If reason is not able to create a new idea of society we have to find something different and it was the Emotion.
The new trend was to look for sensations and emotions rather than rational thoughs and the idea of place opposed to the degraded city was the country.
There was a kind of attempt to find a shelter in Nature which was opposed to civilization and the cities.
Artists look for a wild and solitary Nature because they were looking for something that gives strong emotions so Nature had to be suggestive.
Also Darkness became an important element to look for emotions.
Perfect romantic places was:
- Unhabited
- Wild (like rocking mountains, wild trees, wind…)
- Horrid and Darkness (you must feel a kind of fear in places where you meditate)
- Gothic* Ruins (possibly witness of the Middle Ages that opposes to Classicism. It must suggest a ideal past where resides the origins of the European Nations because they were looking for their roots )

Where the artists look for emotions and meditate about important subjects of life (its meaning , the death…)
so the kind of literature that comes out of this attitude is formed by:
-Emotions
-Wildness
-Nature
-Darkness

*Gothic comes from the Barbarian population of the Goths and in ancient times means barbaric and with no culture, now it acquires a different dimension and becomes something positive because it’s opposed to rationalism and represent the new sensibility.

Gothic arts tended to spirituality and religious emotions so it was rediscovered together with the literature of the origins. (the English ballads)
Bishop Percy, a scholar, collected and published ancient medieval ballads and the ballad became a fashionable form of poetry for the romantic poets.
An important publication of this period was “the Ossian’s Poems”.
It was so influential that it was translated in many country, even in Italy thanks to Melchiorre Cesarotti.
Ossian was a bard and speaks about an epic world of Celtic warriors in the past so this poem represented the new perfectly: the melancholy atmosphere, the wild countries and the period of the Middle Ages.
It was a fake because the author started from a part of an ancient poem that existed and created the story.

J.J. Rousseau
Rousseau was considered an anticipator of Romanticism because:
-he was the first one to opposed emotions to reason
-he appreciated walking in nature looking for places where could meditate
-he spoke about the fact that civilization, which is the result of the application of reason in any field, is the main cause of human degradation because the individual is general born good and the contact with the society makes him evil. He also write an essay about the way a child should be educated.

-because of the importance he gave to the children. Before children were considered just mid-adults not completely formed so it was accepted that children could suffer and die, and it was very easy.
So Childhood become an important thing only in Romanticism.

Poetry
With Romanticism born a new form of poetry which is based on:
-nature (dark, wild and with ruins)
-emotions
-childhood
-melancholy
and it could be or Elegiac poetry or Graveyard poetry (Thomas Gray).
On the other hand a new literary genre was born which was very similar to elegies: the Gothic Novel. (Mary Shelley)
Edmund Burke
“A philosophical Enquire” about the difference between Beauty and Sublime

Also Kant developed the theory of the difference between Beauty and Sublime but he stated that Beauty comes from the Interplay between sensibility and reason and Sublime comes from their CONFLICT and it comes from the subject who perceives not from the object perceived like Beauty.

The effects of the meeting with Sublime
Where does SUBLIME resides
Examples of blind in politics and religion

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