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Australia is a federation of six autonomous states and two territories. His Head is the Queen of the UK. Each state have own parliament.
The most of the population live in city, nearly the coast. Camberra is the capital. Other important cities are Sydney, Melbouurne, Brisbane, Darwin and Perth. The Ocean that surround Australia are the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.
The Australians's ancestors migrated from Asia. They were nomads and hunters. The women wove baskets and took care of children.
The first to land on Australia were two Dutch but they didn't claim the land. After, by accident, James Cook landed on the continent. He discovered The Great Barrier Reef (along the Pacific coast) and the Botany Bay. He made three voyages: this is the first. He die in Hawaii.
The first White Australians were the English convicts, who after our sentences they continued to live and work in Australia.
In the 18th century Europeans imported violence, persecution and disease. Today turists invade their land without regard for their tradition. Someone, infact, climb Ayers Rock, a religious site, and the Aborigines are sad because the turists can die or hurt.
The Dreamtime is the period of creation for the Aborigines. They think their ancestors come from the sky and the landscape changed when they stopped.
The Great Barrier Reef was created by flowerlike animals. Corals need light, oxygen and clear waters.
The ancient species of animals are: _Red Kangaroo: it's marsupials and mammal; when the young is born, it get into her punch for complete their development. _Koala: it's marsupial in danger because it eat the leaf of eucalyptus and the men cut this tree. _Salties: this reptile live in the salt water. _Emu: it's a large bird; it cannot fly but it run speedy
The Aborigines decorated the walls of caves (rock galleries) with the legends of the people, scenes from everyday life or perform religious cerimonies. The Aborigines consider this galleries sacred. The dominant style was the stancil art, crated by blowing the pigment and saliva. They painted many object too.
Today the Aboriginal artists paint traditional motifs but they combine old and new techniques. The dot art is characterized by geometrical motifs. Aboriginal artists sometimes use art as a form of protest against injustices of colonialism.
Many indigenous children were forcibly taken away from their families and communities.These children are know as the "Stolen Generation". They were brought up in istitution or fostered to non-indigenous families.
On 23rd February 2008, the Australian prime minister made a historic apology to theme. A group of Aborigines gathered in front of the parliament buildings to light candles, forming the words: "Sorry - the first step". This was the first "Sorry Day".
National Sorry Day is held on May 26 each year. This day gives people the chance to come together and share the steps towards healing for the "Stolen Generation", their families and communities.
The Aboriginal flag is horizontally divided into two equal halves of black (Aboriginal people) and red (earth) with a yellow circle in the centre (sun).
The Torres Strait Islander flag features three horizontal stripes, with green (land) and blue (sea), divided by thin black lines (people). A white dharri (type of headdress) sits in the centre symbolized all Torre Strait Islanders. Underneath it, there is five-points star (island groups).

New Zealand
New Zealand is situated in south- east of Australia, deep in the South Pacific Ocean. It is composed of two islands, North Island (the most populated) and South Island. Wellington, its capital city, is situated in a fault in earth's crust and is it in a great danger of earthquakes. The other important cities are Cristchurch, Auckland and Dunedin. In New Zealand there are many volcanoes and geysers and the highest geyser ever recorded is Waimangu.
The Maoris are the New Zealand's original inhabitants coming from Polynesia. They called this land "AOTEAROA". They were great sailors and fisher and they were also fierce warriors. Today they are very proud and they try to keep their language and tradition alive. Moko is the Maori word for tattoos. Tattooing is an ancient art that was a tradition amog the Maori. During the time of puberty girls received their tattoos as a sign that they had become women. Men were older when received their tattoos as a sign of their courage.
Capitan James Cook discovered New Zealand and claimed it as British between 1769 and 1777.
The symbol of New Zealand is a kiwi. It is a bird that can't fly but it is also the name of a fruit grown on the island.
The New Zealand economy is based on sheep farming, fishing, lumber and turism.
Auckland is nicknamed the "City of Sails" because it is surrounded by the sea. Infact here takes place the American's Cup, a famous sailing competition, between October and February every year.
The New Zealand's national sport is rugby and the national team is The All Blacks. Before a match they perform a traditional Maori warriors' dance called "Kamate".
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