context in interpretation as well as the importance of linguistic and unconscious

elements of the text.

12 ottobre 2015

Signifier= significante

Signified= significato

Literary criticism

New approaches try to create new ways to read a text.

Literary criticism offers huge possibility of approaches.

[la teoria letteraria è utile perché spesso non si utilizza nemmeno un metodo, non c’è un unico approccio al

testo letterario. L’approccio emerge attraverso domande poste al testo stesso (cosa succede in questo punto

della trama, come sono usati gli artifici letterari). A seconda della domanda ci si focalizza su aspetti diversi.

Le domande della teoria letteraria sono diverse ad esempio possono riguardare gli abiti, ecc.]

E.g. approaches:

Shrek vs Cinderella

Approccio=femminismo

Shrek: protagonista non è una principessa– principe nano, non charming e che non salva

Cinderella: eroina principessa

Approccio= culturale

Shrek: Fiona bella di giorno e brutta di notte

Cinderella: bella

Barbara Bellman (?) and Lucy Webster outline 6 steps in this process.

• Own initial response to the text

• Listen to the responses of friends/other people

• Soundbites ‘bout text (short ideas that illuminates the text/context)

• Read essays and reviews of the text to find different approaches

• Try to understand the critical positions of the text (you can pretend to be in a

feminist/postcolonialism e.g. critic)

• Set of ideas become part of your literary critical tool kit.

Victorian Age (1837-1901)

Reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901)

Keywords:

progress – expansion – mobility

They evoque a preoccupation of the society.

Huge increase of population

 Evolution of industrial society

 Towns/cities

 [aumento alfabetizzazione, cultura della stampa, biblioteche circolanti, nascita di un

pubblico di lettori di massa]

Technology development (so expansion of travel communications)

 New lands explored

 [connotazione positive di progresso + ansia rivelata dal testo letterario, ben rappresentata da

metafore centrali di rabbia, contagio in Dickens, disturbi che si diffondono nella società]

Matthew Arnold//”The dialogue of the mind with itself”; we have this preoccupation

present; in itself and in the society.

E.g. Christmas carol, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (the double, the inner reality, anticipation of

Freud psychanalysis), Dracula (by the Marxist pov; the vampire stands for the preoccupation

of the English society)

[interpretazione marxista di Dracula; è un aristocratico e vi è la paura dell’alterità (di chi non

è inglese), pretende di essere umano e di aderire al sistema legale umano.]

Science- technology – innovation

The Victorian period s characterized by scientific activity. Cheaper access to printed

materials and science -> the government supports science studies and there is a relationship

btw industries and the sciences + greater literary rates

->Darwin//”on the origin of the species” (1859); idea of natural selection and natural

th

survival of the fittest. He’s also connected to literature (19 century), ‘cos some writers

adopted his ideas.

E.g. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Dickens, Great Expectations: they point out a strong Darwinian influence.

[Darwinismo di Dickens, manca il credo nell’ereditarietà, presente nei romanzi precedenti]

O. Twist, he inherits middle class from parents [eredita virtù che lo rendono immune dagli

effetti negativi della banda dei ladruncoli].

Distopie del 20° secolo

Debate btw two cultures, Snow and Leavis.

The anticipation of this was the debate btw Huxley and Arnold. (Snow-Huxley +

Leavis+Arnold).

[Darwinismo sociale -> la società è un organismo, sopravvive il più forte, anche

economicamente, chi è più debole vedrà decrescere il potere]

Chiara Battisti – LETTERATURA INGLESE 2015/2016

15 ottobre 2015

Thanks to the developing of railway lines, there is an optimization of the circulation system (fast movement).

-Schivelbusch work’s (writer); he analyses the positive and negative of the fast transformation and how the

railway change the perception of reality.

He highlights that people on the train are able to see only what is in front of their window in a brief amount

of time. It is not so simple, like it was in the past, to distinguish things.

[C’è un forte effetto sulla percezione della realtà, non è più facile percepire oggetti del mondo esterno a

causa della velocità del mezzo (train speed), percepiamo la realtà di fronte a noi e per un breve periodo di

tempo]

The invention of railway corresponds to a new way of perceiving reality.

1. The modernity has changed human perception

2. The perception of reality that you have from the windows on the train can be compared to the

perception of reality created by the montage of a film (that means, different images are placed one

after other).

The perception on the train is called panoramic vision or panoramic perception: passengers are not

able to distinguish objects.

The travelers see the objects through the apparatus.

th

Therefore, in the 19 Century, there is an anticipation of the cinematograph, we talk about pre-cinema,

“romanzieri” develop a vision that admit the conception of cinema. This vision depends of the new

perception of the reality.

-Eyenstein (director and critic), “Dickens, Griffith and the Film today”, in his essay emphasizes the link btw

several chapters of O. Twist and cinematic technique, in particular the technique of parallel intercutting

(montaggio parallelo), according to Eyenstein Dickens anticipates parallel intercutting. (Parallel intercutting:

in a film you have two or more scenes, they are happening in the same time, and they’re intercutting

(intervallate)

Dickens anticipates “parallel intercutting” (scene parallele intervallate) to create suspense, so the reader is

going’ to buy the new book and he’s going to continue reading.

Imperialism Colonialism

It involves the claiming and exploiting of territories (To reformate) it involves the transformation of the

outside of one national boundary for different social structure, government, culture and economy.

reason. [Volontà di trasporre le strutture britanniche in un

E.g. Great Britain want to increase his importations altro paese]

and holding, but it also want to obtain materials and

create a market for the goods.

[Pretendere territori non nazionali e sfruttarli; non

implica la volontà di riformare I vari sistemi] *il colonialismo non implica la presenza

dell’imperialismo, e viceversa*

E.g.

I. India was a colony, controlled by India Company and GB.

II. Africa was a colony and there was a missionary activity too. GB justifies the imperialism and

colonialism with a missionary activity; this was based on the moral, racial, superiority of GB.

III. Est Europe was considered less involved than West Europe, so they could not govern themselves.

Consequences of colonialism

The first is the creation of post-colonial approach or theory. Some schools in order to understand the

reality and the consequences of colonialism, started to analyze the difference btw colonizers and colonize.

Here there are some authors connected to the studies.

Post colonialism is an academic discipline, which started from postmodern schools of thought, it

analyses the politics of knowledge (creation, control, distribution of knowledge, with focus on the functional

relations of the social/political power that are at the bases of colonialism and neocolonialism [il

postcolonialismo si focalizza sulle politiche del sapere, con un focus sulle relazioni funzionali di potere

sociale e politico che stanno alla base del colonialism, analizza il come e il perchè della rappresentazione

imperialistica del colonizzatore e del colonizzato].

When we talk ‘bout colonialism, we must remember critics e.g.:

-Orientalism (text of 1978) by Edward Said, it is a foundational text of this movement, according to

Said, the connotations of the term orientalism are expanded in order to describe what Faid calls the false

culturaly sunption ? of the Western word – > western word created cultural mis-representation of the Orient

(in particular Middle East) which established the East as opposed to the West. West e.g. is active and east is

passive, West is rational and East irrational, so unable to take decisions, ‘cos it is more connected to feelings.

Orientalism= false cultural construction created by the western world, which facilitated the cultural

misrepresentation of the Orient in general and Middle East in particular (Said focused on this).

[Orientalism: testo del movimento postcolonialista, indica una falsa rappresentazione culturale del

mondo orientale (Il medio oriente nel caso dell’autore Faid). Oriente (passivo) è opposto all’Occidente

(attivo)]

-Black Skin, white masks by Fanon is about the psychopathology of colonization, he explains the

feeling to not be adequate in a particular world that black people experienced in a white world, so the

necessity to wear a white mask (for black people) to look different. ‘Cos they look less important than the

colonizers. Therefore, Fanon says that it is stupid to hide your origin and your culture, it is important to wear

a black mask if you are black.

[in conseguenza all’inadeguatezza indossiamo una maschera, che crea discrepanze nella persona,

perché copre un sistema culturale che non è quello bianco, anche se pretendo di essere bianco, non lo sono, a

causa del mio modo di pensare, parlare, mangiare. Fanon lavora sui disturbi psicologici.]

- Spivak (an Indian critic), she focuses the attention on the oppression of women during

colonialism.

//these writers have in common that they have experience of the imperialism&colonialism on

themselves in this//

-Heart of darkness by Conrad (fine periodo vittoriano), there is ambiguity ‘cos we found

colonialism and on the other hand we are talking ‘bout a novel written at the end of the Victorian

age, so in a period in which the idea of colonialism was still present. He emphasizes the

darkness. Marlow tale starts telling his story in darkness and ends in darkness. Dark is always

present within the tales, it operates in different ways.

Darkness= unknown, it has power to high the things we are frightened to face. [ambiguità

collegata a una critica al colonialismo + elementi del colonialismo]

Dark settings

 Narration in the obscurity

 Congo = black skin population

 Unknown, but it hides something that we are frightened to face.

 The literature market has been transformed into a proper industry, we have also other

important things that change the experience of reading and create the mass market and

the mass literature.

Other factors:

Development of urban centers, cities that were connected by railways. These

o cities create centers for book, libraries…

Publishers developed the new ways of reading material affordable to more

o people.

[cambia l’esperienza della lettura e si crea la letteratura di massa (nasce il

termine best-seller , dietro c’è un pubblico di lettori più ampio)

Ǝ centri urbani per coloro che hanno negozi di libri, biblioteche]

Chiara Battisti – ENGLISH LITERATURE 2015/2016

16 ottobre 2015

Publishers try to use different materials to makes books affordable:

Circulating libraries

 Free libraries development serving the working and middle classes.

 Triple decker volume; it is the standard form of the Victorian novel, This kind is unaffordable for

 the average reader, so they were sold at discount to circulating libraries.

These free libraries could be a point of reference, in which they can find all the volumes they want to

read. Also popular fictions, history and biography books were reprinted in cheaper version. Although

free libraries and circulating libraries make book borrowing easier, in this period we have also

serialization.

Serialization development, which brought more readers into the literary market. It is a publication in

 parts, so books are affordable to a wider spectrum of people and readers want to follow the

development of characters, plot, and this serialization affects the form of the English novel. Because

each chapter has to engage the reader as single unit and it also has to engage the reader ‘cos the

chapter has to work with the context of the whole novel.

Serial narrative refuses a closure; there are “sotto-trame”, many characters, interaction with social,

political and cultural issues. The experience of reading changes; the readers have to read the novel

over a period, over a year e.g.

This ide affected the ways the Victorian audience responds to the text itself and on the other hand,

the way in which the Victorian author creates the fiction itself. E.g., he can shake the development,

following the public response to it.

[Nelle librerie si trovano I romanzi a 3 volumi, la divisione in più volume rende più economico il romanzo

Es// la pubblicazione a puntate (settimanale/mensile). Questo influisce sulla forma del romanzo inglese.

Ogni capitolo del romanzo deve avere un senso. Si tende a tenere aperto all’infinito il romanzo ed è presente

un intreccio di trame secondarie e molti personaggi ed elementi sociali e politici del periodo. Il lettore deve

abituarsi alle puntate e l’autore si fa influenzare dal lettore. Se un personaggio è amato dal pubblico, viene

maggiormente sviluppato]

***LOOK AT THE DIFFERENCES BTW ROMANCE&NOVEL (pwp)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Northpop Frye (literary critic), Anatomy of criticism (1957)

Formalist and structuralism approach to literature.

Analisi della storia della letteratura; studiare scientificamente un testo]

The main differences btw romance and novel are in the conception of characterization and Frye illustrates

this idea by setting down a series of opposing qualities, which characterize the two forms.

“The romancer does not attempt to create “real people” so much as stylized figures which expand

into psychological archetypes. It is in the romance that we find Jung’s libido, anima, and shadow

reflected in the hero, heroine, and villain respectively. That is why romance so often radiates a glow

of subjective intensity that the novel lacks, and why a suggestion of allegory is constantly creeping

in around its fringes. Certain elements of character are released in the romance, which make it

naturally a more revolutionary form than the novel. The novelist deals with personality, with

characters wearing their personae (:latin name for masks, masks that the actors have to wear to

the theatre in order to be …by the public) or social masks. He needs the framework of a stable

society, and many of our best novelists have been conventional to the verge of fussiness. The

romancer deals with individuality, with characters in vacuo idealized by revery.(AC, 304–5)” CIT.

[Con persona si indica quella maschera sociale che si indossava per essere accettati nella società, in

questo caso si tratta di adattamento dell’individuo alla società; cioè non essere rivoluzionari, per

rimanere nel Sistema]

Archetypal literary criticism

When Frey introduces the idea of psychological archetypes, in order to describe the characters in the

romance, he is availing himself of the archetypal literary criticism (type of critical theory analyses

text by focusing on meanings and archetypes present in the text itself) so he introduces the idea of

psychological archetypes in order to describe the characters in the romance.

The origin of archetypal literary criticism are rooted in two other academic disciplines that are social

anthropology (Frazer) and psychoanalysis (Jung, founder of analytical psychology). Jung works

theorizes ‘bout the function of archetypes in relation to the unconscious.

“Myths as “culturally elaborated representations of the contents of the deepest recess of the human

psyche: the world of the archetypes” (Jung)

The psychology of Jung distinguish btw the personal and the collective unconscious, he considers

collective unconscious as important to archetypal criticism.

Collective unconscious is a number of emotions, feelings, instincts, memories which relights in the

unconscious of all people

[Frey ha chiamato in gioco l’archetipo, si rifà a una forma di teoria critica che è la teoria critica

archetipica, che affonda le sue origini in altre due discipline accademiche, cioè l’antropologia sociale

il cui maggior esponente è Frazer con Il rame d’oro, che influenzò fortemente la scrittura di TS Eliot

e in particolare The West Land, e la psicoanalisi di Jung, che nel suo approccio psicoanalitico si

focalizza sul mito e si focalizza sugli archetipi mettendoli in relazione con l’inconscio.

Per Jung esiste un inconscio collettivo + personale, quello collettivo è un insieme di emozioni,

pensieri e istinti presenti in un ampio gruppo di persone e condivise, in maniera innata. Questo ci

permette di leggere nei testi letterari il ricorrere di idee e di miti. E.g. we can analyze the Lion King

and we can find there the story of Amlet, we can do this thanks to this collective unconscious.]

Jung points out 4 types of archetypes: shadow. Anima, animus and self.

a) Persona; it’s that we present in the out world, it is not our real identity (maschera sociale),

b) Ego; center of consciousness, it refers to the conscious part of psyche,

c) Shadow; dark, unknown, potential dangerous,

d) Anima; female personality, as it is represented in the male unconscious,

e) Animus; male personality, as it is represented in the female unconscious,

f) Self; archetype that contains all the archetypes.

Anima + Animus make the soul, our true self, source of our creativity.

[Archetypes: schemi di base universali, I più importanti sono quelli legati alla persona]

Other archetypes

Story archetypes:

The hero----champion

 The heroine-----purity, desire

 The wise old man: knowledge

 Magician: mysterious, powerful

 [Ci si sposta dagli archetipi del sé a veri archetipi, collegati alla narrazione (romance) in cui

non si ha a che fare con un personaggio reale, ma ideale]

Family archetypes:

The father----powerful, controlling

 The mother-----feeding , nurturing

 The child : birth, salvation, beginning

19 ottobre 2015

Film Theory

They focus their attention on semiotic and psychoanalysis to analyze the ways in which the film function as a system of

language.

They think that individual engaged with the world is conditioned by large structures or systems. These structures are

inescapable (he has no control on his position) and are subjects to their processes.

The first attempt to understand film is in 1960 in psychological terms when Münsterberg wrote in 1916, The

Photoplay: A Psychological Study parallel between the structure of the human mind and the filmic experience.

Mustemberg analyses only the conscious mind, not the unconscious mind.

From 1960, there is a focus on the conscious mind predominated.

Jacques Lacan (psychoanalysis) idea of the mirror stage; focus on the process of spectator identification. This process

was understand thanks to Lacan’s study.

According to Lacan the mirror stage takes place in the infant btw 6 and 18 months, this mirror stage refers to the

misrecognition of the infant himself while looking in the mirror. The infant looks in the mirror, he perceives his

fragmented body as a whole, and he identifies himself with this illusion unity. He assumes control on his body and this

self-deception forms the basis for the development of the ego of the infant.

[lo sviluppo della teoria filmica si rifà alla semiotica e alla psicoanalisi, basati sulla comprensione di strutture che

controllano il modo in cui gli individui si rapportano con il mondo, non possiamo sfuggire alle strutture e siamo soggetti

ai processi di queste strutture. E’ importante la fase dello specchio di Lacan, il bambino guardandosi nello specchio si

riconosce come un tutto, questa esperienza prima non ce l’aveva perché prima allo specchio non si differenzia dalla

mamma. Il percepirsi come un tutto crea un’idea di potenza che permette la formazione dell’io del bambino]

According to film theorists, the film screen is a mirror and through the screen, the spectator can identify himself as ego

and can have this sense of power. The power is suggested by the identification with the camera itself. The spectator sees

all, but he remains unseen in the dark cinema room, he is passive. He has the power ‘cos he sees and controls all, but

remains unseen. The camera activity is hidden to create the idea of power, classical Hollywood film use to hide it. (the

link btw Lacan and cinema is based on the analogy btw the film screen and the mirror. The screen is a mirror through

which the spectator can identify himself and he can have the illusion of power)

[Nello schermo lo spettatore si riflette e riceve una visione potenziata del suo io, nella scena possiamo potenziare le

nostre capacità d’azione (qualcosa che nella vita non riusciamo a portare a termine e noi pur essendo passivi, abbiamo

l’impressione di controllo sull’azione perché ci si identifica con lo sguardo della telecamera, infatti la telecamera è

nascosta per permettere ciò, nel film Hollywoodiano, mentre il film sperimentale lo denuncia e mostra la finzione

dell’azione filmica]

1. The first critic is devoted to the passivity of the spectator; every spectator receive the same meaning from the film

2. Because Lacan notion of oedipal development is experienced only by male children so the theory is valid only for male

spectators (idea of gender and feminism)

3. These theories do not take in consideration cultural, social and historical transformation, they imply that all the male

spectators will response to film language in the same ways regardless these context (connected to postcolonial studies,

idea of racial)

“Visual pleasure and narrative cinema” (1975), L. Mulvey (feminist position), film language is controlled by a male

❖ controlled system and designed for the benefit of male pleasure (connected to the idea of looking, link with the attempt

of the female image). It is necessary for women to invent a new type of film language that is not controlled by male.

[donna è sempre in posizione di sudditanza nella scelta delle inquadrature]

Manthia Diawara and Jaqueline Bobo; psychoanalytic theory of spectatorship ignores the importance of race, viewers

❖ have the capacity to resist dominant readings and to establish oppositional prospective. J. Bobo focuses attention of

African, American female spectators and she underlines the idea of gender and race. The spectators are empty, they can

analyse the film and introduce a new prospective.

Teresa de Lauretis, Andrea Weiss and Patricia White (gay and lesbian theorists); they focus on the idea of lesbian

❖ spectators desire, ‘cos this challenges the traditional heterosexual and create new possibility of spectatorship.

is, by the power of the written word, to make you hear, to make you

“My task, which i’m trying to achieve

feel — it is, before all, to make you see” Joseph Conrad, Preface,emphasis on the idea of seeing. Conrad

introduces the link btw literature and the act of seeing. The nigger of the Narcissus… …

“btw the percept of..” he stresses the fact that the main difference btw media lit and film is a difference traced

back to the visual image on one hand and the mental image on the other, in using image to describe the link

btw film and lit, he stresses the connective link of seeing. It is difficult to establish a mental image and visual

image, ‘cos of the role of imagination, thanks to the imagination the distinction btw mental and visual image is

not so clear. [Film Theory sviluppato a partire dagli anni ‘70 in maniera netta, Blueston evoca queste due

citazioni si enfatizza il potere del vedere nel cinema e nella litteratura; Bluestone dice che la differenza sta tra

la percezione tra immagini visive e quelle mentali, image = link tra letteratura e cinema. Nella sua trattazione

afferma che immagini mentali si distinguono a fatica da quelle evocate dallo stimolo non verbale, entrambe

sono condizionate dall’immaginazione, da ricordi di altre immagini, vissuti.]

Bluestone is theorizing the position of those critics who focused their attention on (English) novel at the end of

th

19 Century; in this period, the stress was to show rather than to tell.

Alan Spiegel, Fiction and the Camera Eye: Visual Consciousness in Film and the Modern Novel (1976), he

th

takes as starting point the French Flaubert, ‘cos he was the first great 19 century example of concretized form

(form which tries to offer a great deal of visual information)… [lavora sul film e il modern novel e presenta

Flaubert come figura fondamentale, primo esempio di concretized form, una tipologia di scrittura che tenta di

offrire una vasta gamma di info visive]. Then Spiegel moves to James Joyce. Spiegel mentioned also Henry

James.

In Conrad and James the way of writing a scene is important, of exploring a visual field by fragmenting rather

than present it scenographic (‘cos of the new way of seeing the reality). [cambia il modo di vedere e il modo di

scrivere è differente, non è scenografico come in teatro; le rappresentazioni del ‘900 tendevano a essere

scenografiche]

Comparison btw Griffith (director) and Dickens (novelist) in the essay of Eyenstein, he compares their skills of

storytelling.

Griffith attributed the invention of his cinematic technique, his crosscutting or parallel cutting to Dickens

technique of moving btw storylines to create suspense.

In the early 19th Century there are the representational novels, so the presence of novels, which gave great

importance to descriptions of representations. The use of novel as a source material for a film was obvious in a

certain sense.

The reason why filmmakers use pop novels is that they can offer certainty for the success of the film itself.

These quotations evoke the idea of fidelity, audiences have to see something looks like the original novel and

as regards the position of the audience, since we are dealing with an audience which compares her own mental

creation of the novel with the director creation, if it’s simile we say “it looks like”, if not we say “it doesn’t

look like” the film.

[La citazione di Bodeen chiama in causa la fedeltà, “assomiglia”, è un termine sfuorviante perchè quando

diciamo “è Fedele” stiamo comparando la nostra proiezione del film mentale con quella del regista, se la nostra

si avvicina si dice looks like, in altri casi non ci piace.]

Chiara Battisti - ENGLISH LITERATURE 2015/2016

22nd October 2015

Burgess says every book has to be turned into film.

It is necessary for the directory to complete the novel.

Fidelity criticism: being faithful to the letter/being faithful to the spirit

This idea of being faithful to the novel itself (fidelity) is a problematic criterion. The idea at the basis of fidelity of

critisism is that the text has a single correct meaning, so it tries to analyse where the filmmaker has violeted or not the

meaning. The reader has to find this single and correct meaning.

[la fedeltà cinematografica è il criterio per analizzare i film, usata dai common people; di erroneo c’è che alla base si

dice che il testo abbia un solo significato corretto e si vuole vedere se il regista ha aderito al significato singolo e

corretto o l’ha violato. Questo approccio strutturalista viene evitato dalla critica contemporanea, data l’infinità di

significati che un testo può avere.]

The idea of being faithful to the letter, that is connected to the idea of is an approach that the more sofisticated writer

may use, but it does not assure a successfull adaptation. The idea of being faithful to the spirit of the film is problematic,

‘cos every director can find a single meaning and he/she can try to be faithful to the content of the film itself. [quella di

essere fedele alla lettera è problematica, perchè quando traduci alla lettera la parola non sempre traduce il senso che una

parola in quella cultura ha, e di essere fedele allo spirito (tradurre contenuto della frase il senso) è meno problematico.

Tradotto nel discorso filmico è simile.]

-Beja (writer and critic) has questioned the possibility of fidelity, wheter there are guiding principles for film makers

who are trying to adapt literature?

[critico cinematografico, il film deve essere fedele a cosa? l’idea di fedeltà spesso invece di coinvolgere il

lettore/spettatore, lo estranea ancora di più.]

Obscuring other issues

Suppression of more rewarding approaches to the phenomenon of adaptation.

1) It tends to ignore the idea of adaptation as an example of convergence among the arts

2) it fails to take into account what may be transferred from novel to film as distinct from what will require more

complex processes of adaptation

3)it marginalizes those production determinants which have nothing to do with the novel but may be powerfully

influential upon the film.

If we focus the attention only on the idea of fidelity, we can ignore other important elements.

When we’re considering the process of adaption of a novel into a film, we have some elements that can be easily

adapted and other more difficult.

[quando si lavora solo sul criterio della fedeltà, ignoriamo altri elementi; creiamo una gerarchia, abbiamo il testo di

partenza come base e il testo filmico come prodotto secondario. Utilizzando il novel come primo testo tutti gli elementi

del linguaggio filmico non sono considerati]

Contemp. interpretation of film theory is trying to introduce a different criterion (rispetto al to be faithful), in order to

suggest a connection among different texts. The function is to analyze the ideology of the film; the prospective through

which the director has analyzed the film.

[il fine non è più di vedere se il film è fedele al testo base, ma capire qual è il testo di origine e come questo sia stato

usato dal regista per il film]

Different critics have tried to introduce categories to give less important to the criterior of fidelity to the original text.

-Wagner suggests that we have 3 categories, oepend to film maker in adaptions: transposition (a novel is given directly

on the screen with a minimum of transformation), commentary (an original is taken and it is altered in…, the intention

is not to be unfaithful or violate), analogy (idea of director is to create another work of art so he introduces a number of

transformations).

-Andrew, the idea is the same but they’re in reversed order. borrowing=analogy, intersection= commentary, fidelity of

transformation=transposition.

E.g. the fidelity idea is misleading; two film that are more important than the novel, The Birds and Sabotage.

A common element btw novel-film is the idea of narrative. The function of the film is to tell story, we are trying to tell

stories that could be torward with the languages of words, but we tell it with the film language.

The novel and the film have in common this narrative (series of events link together and envolving a group of

characters, which influence and are influenced by the events).

The idea of violation and interference gives the whole process (adaption) an idea of violation and this idea and all the

negative comments about a film transposition are linked to the fact that we often do not distinguish what can be

transferred or not into the film.

[L’idea di narrazione può essere applicata sia a un film che a un’opera letteraria, ma il fatto di non essere in grado di

cogliere che elementi possono essere trasferiti dal novel al film e altri no, ci porta a giudicare negativamente il risultato

del processo, cioè il film.]

Transfer=present the elements thta can be easy tranfert

Adaptation=word used for the elements that are more difficult to translate

First person narrator

[la first person narrator del novel è tradotta nel film ad esempio col cinema soggettivo; è data una gran quantità di

inquadrature in soggettiva (il pdv della telecamera=pdv personaggio) del personaggio, ma non è l’equivalente della

coscienza del narratore nel novel.]

Another device is the voice over, it can’t be more than intermittent, it can’t be continued in the film and it is different

from the original. [voce fuori campo, non può essere continua]

Omniscent narration novel

In the case of the film the camera becomes the narrator by focusing on aspects of the mise en scène, it put everything in

the frame, the details that you don’t notice in the set e.g. how the actors look, move, etc.

With this attention the camera may catch though and it can qualify what the actors actually say.

The camera is outside the film, while the narrator is completely inside.

It is difficult to translate the omniscent narration of the novel.

[la camera da presa si focalizza su alcuni aspetti della mise en scène, all’interno dell’inquadratura cinematografica, i

dettagli che non notiamo, ma che sono parte del set (luce,colore,body language). Si coglie una verità che diventa un

commento e un aggiunta di valore ai personaggi.]

Chiara Battisti - ENGLISH LITERATURE

23 ottobre 2015


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DESCRIZIONE APPUNTO

Appunti dell'interno corso di Letteratura inglese, tenuto dalla prof. Chiara Battisti
Comprende analisi di:
-Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness
-Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway
- John Fowles, The French Lieutenant’s Woman
- Francis Ford Coppola, Apocalipse Now
- Karel Reisz, The French Lieutenant’s Woman

Literary theory,meta/grandnarrative,modernism,postmodernism...


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e culture per l'editoria
SSD:
Università: Verona - Univr
A.A.: 2016-2017

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher alesia.calanca di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di English Literature I e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Verona - Univr o del prof Battisti Chiara.

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