The relationship between words and meanings. There are:
* words with predictable meanings: complex words
* words with unpredictable meanings
The only words whose meanings are predictable on the basis of their forms are those which are derived from known words following some precise morphological rules. There are entities which cannot be defined as a word. However they still have an unpredictable relationship with their meanings. Hey are non-words and meanings, entities that are larger than a word with unpredictable meanings (idioms, collocations, proverbs). There is a difference between words and lexical items:
* words are the smallest syntactic units in a sentence
* lexical items are semantic units where meanings are unpredictable, they may be larger than words, but often they can coincide with them.
they are composed of identifiable smaller parts, the morphemes (that must be: identifiable from one word to another, and contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word).
form words which are divisible into components that carries most of the meaning and other elements that are associated with it to add some other aspects of meaning.
forms words which are divisible into two other words. Every component can be found independently in an English dictionary. Morphemes must be identifiable from one word to another:
* identifying affixes (un, able, de, al, ize)
* identifying the core element
* identifying morphemes in words of Latin origin.
There is no necessary connection between morphemes an meaning. Complex words can be created:
* combining two or more core elements: Compounding
* adding parts to a core element: affixation
* changing the word class of a given word: conversion
* clipping a longer word: truncation
* amalgamating parts of different words
Distinguishing between morphemes
Bound and free morphemes:
* free morphemes can occur on their own
* bound morphemes can occur only if they are attached to other morphemes
roots, bases and affixes
* root: makes the most precise and concrete contribution to the words meaning, it can be free or bound.
* Base: that part of the word that is left when we remove an affix
* Affix: is attached to a root or a base and can contribute to change its meaning. It can only be bound:
* Prefix: precedes the root/base
* Suffix: follows the root/base
Construction of complex words
* Affixation: free root più affix(es); bound root più affix(es)
Scientific terms with more than one bound root.
* Allomorphy: different form realizations of a morpheme. The distribution of allomorphy may be determined by the: phonological context; morphological context; may be lexically governed
Allomorphy of adjectival -all,-ar is phonologically conditioned: the suffix is realised as -ar when the base ends in /l/, while it is realised as -al in all other cases.
In some words like explain the following morpheme is responsible for the specific realization of the base.
The indefinite article can be realized in speech as // before consonant or /n/ before vowels.
* word form: any syntactic unit different from other units.
* lexeme:an abstract entity which is realized by variant forms in different grammatical contexts.
* grammatical word: the syntactic function of a given word in its grammatical context.
Morphology has two branches
1. Inflection: morphological process by which a variant form of a given lexeme is realized according to its grammatical function in context
2. Derivation: morphological process by which new lexemes are created, that is new abstract entities with partially or totally different meanings and often new word classes.
Inflectional morphology: inflected forms are predictable, because of inflectional rules are regular and the conventional organization of lexicon.
Forms of noun: nouns belongs to three main number classes:
singular invariable nouns: they have no plural form, they consist of:
* abstract uncountable nouns
* concrete uncountable nouns
* proper name
* plural invariable nouns: they only have plural form:
* pluralia tantum
* unmarked plural nouns
* variable nouns: they have singular and plural forms.
The plural form
* regular: by adding the inflectional suffix -s that have three
* allomorphs: /iz/ after a sibilant; /z/ after a vowel or voiced consonant; /s/ after voiceless consonant
* irregular: Voicing + -s; Mutation -en plural; Zero plural
* Genitive's: syntactic phenomenon, that is it attached to a syntactic unit.
* Personal pronouns
* Forms of verbs:
1.Regular verbs taht have five morphological forms: basic form; -s form; /iz/ after a sibilant; /z/ after a vowel or voiced consonant; /s/ after voiceless consonant; -ing form
2. past tense form: /id/ after a dental /t/, /d/; /d/ after a vowel or voiced consonant; /t/ after voiceless consonant; perfect participle