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Transit theory

• S. Hantington and third wave of democratization ;

• Transit theory and 3 stages of transit:

liberalization, democratization, consolidation of

democracy. ( Linz , Juan J. and Stepan, Alfred . 1996.

Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.

Southern Europe, South America and Post-Communist

Europe; O`Donnell G. Transitions, Continuities and


• Different form of trasit: tranzit of agreement, transit

from upper level of power, co-governing democracy

Evaluating of “transit regime” in Russia

• Stage of democratization and liberalization (beginning of 90 th) . As the

kind of idea democracy won absolutely. Democracy was considered as

the way to new, good life .

• Constitutions declare all the rights. Adopting democratic norms and

procedures, formally state has all the atributes of democratic system –

elections, local government, political parties, free mass media ext.

• Atomization and fragmentation of society (conflicts between different

levels of power and between different branches of power). Deep gap

between poor and rich groups. (20 mln of russians are under the line of


• Social need for order and lack of strong civil society provoke imitative

and decorative democracy.

• ( Opposition never took the power by legal way , Evaluating from non-party-

mono-central party system and creating the

membership of President to

party of President («Nur-Otan» (Kazach Republic), “NEW Azeirbaidjan”,

“United Russia”. )

• Problem of successor (Aliev-Aliev, Eltzin-Putin-Medvedev)

• The end of regimes – orange revolution or quiet changing of power; growing up of


Features of political process in the epoch of


• Reforms of political system (the main trend of reform is

not democratic)

• Weakness and underdevelopment democratic

institutes (political parties, mass media, NGO)

• Centralization of power, forming of soft authoritarian

regime ( cutting down rights of regions, abolition of

governor’s elections, new electoral law)

• Returning to archaic imperial and military rhetoric,

• Worsening of relations between Russia and

democracies of EU and NATO

Reform of political system was presented as the

struggle against terrorism

How democracy is functioning (LOCAL ELITES, 2003)




70% Functioning so badly

60% Functioning but..

50% Well

40% 0




0% ain a

a ary

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la Sp

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What are the most important liberties for you?

Rights and liberties written in Constitution of RF

Right of the protection of health and medicine care 40

Right of the security of person 34

Right of dwelling 34

Right of the protection unemployment 20

Right to receive reward for work 19

Right of education 17

Right of honor’s and good name’s protection 15

Right of personal and family mystery 14

Right of the choice of profession 13

Right of work in safe circumstances 13

The lack of the next rights and liberties

Undou Undoubte

bte dly

dly don’t


ses posse

Rights and liberties written in Constitution of RF s ss D

Right of the protection unemployment 9 24 -15

Right of indemnification made by appointed official 6 21 -15

Right to be elected a member of government body 8 15 -7

Right of personal immunity 17 21 -4

Right of protection of health and medical care 20 23 -3

The role of Civil society in Russia

(in the context of forming social state and

cohesive society )

Necessity of CC is accepted (at least in scientific discours ,

but majority of population doesn’t know what is it)

Dominated point of view of political elite is: let us get

economic growth and stability and then start to

develop civil society (like this CC is investments we

ant’ afford ourselves

Civil society is considered as self-organized in such a way

that to restrain not only a state but also a market.

The state takes all the functions which traditionally carry

out civil society and business. Now we can see

redistribution of these functions

(the most important condition for stabilization and

resistance for terror is strengthening of civil

Distribution of answers to the question: “Whose interests in your opinion

does Russian state express and protect today?”

(RF, % from the number of respondents)

All State At a loss

Poor Middle Rich Russi bureaucra of

people class People an cy answer


2000 1 8 46 9 44 9

2001 0 6 40 9 38 21

2002 1 7 61 6 54 10

2003 1 8 53 9 54 13

2004 1 8 50 9 52 15

2005 1 8 54 8 52 15

2006 0 8 50 10 51 12

2006 1 11 62 7 55 11

2007 2 10 52 8 51 14

2008 2 11 49 12 42 14

Estimation of the activity of several government


100% 3

8 8 10 13 9


80% 20



70% 50 44 at a loss of an answer

60% bad

50% 38 satisfactory


40% Well


30% 35 44

20% 29


10% 12


0% t

en r

F or nt


R nm de

ay er

of si

M ov


a re

um ov G P


D e

te Th


S Political participation (2007) %

Activity of Political Parties 3,6

Activity of public organizations 7,9

Different clubs of interests 6,8

Trade unions 5,9

Demonstrations and manifestations 7,3

Strikes 1,9

Actions of civil disobedience 0,9

Periods of party building in Russia

• Parties as pure ideas, 1989 – 1995

Elections within one-dimensional model "Democrats - Communists".

• Parties as groups, 1995 - 1999

Groups uniting politicians. In regions - frequent changes of party

affiliation. The loss of ideological priorities. The loss of electoral


• Parties as pre-election projects, 2000 - 2003

Market of political services is developing, elections have become a

struggle of PR-projects. It is preferring to create a new party then

to develop an existing one. Reduce of public confidence in


• Parties as electoral machines, 2003

The electoral campaign of "Union of Right Forces".

• Mass parties , 2005 - 2008

Establishment of regional structures, search of ideological grounds.

Paradoxes of Party building in Post-soviet


• Parties appeared as the result of the emerging chance to

obtain power, not as the result of people activities ;

• Real goals of parties didn’t fit to the necessity to become the

mass party and their striving for it;

• Specific political spectrum (lack of clear political identity);

• Elite initiates the party building and citizens are indifferent to

the activities of parties (level of political participation in parties

activity not more than 4% ) ;

• Neither power no citizens considered parties as the real

participator of political process.

Particularities of political


• Party system in Russia – the victim of political clichés. One

and the same mottos of civil society, law-based state and

democracy are successfully utilized by various social groups.

• A struggle between conservatives and social-democrats as it is

in europe doesn’t exist . In Europe Liberals and communists

play the role of political reserve and have to mon’ake blocks

with basic parties. In Russia there is no experience and no

necessity of coalitions. (Communist party and Socialist parties

never cooperate)

• Party system is incoherent.

• Party-phobias of citizens. Parties - “stepchildren” of public


• Phenomena of “party of power” on post-soviet space.

How many parties does Russia need, (%)

2001 2004 2005 2006 2007

One powerful p. 34 34 38 32 30

Two or three 41 44 39 42 46

Several not very 4 6 4 5 7

big parties

There is no 8 6 7 7 6

necessity in


Difficult to answer 13 10 12 14 13

If say in general, does competition between political

parties bring more use or harm for the country?

Variants of answers Group portion in % from total

number of respondents

More use 31

More harm 47

At a loss of an answer 22

Total 100

Stabilization of Party system or


• Cutting down the quantity of parties (Law about political

parties, 2005)

• Political party must have no less than 100 regional groups

• Number of the registered party must not be below 50 thousand


• The political party must have regional officies a quantity no

less than 500 members in more than a half of subjects of

Russian Federation

• The regional offices of political parties got the right to create

their own electoral funds

• The local offices of political parties got the right to set up the

candidates on municipal elections

• Increasing of barreer (7% on federal level and 8% on regional


• The line “agaisnt all” was cancelled in 2006 at all (at all levels

of elections (Before the level of protest voting was about 15%

on regional level)

Uniting process (as the projects of Kremlin)

2001 – “United Russia” – “Unity” (pro-president party) + “Homeland –

Entire Russia” (regional leaders), The Leader of Party is the Chair of

State Douma. In 2007 the list of Party was headed by President

2006 – The ”Just Russia” party - the “Motherland” party + the Party of

Pensioners + the Russian party of LIFE. The list was headed by the

Chair of Soviet of Federation.

2008 – Uniting of parties of right wing. Most of them were excluded from

electoral process and at the end some of leaders came to an

agreement to create new party under control of President’s

Administration (Union of right Forces (СПС) 0,96% votes, Civil Force

– 1,05%, Democratic party- 0,13%.

Party building is controlled by Kremlin. Different Groups of elits should

decide: or they participate in political process or they be excluded

Quantity of parties participating in

Federal elections

1993 1995 1999 2003 2007

5 % 7%

bareer bareer

Quantity of 37 111 64 30 14



Participatin 13 43 29 23 11

g in


Quantity of faction in State Douma

1993 1995 1999 2003 2007

Parties/ 8 4 6 4 + 4

Factions, /4 /3 /3 Indepe


groups + + deputi


unregistrat es


ed and groups (23)

unformal (1)



Regular participants of elections

Communist party – since 1993 (ideological party with formal

structure and regional subsidiaries) – (majority in 1995-1999)

Liberal Democratic Party 1993 (party of charismatic leader)

“Parties of power” since 1993. (It got majority only from 2003)

NEW actors: A “Just Russia” Party.

Leaving actors: (СПС, Яблоко, Аграрная партия + мелкие)

Communist party of Russian Federation

1993 1995 1999 2003 2007

% of 12,4 22,3 24,3 12,6 11,6


% of 10,7 34,9 25,6 11,6 12,6

seats Communist party of RF




1.41 MB




+1 anno fa


Dispensa al corso di Sociologia dei fenomeni politici della prof.ssa Arianna Montanari. Trattasi di slides della prof.ssa Nataliya Velikaya riguardanti i partite ed il sistema politico della Russia contemporanea, ed in particolare: la teoria della transizione di Huntington ed il caso russo, il sistema politico e la sua evoluzione durante il governo di Putin, il ruolo della società civile, il grado di partecipazione politica, il frazionamento partitico all'interno della Duma, risultati ed analisi delle ultime elezioni.

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in scienze politiche e relazioni internazionali (POMEZIA, ROMA)
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Sociologia dei fenomeni politici e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università La Sapienza - Uniroma1 o del prof Montanari Arianna.

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Altri appunti di Sociologia dei fenomeni politici

Politica e società: Rush
Riassunto esame Sociologia dei Fenomeni Politici, prof. Montanari, libro consigliato La Comunicazione Politica, Mazzoleni
Introduzione alla sociologia politica - Rush
Ruolo della società civile nei processi decisionali europei