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The Hanoverians

Queen Anne was succeeded by George I, according to the act of settlement.
He didn’t know the English language and because of that he left the government to his Whig’s ministers. The fact that all the ministers were Whigs led to the development of a cabinet and a Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole. The Whigs supported trade, freedom of press and toleration
During George I reign broke out several rebellions in favour of the Stuarts, like the Jacobite Rebellion (1715)
George II succeeded his father George I, during his reign there was a long period of peace and prosperity.
England maritime power was increased damaging Spain; this led to a war in which England was defeated.
In 1743 England took part in the War of Austrian Succession in support of Maria Teresa and they won.
In 1756 the Seven Years War broke out against France England gained control of Canada and India.
George III succeeded his grandfather George II in 1760

He wanted to recover the power of the crown making the Cabinet and the prime minister instrument of the king.
The Seven Years War ended with the treaty of Paris and England obtained Canada. Under the reign of George III many important events happened:

    -loss of thirteen colonies in America.
    -French revolution.
    -Industrial revolution.

This was a period of transition: from the decline of classical values to the birth of romantic ideas
In America the distance from the mother country had developed an independent spirit; in addition to that after the treaty of Paris they no longer needed England’s help against France and Indians.
The Americans were not represented in the English parliament and they didn’t accept taxes imposed without their consent. In Boston a rebellion broke out against the tea tax (Boston tea party ), they threw a large quantity of tea in the harbour, with the other twelve colonies they asked England to withdraw its garrison, England didn't accept and the war broke out. Thanks to George Washington and Thomas Jefferson on July 4, 1776 the declaration of independence was signed.
The loss of the English colonies was compensated by growing supremacy in India, which was under the direct control of British government.
England in the first period of the French Revolution was neutral but then the English realized that it was necessary to oppose French hegemony.
Whit the invention of machines in 1769 in England began the industrial revolution.
Many events led to the birth of the industrial revolution: the enclosures, the availability of capital, the growth in population witch brought fresh labour to industries and the improved conditions in transports.
The scientific techniques and the machines were applied also in agriculture, there is a close collection between agricultural and industrial revolution, in booth there are new technical advances and those revolution needed also financial support, in this way rich people became very important and led to a division of the society (capital and labour), the industrial revolution led to an urbanization of the cities. In this historical period there was an important theory of laissez faire according to which the state was not to interfere with economic activity.
During George III reign there were many social changes: cases of overpopulation and bad sanitary condition in factories, exploitation of Children and women’s work. Because of those awful condition Humanitarianism born.
Women became more important in the social life, some travelled and others fought for emancipation and better education.

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