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Free Trade
The Victorians believed believed in the policy of free trade adopted by the Prime Minister Robert Peel: it consisted in an uncontrolled flow of commercial transaction with foreign nations, this brought wealth to England. Victorian England enjoyed prosperity and welfare which found their most striking expression in the Great International Exhibition of London of 1851 promoted by Prince Albert, Victoria’s husband, that take place in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park: it was designed by Joseph Paxton, to display products of Britain and the Empire. He developed a greenhouse design used standard iron and glass elements. It took only six months to make and erect the components. Internally the impression was a seemingly never ending space.

Innovations and Technology
The triumph of industry coincided with the invention of the steam locomotive. Railways developed quickly; regular steamboat services linked Britain with America and the rest of the world.

Scientific research was no longer mainly theoretical but was applied to the invention and construction of machines. The study of electricity carried out by such scientist as Volta, Faraday and Ampere, led to the American Morse’s invention of the telegraph.
Gas lightning in city streets was first introduced in London in 1816.

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