Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS studies the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used. It includes different
disciplines like linguistics, psychology, sociology and sociolinguistics. The language studied is the one in use: written texts and
describes the language above the level of the sentence/utterance
spoken data of all kinds. Discourse Analysis and has an
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ESSENTIALLY ASKS WHY
interest in the contexts and cultural influences which affect language in use.
WE USE LANGUAGE THE WAY WE DO.
Making the distinction between whether a person is described as a ‘terrorist’ or a ‘freedom fighter’ is something DA would look at,
whilst considering the implications of each term. To expand, 'terrorist' is a term that brings negative connotations of evil and violence,
whereas 'freedom fighter' has positive connotations of fighting towards political upheaval of dictatorships. So, one term is looked
upon a lot more favourably than the other, and this is what a Discourse Analyst would consider, as well as looking at the relationship
of these terms with a widely used term such as ‘Muslim’.
CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS focuses on
(CDA) is a research framework in the humanities and the social sciences which
the relation between discourse and social practices, ideology and beliefs and aims at uncovering the ideological underpinnings
behind text representations. Critical Discourse Analysis can be used to analyse texts covering a wide range of topics, for example:
racism, sexism, homophobia, politics, immigration, crime and many more.
A “Corpus” is a large collection of texts which have been stored in machinereadable form and can be studied using various
computer programs in the branch of linguistics known as “Corpus Two of the most known corpora are the Corpus of
Contemporary American English (COCA) and the British National Corpus (BNC) [esercizio erasmus]. Corpora can contain both full
or sampled texts, the BNC contains both.
The most usual way of studying a corpus is by using a concordancing program which enables to study a word form by looking at a
large number of citations in its linguistic context. The data is generally presented in Key Word in Context format (KWIC).
Concordances can be sorted in various ways and it is possible to restrict the search to a particular part of speech.
Corpus work can be corpusbased or corpusdriven. Corpusbased research starts with existing paradigms while corpusbased
research makes no assumptions of what will be found, allowing new categories to emerge from the study. In researching metaphors
through a corpus, a concordance will show the linguistic context in which the lexical item is used but this information then has to be
Corpus Based Approach to Discourse Analysis
Methods associated with corpus linguistics can be effectively used by critical discourse analysts.
PONTEROTTO – TRIVIALIZING THE FEMALE BODY – COMPARATIVE STUDY EN/IT
The genre analyzed was newspaper discourse. The corpus consisted of a set of newspaper texts in both English and Italian,
compiled from the sports section of mainstream newspapers of Britain and Italy (The Times, England and La Repubblica, Italy).
Thus, for this study, newspapers addressed to the educated public were selected, a choice motivated by the hypothesis that if sexist
representations of the female athlete are present in the quality press, then we could support more forcefully our
assumption: the existence of prejudice towards female athleticism, the persistence of genderrole stereotyping and the
ideological intention to sanction and reinforce hegemonic masculinity in professional sports reporting. The results indicated that
along with the sexuallytoned stereotype, women are also often represented in sports reporting as “cute little girls”, implying their
immaturity and therefore lack of adult competence, including athletic skill. The crosslinguistic perspective of the study revealed
similar patterns in sports reporting in both the British and Italian press. The presence of common thematic and metaphorical
strategies across languages, genres and cultures, which would lend support to the conviction that ideologicallymotivated, gender
related stereotypes condition the sports world and permeate the linguistic description and general textual representation of female
BAKER Combining Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics
The research is based on the analysis of a 140millionword corpus of British news articles about refugees, asylum seekers,
immigrants and migrants (collectively RASIM). Examination of four terms in focus: refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant, migrant. An
initial starting point for the project was to investigate aspects of the wider context surrounding the issue of RASIM in the UK. One
aspect of this was to examine how the terms were conceptualized by ‘official’ sources dictionaries and organizations (e.g., the
Refugee Council) who were directly involved with these social groups (see also Krishnamurthy, 1996). Dictionary definitions tended
to define an asylum seeker as a refugee who had applied for asylum, implying the temporal sequence refugee asylum seeker,
whereas the Refugee Council defined a refugee as someone whose application for asylum had been successful, implying the
opposite sequence asylum seeker refugee. This fundamental disagreement among official definitions proved to be useful in
contextualizing the frequent confusion found in the UK press when such terms were used. Unexpectedly, the terms immigrant(s) and
migrant(s) were found to strongly collocate with fled and fleeing – these are unlikely collocates as immigration, unlike the seeking of
asylum, is a planned process. Also, the concordance analysis indicated that about one in five references to refugees and asylum
+1 anno fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher sensep di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Tor Vergata - Uniroma2 o del prof Ponterotto Diana.
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