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f. I want what I want when I 7. Brand communities

want it 8. Consumer communities

g. In the know 9. Employee communities

h. Self-service 10. Special topics communities

i. Privacy and data security

3. Marketing mix tactics Ways to target online communities:

4. Individual characteristics: 1. Creation of a company’s community at

a. Demographics its own Web site

b. Attitude toward technology 2. Advertisement on another company’s

c. Online skill and experience community site

5. Individual resources: 3. Joining communities and listening and

a. Monetary learning from others who are talking

b. Time about the industry

c. Energy and psychic costs Advantages of creating a Web site for

3 keystones for attracting today’s customers building a community:

online: 1. The possibility to learn about

1. Reputation customers problems and suggestions

2. Relevance 2. The possibility to offer customised

3. Engagement products and messages to the group’s

interests

Pillars of customer engagement:

1. Content engagement Disadvantages of creating a Web site for

2. Media engagement building a community:

3. Engagement marketing activities 1. Online community conversation will

often gather negative product postings

Methods by which e-marketers can facilitate and offensive language

Internet exchanges: 2. If companies edit the content too

1. Browser favourites and social heavily they will discourage future

bookmarks postings

2. Hyperlinks in e-mail messages or 3. It takes a lot of time to participate in

social network widgets and monitor social media and other

3. Automated e-mails online communities

Exchange outcomes/basic thing done online Technographics variables:

by people: 1. Attitude (optimistic or pessimistic)

1. Connect toward technology

2. Give 2. User's income level

3. Create 3. Primary motivation for going online

4. Enjoy

5. Learn Influencers in today’s market scenario:

6. Trade 1. Online journalists

2. Influential social network authors

Online communities formed around social 3. Industry opinion leaders

media and Web sites:

1. Social networking communities Segmentation bases and variables:

2. Education communities 1. Demographics (age, income, gender)

3. Entertainment communities 2. Geographic location (city, state,

4. Trading communities region)

5. Scheduled events communities 3. Psychographics

6. Advocacy communities

5 4. Behaviour (product usage level,

benefits sought) Levels of brand relationship intensity by

Duncan:

Variables of Internet usage segmentation: 1. Advocacy

1. Mobile access 2. Community

2. Online engagement level 3. Connection

4. Identity

Targeting strategies online: 5. Awareness

1. Micromarketing

2. Niche marketing Roles for social media in branding:

1. Build trust

Dimensions by which companies can 2. Build brand loyalty

differentiate their offerings online: 3. Differentiate the brand

1. Service differentiation

2. Personnel differentiation Decisions to take concerning branding:

3. Channel differentiation 1. Whether to use an existing brand

4. Image differentiation name or to create a specific brand

5. Product innovation name for new products sold online

6. CRM 2. Whether to lend the brand name for

7. UGC co-branding with other firms or not

8. Mass customization 3. What domain name to use for the Web

9. Site atmospherics site

10. Efficient and timely order processing Good brand names on the Internet:

Dimensions by which companies can position 1. Short

their products: 2. Memorable

1. Technology 3. Easy to spell and translate well into

2. User category other languages

3. Benefits 4. Should suggest something about the

4. Competitive position product

5. Should differentiate the product from

Psychographics variables: competitors

1. Personality 6. Should be suitable for legal protection

2. Values

3. Activities New technologies affecting product

4. Lifestyles development and product mix strategies:

5. Interests 1. Customer co-design through

6. Opinions crowdsourcing

2. Internet properties that allow many

Product decisions made by marketers (to opportunities

capitalize on the Internet’s opportunities) that 3. New-product strategies for e-

comprise its bundle of benefits: marketing

1. Attributes

2. Branding New-product strategies/Product mix

3. Support services strategies:

4. Labelling 1. Discontinuous innovation

5. Packaging 2. New-product lines

3. Additions to existing product lines

Important benefits that occur online: 4. Improvements or revisions of existing

1. Mass customization products

2. User personalization 5. Repositioned products

6 6. Me-too lower-costs products Internal factors that put upward pressure on

prices in the Internet channel:

Online cost savings from the buyer’s 1. Customer service

perspective: 2. Distribution

1. The Internet is convenient 3. Affiliate programs

2. The Internet is fast 4. Site development and maintenance

3. Self-service saves time 5. Social media maintenance

4. Integration saves time 6. Customer Acquisition Costs

5. One-stop shopping saves time

6. Automation saves energy Internal factors that put downward pressure

on prices in the Internet channel/Online cost

Ways in which the shift from seller to buyer savings from the seller’s perspective:

has affected e-marketing pricing strategies: 1. Customer service

1. Reverse auctions 2. Order processing – self-service

2. Negotiation 3. Just-in-time inventory

3. Huge quantity of information and 4. Overhead

product availability  more 5. Printing and mailing

sophistication by the buyer 6. Digital product distribution costs

4. Online reviews

5. Risk: the winner’s curse Types of markets:

Internal factors included in the seller’s 1. Pure competition (MP3 music

perspective on pricing: downloads)

1. Seller’s strengths and weaknesses 2. Monopolistic competition (online

from SWOT analysis university courses)

2. Its overall pricing objectives: 3. Oligopolistic competition (online

a. Market-oriented: travel agents, e.g. Expedia)

i. Build a large customer 4. Pure monopoly (Internet service

base that lead to lower providers)

costs and higher long-

run profit Characteristics of an efficient market:

ii. Build market share 1. Lower prices

with low prices 2. Narrow price dispersion

iii. Negotiation 3. High price elasticity

iv. Bidding 4. Frequent price changes

b. Profit-oriented: 5. Smaller price changes

i. Profit maximisation 6. Equal access to information about

c. Competition-oriented products, prices and distribution

i. Set prices according to

the competitor’s prices External factors that put downward pressure

3. Its marketing mix strategy on prices in the Internet channel/that

4. Costs for producing and marketing the contribute to efficiency:

product 1. Frequent price changes

2. Smaller price changes

External factors included in the seller’s 3. High price elasticity

perspective on pricing: 4. Competition

1. Market structure 5. Reverse auctions

2. Market efficiency 6. Shopping agents

3. Buyer’s perspective 7. Flash sales

4. Competition 8. Tax-free zones

9. Venture capital

7

Factors that increase price dispersion: 5. The firm must take care not to upset

1. Branding customers who learn they are pricing

2. Differentiation prices different from other customers

3. How products are priced online

4. Delivery options Reasons to rent instead of buy software:

5. Time-sensitive shoppers 1. Organizations need to use software for

6. Switching costs a short-term project

7. Second-generation shopping agents 2. They don’t want to pay for installation

and maintenance

E-money offline payment systems:

1. Payment by smart chip Participants of the distribution channel:

2. Mobile wallets 1. Producers

2. Intermediaries

Advantages of e-money for online retailers: 3. Buyers

1. It is more efficient Elements of the channel structure that affect

2. Lower transaction fees the Internet marketing strategy:

3. It draws new customers without credit 1. Types of online channel

card fears intermediaries:

4. It allows to sell to Internet users who a. Wholesalers

don’t have credit cards or who don’t b. Retailers

want to input their credit cards on a c. Brokers

new Web site d. Agents

2. Functions of channel members:

Pricing strategies for online retailers: a. Transactional:

1. Fixed pricing/Menu pricing i. Contact with buyers

2. Dynamic pricing ii. Marketing

3. Renting communications

4. Price placement on Web pages iii. Matching the product

to buyer’s needs

Fixed pricing strategies: iv. Negotiating price

1. Price leadership v. Process transactions

2. Promotional pricing b. Logistical:

3. Freemium pricing i. Physical distribution

ii. Aggregating products

Dynamic pricing strategies: iii. The last mile problem

1. Segmented pricing: iv. Outsourced logistics

a. Geographic segment pricing c. Facilitated:

b. Values segment pricing i. Market research

2. Price negotiation ii. Financing

3. Length of the online channel:

Conditions for the effectiveness of segmented a. Direct distribution channel

pricing: b. Indirect distribution channel

1. The market is segmentable 4. Physical and informational systems

2. The different prices reflect real that link the channel members

differences in each segment’s

perceptions of the product’s value Examples/Types of infomediary:

3. The segments show different degrees 1. Market research firms or Web sites

of demand that require registration for

4. The company must be sure that its downloading white papers and then

segmented pricing meets legal and provide the user data to authors

regulatory guidelines 2. Product review sites

8 Benefits for customers purchasing in virtual

Intermediary models used on the Internet: malls:

1. Brokerage models: 1. Branding

a. Exchange 2. Availability of electronic money

b. Auctions 3. Availability of frequent shopper

2. Agent models: programs

a. Representing sellers: 4. Gift registry

i. Selling agents (e.g. 5. Search facility

affiliate programs) 6. Recommendation service

ii. Manufacturer’s

agents - B2C market:

seller aggregators Tactics used by social commerce companies:

(e.g. Expedia); B2B 1. Widgets on social media sites (“Buy

market: catalogue now”)

aggregators 2. Crowdsourcing

iii. Virtual malls (e.g. 3. Location-based commerce

Amazon) 4. Other collaboration models

iv. Metamediaries (e.g.

The Knot) Reasons why Internet hasn’t eliminated

b. Representing buyers intermediaries:

(purchasing agents): 1. The U.S. distribution system is

i. Shopping agents efficient

ii. Reverse auctions (e.g. 2. Using intermediaries allows

Priceline) manufacturers to focus on their core

iii. Buyer cooperatives – business

buyer aggregators 3. Many traditional intermediaries have

(e.g. Groupon) been replaced with online

3. Online retailing: intermediaries

a. E-commerce

i. Mobile commerce: Ways in which the Internet channel adds

ii. Social commerce: value to the contact process with buyers:

social sign-in, social 1. The Internet is always open, 24/7

shopping (e.g. 2. Contact can be customized to the

Amazon, buyer’s needs

TripAdvisor): 3. The Internet provides a wide range of

1. Facebook referral sources (search engines,

commerce shopping agents, social networks)

b. Direct distribution – direct

selling Ways in which the Internet channel adds

value to the marketing communication

Consumer problems solved by function:

metamediaries/Benefits for customers 1. Functions that previously required

purchasing in metamediaries: manual labour can be automated

1. Reducing search times 2. Communications can be closely

2. Providing quality assurance about monitored and altered minute by

vendors minute

3. Facilitating transactions for a group of 3. Web analytics software for tracking

related purchases users’ behaviour can be used to highly

4. Providing relevant content information target communications to individuals

about the purchase 4. The Internet enhances promotional

coordination among intermediaries

9 social media press releases, viral

Solutions to the last mile problem: videos, participation in virtual worlds)

1. Smart boxes 3. Sales promotions (e.g. Groupon

2. Retail aggregator model discounts, free sampling of digital

3. Special e-stops products, contests/sweepstakes,

4. Order online for offline retail delivery games)

4. Direct marketing (e.g. e-mail and text

Ways in which the Internet channel adds messaging with offers from

value to the market research function: companies, location-based systems,

1. Some of the information on the RSS feeds, behavioural targeting)

Internet is available for free 5. Personal selling (e.g. chat bots that

2. Managers and employees can conduct allow for conversation on a Web site,

research from their desks rather than also called virtual agents/assistants)

making expensive trips to libraries and

other resource sites Owned media formats:

3. Information from the Internet is 1. Content marketing:

timelier a. Web site:

4. Information from the Internet is i. MPR

already in digital form, so e-marketers ii. Microsites

can easily load it into a spreadsheet or iii. Landing pages

other software iv. Mobile sites

5. Because so much consumer behaviour v. Web site chat

data can be captured online, e- vi. Blogs

marketers can receive detailed reports b. Support forums/Community

c. Podcasts

Variables of EDI: d. E-mail

1. Openness of the system e. Text messaging

2. Transport method f. Online events

3. Type of technology 2. Online sales promotion offers:

a. Coupons

Process of creating a successful marketing b. Sampling

communication campaign: c. Contest/sweepstakes

1. Set clear measurable objectives and 3. Virtual worlds

strategies 4. Online games

2. Understand the audience motivations 5. Online gifting

and behaviour, especially in social 6. Branded mobile apps

media 7. QR codes and mobile tags

3. Develop creative approach appropriate 8. Location-based marketing

for the brand in one or more platforms 9. Social networks

4. Define success metrics 10. Search Engine Optimization:

a. Natural/Organic search:

Traditional marketing communication i. Vertical search

tools/Promotion mix: b. Paid search

1. Advertising (e.g. Facebook or

LinkedIn ads, Google AdWords, paid Primary goals of owned media:

message placed in Youtube videos, 1. Engage consumers with the positive

product placement in virtual worlds or brand content

online games) 2. Entice them to share the content with

2. PR (e.g. social media events, others

company-created multimedia content, 3. Exercise CRM

10 2. It offers an immediate and convenient

Ways by which companies can monetize their way for direct response to Web and

owned media content: social media sites using hyperlinks

1. Selling digital content on their owned 3. It can be automatically individualized

media to meet the needs of specific users

2. Becoming affiliate of another Web site 4. Marketers use e-mail for behavioural

and receiving commissions when targeting

users click on the link to purchase the 5. It is quicker than postal mail

product at the sponsor’s Web site

3. Accepting Google’s AdSense or other E-mail’s disadvantages:

types of ads and receiving payments 1. Spam

when users click on the ads 2. Difficulty in finding and maintaining

appropriate e-mail lists

Advantages of using the Web for publishing

product information: Benefits of newsletters:

1. It is a low-cost alternative to paper 1. Legitimately and regularly promote

brochures the company name to clients

2. It is easier and cheaper to update than 2. Personalize the communication with

paper brochures tailored content

3. It can reach new prospects who are 3. Occasionally receive payments by

searching for particular products carrying small advertisements

(inbound marketing) 4. Make it easy for clients to share the

information with others

Objectives/Functions of Web sites: 5. Position the company as an expert on

1. Entertaining a subject

2. Providing information 6. Point recipients back to the company’s

3. Building communities Web or social media site

4. Providing a communication channel

with customers Ways of building fan numbers on social

networks:

Things to consider when companies want to 1. Update frequently the page, but keep it

start blogging: consistent to the brand image

1. Which platform to use 2. Post frequently to maintain the

2. Who does the writing conversation with fans

3. How often they post 3. Use appropriate and clear calls-to-

4. What is the purpose of the blog action

4. Listen to the comments that can help

Process to build a successful online improve the brand

community: 5. Use analytics to monitor page and app

1. Observe activity to improve the content and

2. Recruit make it more engaging

3. Evaluate platforms

4. Engage Most appropriate metrics for direct marketing:

5. Measure 1. Response rate

6. Promote 2. ROI

7. Improve Paid media formats:

Advantages of e-mail over postal mail: 1. Display ads:

1. It requires no postage or printing costs a. Rich media ads:

i. In-banner video ads

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DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in marketing e management
SSD:
A.A.: 2017-2018

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Ladyfranky di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Digital marketing and e-commerce advanced e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Bocconi - Unibocconi o del prof Raccagni Deborah.

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