Sistema elettorale in Nuova Zelanda
Layout ”Electoral”_korr3 02-02-12 11.42 Sida 129
Westminster Democracy Switches to PR
New Zealand recently changed its electoral system. In 1993, the country voted to
discard the First Past the Post (FPTP) voting system it had used for over a century in
favour of proportional representation. Two things stand out from this move.
In the first place, some 20 years ago, it was thought highly unlikely that New
Zealand, of all countries, would change its electoral system. Second, the change can be
regarded as a good example of how to move from one voting system to another. It was
done only after a great deal of research, debate, and public consultation. Most experts
on electoral reform would agree that major electoral reforms should not be undertaken
lightly, and the move to PR in New Zealand was certainly not undertaken lightly.
New Zealand has long been accorded something of a special status among the
world’s democracies as one of the “purest” examples of the Westminster model of
government, a model of virtually unrestrained executive authority with an electoral
system which in some ways was “more British than Britain”. For many years it pro
duced quintessential Westminster parliaments, with single-party governments and a
relatively stable party system. Nevertheless, public disquiet about the effects of
FPTP surfaced in New Zealand after the 1978 and the 1981 parliamentary elec
tions. On both occasions, the opposition Labour Party won more votes throughout the
country as a whole than the incumbent National Party government, but in both elec
tions the National Party won a majority of seats in Parliament and thus stayed in
power. Furthermore, in both 1978 and 1981, the then third party in New Zealand
politics, Social Credit, won a fairly large share of the popular vote – 16% in 1978,
and more than 20% in 1981, but – not unusual for FPTP systems – it won very few
seats in the New Zealand Parliament, one and two seats respectively, in a House of
Representatives of more than 90 members.
When it gained office in 1984, the Labour Party established a Royal Commission
on the Electoral System to consider “whether all or a specified number or proportion
of Members of Parliament should be elected under an alternative system ... such as
proportional representation or preferential voting”.
The Royal Commission on the Electoral System sat for most of 1985 and 1986
before releasing a long and detailed report in which it defined 10 criteria for testing
both FPTP and other voting systems. These were: fairness between political parties,
effective representation of minority and special interest groups, effective Maori repre
sentation (the Maori being New Zealand’s indigenous ethnic minority), political integ-
+1 anno fa
Materiale didattico per il corso di Politica comparata del prof. Marco Giuliani. Trattasi di un articolo di Nigel Roberts dal titolo "NEW ZEALAND:A Long-Established Westminster Democracy Switches to PR" riguardante la riforma del sistema elettorale in Nuova Zelanda che ha portato alla sostituzione del c.d. sistema Westminster, o del "First Past the Post", con un sistema a rappresentanza proporzionale.
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Politica comparata e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Milano - Unimi o del prof Giuliani Marco.
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