James Joyce was born in Ireland, in 1882. He studied at languages school, and as an adult, he didn’t feel comfortable in his Ireland, so he moved first in France then in Trieste where he settled a family. In Trieste he wrote Dubliners, and he started having success as a writer. Later he moved to Zurich where he wrote Ulysses, whose publication, brought him an unwelcome notoriety because of its presumed pornography . He died in Switzerland in 1941.
Although he early moved from Ireland, Joyce set all his works in Ireland because he wanted to represent ordinary men doing ordinary things, and through these ordinary Dubliners he could represent the whole human mind.
Joyce believed in the impersonality of the artist. He had to render life objectively in order to give a true image of it, so the artist was detached from society, and his works did not have to express his point of view. His style is characterized by the interior monologue with two levels of narrations, used to give a realistic form to the characters’ thoughts. Language is complex, and made of infinite successions of words without grammar or punctuation.
Dubliners is a collection of fifteen stories, linked by a particular structure and the presence of the same themes. The main theme of the stories is the psychological paralysis of men. Every story lacks of real actions, but ends with a revelation. The stories are arranged in four groups, starting from childhood and arriving to mature and social life. Each story is narrated from the perspective of a character and the language is various.