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Appunti di lingua inglese 1 - Verb forms, valency patterns, passive form

Appunti di lingua inglese 1 su verb forms, valency patterns, passive form, lexical and modal verbs, semantic categories of verbs, copular verbs, time and tense, uses of present time/past time/ future time. Università degli Studi Ca' Foscari Venezia - Unive.

Esame di Lingua inglese docente Prof. F. Coccetta

Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

SEMANTIC CATEGORIES OF LEXICAL VERBS

1. activity: volition activity he bought biscuits

2. communication (say, ask, write, shout)

3. mental (think, reckon, want, see)

4. causative (cause, enable)

5. verbs of occurrence (no actor)

6. existence of relationship (appear, exist, include, involve)

7. aspect: stage or progress of something (keep, start, stop)

VALENCY PATTERNS

intransitive (subject + verb)

• mono-transitive (D.O.)

• ditransitive (D.O. + I.O.)

• complex transitive (they call him Johnny; he put his hands on the child's shoulders)

• copular verbs (I feel a little less bold)

COPULAR VERBS

they are →

used to associate with the subject you are very stupid

• used to locate something in the time/space

There are verbs that can be transitive/intransitive or copular depending on the context (grow,

come, go)

CATEGORIES OF COPULAR

1. current copular verbs (existence, perception) you are stupid

2. result copular verbs: it becomes clear ( get, grow, end up, become)

TENSE

morphological marking on the VP related to time distinctions

English has 2 tenses

1. present tense

2. past tense (-ed)

TIME (physical phenomenon:IDEA) VS TENSE (grammatical category)

EX: the train leaves at 8.40 present tense but future time

USES OF PRESENT TIME

linea del tempo

EX: Paris stands on the River Seine (extended now, it standed in the past, and it will stand also in

the future)

1. general facts and truths

2. regular habits

3. performatives (perform the action by saying it: I declare the meeting closed)

4. commentary

5. news headlines

6. descriptions of plots of books and films

7. historic present tense

USES OF PAST TENSE (event in the past)

1. completed actions

2. habitual events

3. narratives

4. indirectness and politeness

5. stance (point of view: I wanted to say..)

6. hypothetical or unreal conditions

USED TO AND WOULD: PAST TENSE MARKERS

They are used to express habits in the past;

used to is a semi-modal verb, would is a modal verb

Uses of used to:

state, habits in contrast to the present

• does not refer to any precise moment in the past

USED TO VS BE/GET USED TO

used to: states, habits in contrast to the present

• be/get used to: to be/become accostomed to doing something

USES OF WOULD

Typical behaviour, repeated actions

EX: when I was a child we would all get up early →

NOT USED TO EXPRESS PAST STATES: I would

XXXXXXhave an old car I used to have..

UnMarked form (+typical): when I was ur age I went out every night

when I was ur age I used to .. (contrast)

Marked form: I would go out every night

TENSE USED ACROSS REGISTERS

PRESENT TENSE ACROSS REGISTERS

• -in conversation: to refer to the immediate context and current states

-in academic prose: to show that something is true regardless of time

PAST TENSE ACROSS REGISTERS

• fictional narratives

ASPECT

depends of speaker's perspective: action finished, still in progress or still relevant now

1. PROGRESSIVE ASPECT: action in progress (I have been living here for 5 years)

Aux verb BE + ing form of lexical verbs.

Uses: ongoing actions, temporary habits, process of change, forever, always, constantly,

reproach or irritation, indirectness, politeness, duration of a non-habit action, plans not

fulfilled, past interrupted actions

2. PERFECT ASPECT: have you ever seen the rain coming down on a sunny day?

Aux have + -ed form of the lexical verb present perfect simple (connection with the

present) and past perfect simple

3. NO ASPECT MARKED (SIMPLE ASPECT) I love you

SIMPLE VS PROGRESSIVE/PERFECT ASPECT

present and past perfect emphasize the completion of an event

present and past progressive emphasize the duration of an event

PRESENT PERFECT VS SIMPLE PAST

both refer to events in the past BUT


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DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in mediazione linguistica e culturale (TREVISO)
SSD:
A.A.: 2018-2019

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher lisafiorot di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Ca' Foscari Venezia - Unive o del prof Coccetta Francesca.

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