The death of Queen Victoria and thirteen years later the first World War marked the end of the Victorian Age. At the turn of the century, many intellectuals were dissatisfied of the values of the society they lived in; particularly They were against the values of middle class that was based on business and money. The increasing process of industrialization was considered a form of human alienation and death of spirit therefore were born new literary movements like the aestheticism. The first War World were swept away totally the values of the Victorian society as patriotism, courage and trust in progress.
Modernism is an international movement originated at the beginning of the first part of the 20th century, It started in a world where religion, social stability and ethics had begun to lose their place. At the beginning of 20th century modernism broke away with tradition in painting, art, music and literature. The modern novel was originated by the new notion of time of Bergson, by the new Freudian theories about psychoanalysis and by the technique of fiction. The writers put their attention on the mind and not on the story of characters. Modern novel is not in a chronological order, because the writers often choose a short pace of character’s life and analyze them using flashbacks, anticipations and random association of mind. The best method to explain this new form of literature is the stream of consciousness, It disregards the conventional plot which becomes a series of inner association, feelings, and inner impressions.
The new psychological theories of Sigmund Freud and the new scientific and philosophical trends have influenced the modern novel. While the 18th and 19th century, novel portrayed the social world of middle class and followed a chronological and logical order. Modernist writers have lost their confidence in old values and create a new form of narration, that explores the content of human minds, the writers are mainly interested in: internal thoughts, feelings and reactions of characters. The best way to describe the character’s stream of consciousness is the interior monologue.