Criminal Profiling

The criminal profiler should ideally be cross-trained in several disciplines. The profiler need not necessarily be an expert, but should have a deep appreciation and intermediate understanding of the tenets of at least the following disciplines:

Psychology: the study of individual behavior.
Sociology: the study of group behavior, groups being comprised of individuals.
Criminalistics: a general term for the scientific study of recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence as it is related to the law. Some criminalists are specialists, some are generalists.
Forensic Pathology: A branch of medicine that applies the principles and knowledge of the medical sciences to problems in the field of law-from DiMaio.

Introduction

We have all seen the Hollywood version of profiling in Jonathan Demme's "The Silence of the Lambs", written by Tom Harris. This movie was actually done with the professional assistance of John E. Douglas and Robert K. Ressler, two of the - now retired - leading experts on criminal personality profiling and pioneers of modern criminal investigative analysis. However, this work of fiction is not truly realistic in its portrayal of the serial murderers and their hunters; for instance, Harris combines attributes of several different sorts of offenders - personality dynamics that would be highly unlikely to coexist in one person in real life. This article therefore aims to de-mystify the work and role of real-world profilers.

A major source of research and development on criminal profiling today is the Investigative Support Unit, started as the "Behavioral Science Unit" in the late 1950s by two Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) employees, Howard Teten and Pat Mullany (this remains controversial). Now a part of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC), which is one of the major components of the Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG), it consists of agents and professionals with training in behavioral or forensic science as well as consultants from the mental-health professions. This unit has amassed large amounts of data on the backgrounds, family characteristics, current behaviors and psychological traits of various types of criminal offenders, partly obtained from interviews with dozens of convicted criminals such as serial murderers. The Investigative Support Unit offers, in addition, specific training to professionals such as detectives, psychologists, and lawyers from all over the world.

In March 1993, INTERPOL established a fully operational crime analysis capability at the General Secretariat - the Analytical Criminal Intelligence Unit (ACIU), which according to INTERPOL had a significant and positive impact on the level of assistance INTERPOL was able to provide to its member countries in combating crime. "The advantage of crime analysis is that it has introduced structures, methods and a uniform set of techniques, e.g. an assessment of the scale and nature of high-volume crime such as burglary, numerous varied activities of an organized crime group such as the "Mafia", or the identification of a lone serial killer", says an ACIU statement. "Crime analysis is", according to INTERPOL's understanding, "a combination of uniform techniques focusing on the development of hypotheses, reconstructing the course of individual criminal incidents, identifying a series of related crimes, understanding criminal networks, and analysing the scope of and patterns in criminal activity".

The purpose of a behavioral profile

Criminal profiling is used mostly by behavioral scientists and the police to narrow down an investigation to those suspects who possess certain behavioral and personality features that are revealed by the way a crime was committed ("behavior reflects personality"; Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.). Therefore, the primary goal is to aid local police in limiting and refining their suspect list so they can direct their resources where they might do the most good. Profiling in itself, however, does not identify a specific suspect, i.e. reveal a certain individual, give an address or a phone number. Instead, profilers sketch a general biographical description of the most likely type of unknown suspect.

Another key use of a profile is, when necessary, to go proactive, which means letting the public become a partner in crime solving. The unknown suspect may have displayed some sort of odd behavior to those close to him that will indicated his involvement with the crime. Getting the public, and hopefully those people, to be aware of what they have seen, telling them how to interpret it, and suggest to them to come forward, may solve the case (The Anatomy of Motive, Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.).

Profiling in the field of (serial) murder

Multiple murderers are usually divided into three basic categories: serial, mass, and spree killers. In this paragraph, the emphasis is put on the serial killer - someone who has murdered on at least three occasions with so-called emotional cooling-off periods between each incident, whereas a mass murderer kills four or more victims in one location in one incident and the killings are all part of the same emotional experience. Finally, a spree killer is defined as someone who murders at two or more locations with no emotional cooling-off period between the homocides (The Anatomy of Motive, Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.).

Along with manipulation, domination, and control (the basic motivation for the crimes), a significant motivator for many serial killers is sexual, even if, as with Son of Sam David Berkowitz, the crimes themselves are not overtly so. A serial killer commits the killings because they emotionally fulfill him. The longer he (almost all serial killers are male) "succeeds" at it, the more confident and better he becomes and then tends to develop a sense of superiority over the police and investigative authorities who so far cannot catch him, and this empowers him even further. By his actions, he attempts to gain control and power over his life and other's lives, and to attain a feeling of success, often for the first time ever in his life. He will be following the media coverage, and probably has a journal where he writes about his crimes and collects all the newspaper articles relating to them. The offender is also likely to mentally relive his killings, often with the help of "trophies", such as a bracelet or a body part he took from his victims, or by visiting his victim's graves, which has become a cliché. Sometimes, later in his "career", the offender may realize that the reality of killing does not live up to his many fantasies and that he lacks the emotional fulfillment he desperately searches for. At this point it is possible that he turns himself in to the authorities or gets sloppy so he can be caught. Unfortunately, many continue to be "compelled" to kill and are eventually caught, or suddenly stop - if, for example, they were arrested for another, smaller crime, or have committed suicide.

But how did they become predators? you may ask. Typically, a significant part of the developmental process of persons showing very violent, antisocial tendencies is the so-called homicidal triad, consisting of enuresis - or bed-wetting - at an inappropriate age, cruelty to small children and/or animals, and fire starting, which suggest an underlying frustration with lack of control (The Anatomy of Motive, Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.). For example, David Berkowitz, the self-proclaimed Son of Sam, set more than two thousand fires throughout New York City before he evolved into a serial killer. Other serial murderers have started their horrible carreers, for instance, and simplified, quite early in their lives as stalkers - also known as "Peeping Toms", escalating into burglary, fetish theft, rape, and eventually murder. By the time the first serious crimes occur, they are generally in their early to mid-twenties. Another typical denominator among future serial killers is low self-esteem and the habit of blaming the rest of the world for their situation. They will already have a criminal record and you may see a dishonorable discharge from the military because there will likely have been problems with any type of authority. The majority also have an abusive or dysfunctional background.

As soon as several offenses, such as fires, stalking, or murder, are linked and attributed by the police to one and the same unknown suspect, it is crucial to look at his early crimes to determine where the suspect might live. In most cases, the offender starts out in his "comfort zone", which means close to where he lives or works, or where he feels emotionally comfortable, for example around his family or friends - that's why it's crucial to start with the early crimes of a suspect. As the self-confidence and obsession with his own "power" grows, so does his activity radius, making an arrest more difficult. Furthermore, in multiple homicides the killer is usually of the same race as his victim. In most cases, there is a triggering trauma leading to the escalation. The two most common precipitating stressors are loss of work or loss of love; but any type of hardship, particularly an economic one, can trigger the violent outburst. The stability that provided a certain pattern of life is suddenly taken away and nothing is holding him back from acting out his fantasies any longer.

Controversial scientific studies (Norris, J., Ph.D.) suggest, from a medical point of view, that serial murderers may share a significant number of common medical/psychological patterns. Those include evidence of soft and hard signs of brain damage resulting from injuries or other physical trauma, severe chemical imbalances brought about by chronic malnutrition and substance abuse, a possible genetic defect, the absence of a sense of self which is the result of often consistently negative parenting, nonparenting, or sexual abuse and an almost hair-trigger violent response to external stimuli with no regard for the physical or social consequences. P. S. Hicks, M.D., Chief Psychiatrist of the California State Prison, San Quentin, California (U.S.A.), is even convinced that organic brain pathology is vastly underdiagnosed in the prison population and plays a much larger role in criminal behavior than previously thought. Furthermore, one of the most significant common psychological behavior patterns in violent offenders seems to be a failure to perceive punishment as a deterrent to their actions and a fascination with police procedures and the officers who are pursuing them. Such factors should be taken into consideration when suspect backgrounds are researched. However, it is important to state that not every individual showing several of the above characteristics will automatically become a criminal. In combination with other factors or evidence, however, they may provide a useful clue.

"No two crimes are exactly alike" and the search for similarities

There are various ways to organize and analyze the facts taken from the available aspects of the crime scene, e.g. the nature of attacks, witness statements, the photographs, forensic evidence such as autopsy protocols and, very important, information related to the victim (victimology).

To be able to assess the behavior of any unknown suspect, it is vital to separate his "modus operandi" from his "signature". The modus operandi is what an offender has to do, in his mind, to accomplish a crime. It is learned behavior and gets modified and perfected as the criminal becomes more skilled at what he does. For example, a fire starter routinely leaves his car running in front of the building in order to escape faster. The signature, on the other hand, is something the offender has to do to fulfill himself emotionally. It is not needed to successfully accomplish the crime, but it is the reason he undertakes the particular crime in the first place. For instance, the fire starter returns to the crime scene as soon as the fire department arrives to watch or to experience sexual pleasure, which is unnecessary to accomplish the crime. The signature is what makes the crime typical and distinguishable and what shows the underlying theme of a case, which is especially useful when an apparent series of crimes needs to be solved and it is not clear whether there are various suspects involved. In the case of only one perpetrator committing a series of very similar crimes, the pattern of the above elements is usually unique enough to determine this: Decades of field experience have shown that it is almost impossible to see two different offenders fitting the same modus operandi and the particular signature while operating in the same area at the same time.

The experience from such investigations is incorporated in a framework basically classifying serious offenders according to whether they are "organized", which implies that for instance murderers plan their crimes ("premeditation"), display control at the scenes of crime, leave few or no clues and mostly target strangers as victims, or "disorganized", which means that the murders are not planned and the crime scenes show evidence of haphazard behavior; or, rarely, a mixture of the two.

Whenever you have any signs of remorse after the crime, like covering the victim up with clothes, meaning that the killer was trying to eliminate the assault or feeling disgust over his actions, there is likely to be a spillover into his post-offense behavior. He may be compelled to talk to someone, to find out what the police are doing regarding the investigation, he may increase his alcohol consumption, alter his physical appearance in some way, or even visit the victim's grave. This gives investigators an excellent chance to go proactive (see above).

General profiling rules, such as, for example, "the older the victim, the younger the offender, starting at 25 and adding or subtracting years based on the degree of sophistication" (The Anatomy of Motive, Douglas, J.E., Olshaker M.) are used as guidelines but need to be adapted to each case, as stated below. No two crimes are exactly alike.

The profiling strategy

The best weapon the police have against an elusive serial murderer's spree is their behavior profile. Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman divide the FBI's profiling strategy into five stages, with a final sixth stage being the arrest of the correct suspect:

1. Profiling inputs

The first stage involves collecting all information available about the crime, including physical evidence, photographs of the crime scene, autopsy reports and pictures, witness testimony, extensive background information on the victim and police reports. The profiler does not want to be told about possible suspects at this stage because such data might prejudice or prematurely direct his or her profile.

2. Decision process models

In this stage, the profiler organizes the input into meaningful questions and patterns along several dimensions of criminal activity. What type of homicide has been committed (classifications, in short: mass murderers, spree killers and serial murderers, see above)? What is the primary motive for the crime: sexual, financial, personal or emotional disturbance? What level of risk did the victim experience, and what level of risk did the murderer take in killing the victim? What was the sequence of acts before and after the killing, and how long did these acts take to commit? Where was the crime committed? Was the body moved, or was it found where the murder had taken place?

3. Crime assessment

Based on the findings during the previous stages, the profiler now attempts to reconstruct the behavior of the offender and his victim. Was the murder organized (suggesting a killer who carefully selects victims against whom he usually acts out a given fantasy) or disorganized (indicating an impulsive, possible psychotic killer)? Was the crime staged to mislead the police? What motivations were revealed by such details as cause of death, location of wounds, and position of the body? For example, as general profiling rules: (1) brutal facial injuries point to killers who know their victims, (2) murders committed with whatever weapon happens to be available reflect greater impulsivity than murders committed with a gun and may reveal a killer who lives fairly near the victim and (3) murders committed early in the morning seldom involve alcohol or drugs.

4. Criminal profile

Here, profilers formulate an initial description of the most likely suspects. The typical profile includes the perpetrator's race, sex, age (which is one of the toughest points to nail down in a profile because emotional or experiential age does not always match chronological years), marital status, living arrangements and employment history; psychological characteristics, beliefs and values; probable reactions to the police and past criminal record, including the possiblity of similar offenses in the past. This stage also contains a feedback loop whereby profilers check their predictions against stage two-information to make sure that the profile fits the original data.

5. Investigation

A written report is given to the investigators, who concentrate on suspects matching the profile - often, the police have already talked to a likely suspect but did not have reason enough to seriously doubt the suspect's testimony. If new evidence is discovered at this stage, a second feedback process is initiated and the profile will be revised.

6. Apprehension

The arrest of the right suspect is the intended result of the above procedures. The key element then is interview technique - ideally, the subject confesses or at least is willing to talk about his crimes to some extent. A thorough interview of the suspect could furthermore help to assess the influences of background and psychological variables.

Conclusion

You may ask yourself whether there is any evidence about the validity of offender profiling, even though it is now widely recognized as a quite invaluable tool to narrow down the possible suspects in any criminal investigation.

A study in the field of behavioral psychology (Pinizzotto and Finkel, 1990) provides initial data on its effectiveness. Results suggest that profilers can produce more useful and valid criminal profiles than clinical psychologists or even experienced crime investigators. In contrast to this study, it should not be overlooked that this method is fraught with many difficulties and pressures in the real world. However, impressive successes in various cases all over the world, such as the apprehension of Arthur Shawcross and Frank Fuchs, the Austrian bomber, show that this method is at least helping to solve violent and other crimes.
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Division of Forensic Science
Forensic Biology Section

The FORENSIC BIOLOGY SECTION, formally Serology/DNA, provides scientific analysis of biological evidence that has the potential to supply unbiased information to:
• Substantiate case circumstances
• Corroborate or refute an alibi
• Identify a weapon used in a crime
• Determine the sequence of events
• Link or eliminate a suspect
• Establish a crime scene
The forensic serologist begins by evaluating the investigative information and available evidence to understand the nature of the case and the problem to be solved. Initially, items of physical evidence are examined for blood, semen or saliva. The isolated samples are identified and tested for human origin as required. Further analysis is guided by the investigating officer's request, case circumstances, sample size and condition, available technology and/or the conformance to case acceptance policy.
Classification of biological evidence by conventional serology methods (ABO and polymorphic enzyme groupings) is no longer performed. DNA technology is used for individualization of biological evidence in forensic casework.

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA is an organic substance found primarily in the nucleus of living cells. It comprises the chromosomes within the nucleus and provides the genetic code that determines a person's individual characteristics. In other words, DNA is the "body's blueprint". In search of samples: A serologist uses a flashlight to examine pieces of cloth cut from a baseball hat. The hat was allegedly worn in an assault and stains resembling blood were embedded in the material. The samples will be used in DNA testing.

Ample DNA: A scientist prepares samples for "amplification," a vital process in typing DNA. The samples will be placed in a thermal cycler where the DNA is separated, copied and amplified. Through a process of heating and cooling, the DNA is then increased to the point of detection a In simplified form, DNA typing involves nd duplicated 28 times. With the thermal cycler, 96 cases can be processed over a three-hour period.

Additionally, Capillary Electrophoresis allows GBI scientists to look at 13 different loci and it gives the scientists the ability to determine the sex of the sample all at the same time.
Typing DNA: A forensic biologist prepares a capillary electrophoresis instrument for use. The state-of-the-art “CE” assigns DNA to samples and then charts the findings on to a computer. Scientists review the results to determine whether the profile matches that of the suspect or victim.

Over the years, the court challenges to the use of DNA technology have moved from the contention that the technology itself is somehow scientifically improper to attacks on the way the statistics are analyzed. The GBI Crime Lab has and will continue to interpret the statistics in a conservative and responsible manner.
Another service of the FORENSIC BIOLOGY SECTION is the development of a Georgia DNA database of convicted sex offenders as authorized by Georgia law. This database allows for the comparison of DNA profiles from casework samples (when no donor has been identified) to those of previous offenders in both the Georgia file and in the national file. About 70 percent of the staff’s time involves analyzing semen for rape cases. This database is part of a nation-wide system called CODIS, Combined DNA Index System.
DNA Testing & Justice
DNA Technology has become a routine service provided by the GBI Crime Lab on homicide, rape and violent crimes. Of the more than 700 DNA cases processed by the lab, 59 percent resulted in the inclusion of a suspect and 25 percent excluded a suspect. These figures demonstrate the power of DNA not only to associate an individual with a crime but also to exclude an individual from a crime. With this kind of effectiveness, the criminal justice system is demanding DNA testing more each year.

In simplified form, DNA typing involves extracting the DNA from a specimen such as blood, semen or saliva, then amplifying specific regions of the DNA. Eventually those amplified regions are typed to determine a DNA profile. All of these sources provide the same DNA from any particular individual, so scientists are able to compare sperm DNA collected in a sexual assault case to blood DNA from potential suspects.
DNA typing in criminal investigations was first introduced in England in 1985. The Georgia Bureau of Investigation began developing its DNA program in 1989 and began accepting cases from local law enforcement in January of 1991.
By comparing the DNA profile of an individual’s blood with that of body fluids recovered from a sexual assault kit or crime scene, GBI Crime Lab scientists can determine if the biological specimens are from the same person. If the patterns do not match, scientists can be assured that the suspect did not leave their biological fluid.
Tools of the trade: While the naked eye may be limited in what it can see, a Luma Lite is not. Forensic biologists use the light to check for blood, semen or other bodily fluids that may have been left behind during the commission of a crime. Samples are then lifted from the evidence and prepared for DNA testing.

Ample DNA: A scientist prepares samples for "amplification," a vital process in typing DNA. The samples will be placed in a thermal cycler where the DNA is separated, copied and amplified. Through a process of heating and cooling, the DNA is then increased to the point of detection and duplicated 28 times. With the thermal cycler, 96 cases can be processed over a three-hour period.

The FORENSIC BIOLOGY SECTION continued to maintain its cutting-edge position in DNA technological advancements when the GBI lab became the first crime laboratory in the country to implement the latest method of DNA analysis, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). This method offers tremendous potential for improvement in both turn-around time and results. The older DNA methods would take six to seven weeks to process an average case. With this latest technology, GBI scientists are looking forward to processing up to 48 samples in 24 hours with an average case turnaround time of two weeks.
Additionally, Capillary Electrophoresis allows GBI scientists to look at 13 different loci and it gives the scientists the ability to determine the sex of the sample all at the same time.
Typing DNA: A forensic biologist prepares a capillary electrophoresis instrument for use. The state-of-the-art “CE” assigns DNA to samples and then charts the findings on to a computer. Scientists review the results to determine whether the profile matches that of the suspect or victim.

Over the years, the court challenges to the use of DNA technology have moved from the contention that the technology itself is somehow scientifically improper to attacks on the way the statistics are analyzed. The GBI Crime Lab has and will continue to interpret the statistics in a conservative and responsible manner.
Another service of the FORENSIC BIOLOGY SECTION is the development of a Georgia DNA database of convicted sex offenders as authorized by Georgia law. This database allows for the comparison of DNA profiles from casework samples (when no donor has been identified) to those of previous offenders in both the Georgia file and in the national file. About 70 percent of the staff’s time involves analyzing semen for rape cases. This database is part of a nation-wide system called CODIS, Combined DNA Index System.
DNA Testing & Justice
DNA Technology has become a routine service provided by the GBI Crime Lab on homicide, rape and violent crimes. Of the more than 700 DNA cases processed by the lab, 59 percent resulted in the inclusion of a suspect and 25 percent excluded a suspect. These figures demonstrate the power of DNA not only to associate an individual with a crime but also to exclude an individual from a crime. With this kind of effectiveness, the criminal justice system is demanding DNA testing more each year.

The FORENSIC BIOLOGY SECTION continued to maintain its cutting-edge position in DNA technological advancements when the GBI lab became the first crime laboratory in the country to implement the latest method of DNA analysis, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). This method offers tremendous potential for improvement in both turn-around time and results. The older DNA methods would take six to seven weeks to process an average case. With this latest technology, GBI scientists are looking forward to processing up to 48 samples in 24 hours with an average case turnaround time of two weeks.
Additionally, Capillary Electrophoresis allows GBI scientists to look at 13 different loci and it gives the scientists the ability to determine the sex of the sample all at the same time.
Typing DNA: A forensic biologist prepares a capillary electrophoresis instrument for use. The state-of-the-art “CE” assigns DNA to samples and then charts the findings on to a computer. Scientists review the results to determine whether the profile matches that of the suspect or victim.

Toxicology Section

The Division of Forensic Sciences (DOFS) Toxicology Section provides state and local law enforcement officials and medical examiners with vital information about human biological samples and specifically whether drugs, alcohol or poisons may have played a role in the commission of a crime or a death.
By analyzing blood, urine, stomach contents and tissues, DOFS toxicologists are able to establish whether traces of alcohol, drugs or poisons are present, and if so, in what quantity.

The Hitachi 911 analyzer is used to screen biological specimens for common drugs of abuse.
The Toxicology Section provides two primary services:
• Alcohol and drug testing for impaired drivers.
• Medical examiner death investigation testing.
The testing process is time consuming and begins with the receipt of a biological sample. The sample is then assigned a unique DOFS case number and bar coded prior to being assigned to a toxicologist for analysis. After undergoing an initial drug screening, positive samples are extracted by a toxicologist and analyzed using state of the art chemical instrumentation. The test data are then interpreted by the toxicologist and the results of their analysis and conclusions are entered into the DOFS Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The results and conclusions of the toxicologist are then checked independently by another toxicologist who has to concur with their findings. Once this step is complete an official report is generated and released to the officer or agency that submitted the sample.

Drugs are isolated from biological specimens through solid phase extraction. The extraction is then analyzed by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer to determine the type of drug.

Impaired Drivers

On average, the unit, made up of scientists and technicians, spends about 60 percent of its time working on cases involving drivers suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI). In fact, DOFS toxicologists processed about 10,000 traffic-related cases in 2000. While both blood and urine samples are taken at the time of an arrest, the sample analyzed depends on the analysis requested and the particularities of a given case. With the help of instruments such as a headspace gas chromatograph (GC) up to 35 samples may be tested at one time to determine the presence and the exact quantity of alcohol in a sample. Likewise, by use of a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) minute amounts of drugs may be detected and the exact quantity present determined as well. The results of these tests will play a role in determining if charges will be brought against a driver for operating a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. By far and away the most common drugs found, after alcohol, are cocaine and marijuana. However, date rape drugs like gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) are being seen more and more often.

Medical Examiner Death Investigations

Similar to tests run in DUI cases, blood, urine and other bodily materials also supply toxicologists with clues into the cause of a death. Whether a victim was shot, stabbed or died from blunt force trauma, DOFS toxicologists are routinely called upon to determine if drugs or poisons may have played a role in the death. Blood, tissue and stomach contents can all provide valuable information when analyzed with a GC-MS as to the type and quantities of drugs involved in a death. The Toxicology section tested about 12,000 samples for drugs in 2000.

$Poisons$

Despite what television portrays, homicidal poisonings are rare. Carbon monoxide is the most frequently discovered poison. Often the victims are exposed to the deadly gas from a fire, automobile exhaust or from faulty heating system. Other poisons routinely checked for are the “classic” poisons like cyanide, arsenic and strychnine. These substances can sometimes be found in victims of homicide, but more commonly encountered in suicides and accidental poisonings. DOFS toxicologists are also capable of identifying a variety of pesticides, poisonous plants and rare or unusual toxins. These poisons typically require an experienced and well trained-eye to identify. The Toxicology section has scientists who specialize in this type testing to aid in the analysis of undetermined or suspicious death cases.

Biological samples are prepared for Inductively Conductive Plasma/Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) analysis to detect heavy metals such as arsenic.

The Toxicology section also is responsible for identifying inhalant abuse, such as seen by the inhalation of solvents, glues, freon and nitrous oxides. The section receives between two to five cases involving inhalants each month, with the majority of the victims under the age of 30 years old. In fact, a recent study revealed one in five eighth grade students have sniffed glue or “huffed” household product. Huffing is when an aerosol or solvent is placed in an almost closed area, like a soda can or bag and the fumes are inhaled. Among products commonly abused are computer and VCR cleaning solutions, cigarette lighter fluid, barbecue fuels and correction fluid or markers. Both sniffing glue and huffing kill brain cells and can lead to death. To determine what chemicals are present in cases where inhalants are believed to be involved, a DOFS toxicologist uses chemical instrumentation such as GC and GC-MS to analyze the residual air left in a lung or the chemicals that may be found in the blood of a huffing victim.
With demands on the Toxicology section growing each day, the unit has recently grown through the addition of 30 additional scientists to the statewide program. The employees will be assigned to one of six toxicology labs in the state. The other labs are located in Augusta, Columbus, Macon, Moultrie, Savannah and Summerville.

Division of Forensic Sciences

Firearms Section
Forensic photography is a valuable law-enforcement tool. Through its use, vital information is visually communicated in the courts and throughout the criminal justice system.

Services Provided:
• Processing and printing for the entire GBI
• Photography of autopsies for medical examiners
• Photography of physical evidence for laboratory personnel to be used in courtroom testimony. Examples: fingerprints, documents, shoe prints, tire tracks, fracture matches, automobiles, bullets, blood splatters, clothing, large drug evidence seizures, etc.
• Still photography and video of crime scenes, drug raids, demonstrations, and public disturbances for the GBI
• Surveillance videotape analysis to produce still photographs of suspects

The GBI’s Photography Section is responsible for providing photographs of physical evidence for laboratory personnel to be used in courtroom testimony and photographs of autopsies for medical examiners.
This section also handles film processing and printing for the entire Bureau and offers photographic training for special agents and other GBI personnel.
Images from video tape can be enhanced by the Photo Lab and converted to still photographs for use by investigators.

The New Agents' Training Unit (NATU) coordinates 17 weeks of instruction at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. New Agent Trainees (NATS) are exposed to three components of curriculum involving the following areas:
• Investigative / Tactical
• Non-Investigative
The above three components total 643.5 hours of instruction, which are spread over four major concentrations:
• Firearms
• Operational Skills
• The Integrated Case Scenario
NATS must pass 9 academic examinations, with a score of 85% or better, in the following disciplines:
• Legal (2 exams)
• Behavioral Science
• Interviewing
• Ethics
• Basic and Advanced Investigative Techniques (2 Exams)
• Interrogation
• Forensic Science
A Physical Training Test (PT test) is administered to each NAT during the first, seventh, and 14th week of training. A minimum of 12 points (at least 1 point must be scored in each of the four events as well), out of a possible 40, is required to pass each PT test. The four events that are tested are: 1) sit-ups, 2) 300 meter run 3) push-ups, and 4) a one and half mile run. A fifth event, the pull-up, is also administered during each test. This event is being utilized for study purposes.

NATS are also required to pass a Defensive Tactics (DT) test as well. The DT test focuses on grappling and boxing, handcuffing, control holds, searching subjects, weapon retention, and disarming techniques.
Each NAT must qualify twice with the Bureau issued handgun, and once with the shotgun. To qualify, a NAT must shoot 80% or better on two of three qualification courses with the pistol, as well as a cumulative score of 80% on all three qualifications. The NAT must also demonstrate familiarity with the Bureau sub-machine gun. NATs will fire between 3,000 - 5,000 rounds of ammunition during their 17 weeks of training.

While engaged in the aforementioned training, the NATS are given a case to investigate which will culminate in the arrest of multiple subjects. The investigation mirrors what they will experience in the field, since it is conducted at Hogan's Alley, a mock city built especially for practical exercises. The NATS conduct interviews, perform surveillance, and put to use the street survival techniques taught by the instructors at Hogan's Alley.
NATU is staffed by Supervisory Special Agents that serve as class supervisors. They are assisted by two Special Agents, referred to as Field Counselors. These Field Counselors are Special Agents from the 56 Field Divisions throughout the Bureau, who have volunteered to spend 17 weeks at the FBI Academy. During these 17 weeks the NATU staff evaluates each NAT as to their suitability to be a Special Agent of the FBI.