ELIZABETH’S I REIGN
Elizabeth I became queen regnant of England and Ireland at age of 25 from 17 November 1558 until her death. She was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Her parents were Henry VIII and Anne Bolena. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and Edward VI. In religion she was relatively tolerant, avoiding systematic persecution. Elizabeth was well educated and cultured and her court was more brilliant than her father’s.
Elizabeth and Bloody Mary
Before Elizabeth I, Mary was queen, daughter of King Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. Mary was a fanatical Catholic and was determined to return England to the true Catholic faith. During her reign, Elizabeth was arrested because she was considered a central point for rebellion against Mary I. After the false pregnancy of Mary and her death, Elizabeth became queen of England.
Elizabeth and Mary, queen of Scotland
Elizabeth had lots of marriage negotiations but she never married and she never had sons. So the succession question became a heated issue in Parliament. They urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death. She refused to do either.
First Elizabeth wanted to fight the French presence in Scotland. She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was considered by many to be the heir to the English crown,] on the throne. Mary did lots of wrongs with Elizabeth and she was defeated and imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but she was again arrested for next 19 years. After that, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in 1587.
Elizabeth and foreign countries
Philip king of Spain agreed with queen Mary and he wanted a catholic king at th English throne. After Mary’s death he prepared an attack against England. He did that because he considered himself as the heir of English throne because he had married Elizabeth’s sister. So in 1588 Spanish armada attacked English ships but, after some many days, Spain was defeated. Elizabeth, to avoid other attacks, decided to fight against Ireland, which was defeated.
Elizabeth died on 2th March 1603 at Richmond Palace. A few hours later the council proclaimed James VI of Scotland as King of England.
Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. The Elizabethan Theater was a booming business. The Elizabethan plays and theaters were very popular. In this period there were, in fact, some changes about drama, theater, actors and plays.
Elizabeth was the emblem of microcosm and macrocosm, such as the globe of the earth or the heavens, and symbols of her majesty, like the olive branch of peace or the pillar of constancy. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman.