Prima invasione dell'Iraq
• United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, adopted on April 3, 1991, after reaffirming
resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all 1990) and 686 (1991),
the Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after
losing the Gulf War.
• The resolution, divided into nine sections, firstly urged Iraq and Kuwait to respect the boundary
between the two countries, calling on the Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar to assist both
in demarcating the border. It requested the Secretary-General to submit, within three days, a plan
for the deployment of the United Nations Iraq–Kuwait Observation Mission along the demilitarised
zone which was established to be 10km into Iraq and 5km into Kuwait.
• The Council reminded Iraq of its obligations under the Geneva Protocol and to unconditionally
remove and destroy all chemical and biological weapons and ballistic missiles with a range
greater than 150km. As part of this demand, the Council requested Iraq submit, within 15 days, a
report declaring all locations of all the aforementioned and agree to urgent, on-site inspection. It
then established the United Nations Special Commission relating to inspections and set provisions
for it, and asked Iraq to abide by its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty,
agreeing not to develop nuclear weapons and submitting a report to the Secretary-General and
International Atomic Energy Agency within 15 days.
• Resolution 687 then referred to repatriations and compensation, stating Iraq is liable for any loss,
damage and injury inflicted upon Kuwait, further demanding that Iraq hand over any remaining
property seized from Kuwait. It also declared null and void any statements by Iraq regarding its
refusal to repay its foreign debt, and decided to create a fund for these compensation claims (the
United Nations Compensation Commission, officialy established in Resolution 692).
• Regarding sanctions, the Council reiterated international sanctions against Iraq do not apply to
foodstuffs or medical aid to the civilian populations of Iraq and Kuwait,
La dottrina Weinberger
• Either the United States' or its close allies' vital
national interests had to be at risk;
• The war had to be fought "wholeheartedly, with
the clear intention of winning";
• We should employ decisive force in the pursuit
of clearly defined political and military objectives;
• We must constantly reassess whether the use of
force is necessary and appropriate;
• There must be a "reasonable assurance" of
Congressional and public support;
• Force should be used only as a last resort.
• United Nations Security Council Resolution 686, adopted on March 2, 1991, after
reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677 and
678 (all 1990), the Council noted the suspension of military activites against Iraq
and that all twelve resolutions continue to have full force and effect.
• The resolution went on to demand that Iraq implement these twelve resolutions, as
well as rescinding its actions regarding the annexation of Kuwait, accept liability
under international law for any loss, damage or injury in Kuwait, release any
Kuwaiti or foreign nationals alive or deceased, and calling for the return of property
seized by Iraq.
• Resolution 686 also demanded that Iraq:
• (a) end hostile and provocative actions by its forces against all Member States,
including missile attacks;
• (b) arrange for a ceasefire at the earliest possible time by designating military
commanders to meet with its foreign counterparts;
• (c) arrange for the release and immediate access to all prisoners of war under the
auspices of the International Committee of the Red Cross;
• (d) provide information identifying Iraqi mines, booby traps as well as any
chemical and biological weapons in land or water.
+1 anno fa
Dispensa per il corso di "Europa dopo la fine della guerra fredda" del prof. Leopoldo Nuti, riguardante la prima guerra del golfo. Al suo interno sono riportate una serie di mappe illustrative delle diverse fasi di liberazione del territorio del Kuwait e di invasione del territorio iraqeno. E' in seguito illustrata la dottrina Weinberger e la situazione politica dell'Iraq nel dopo invasione.
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di L'Europa dopo la fine della guerra fredda e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Roma Tre - Uniroma3 o del prof Nuti Leopoldo.
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