The Victorian Age takes its name from Queen Victoria who ruled from 1837 to 1901; it was a complex era characterised by stability, progress and social reforms, and, in the meantime, by great problems such as poverty, injustice and social unrest. However, the Victorian age is considered to have begun in 1832 with the First Reform Act, which gave the vote to the middle class. The Factory Act prevented children from being employed more than 48 hours a week (they were exploited in factories because they could perform function that adult cannot, since they were more able and smaller). The Ten Hours’ Act impose the limit of ten hours a day for all workers. The Poor Law Amendment Act (1834) established the workhouses, an institution where the poor have board and lodging in change of labour. The Second Reform Act (1867) gave the vote to worker. The Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in 1851 demonstrate the innovation, there was goods coming from all the Empire. The Third Reform Act (1884) granted the right to vote to all male householders.

UTILITARIANISM is the theory of Jeremy Bentham, who proposed all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. These mean that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utility. Actually, it is a justification of the exploitation of the poor, especially of children and women.

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