Paesi in via di sviluppo e politiche commerciali
There is a great diversity among the developing
countries in terms of their income per capita.
Why are some countries so much poorer than others?
• For about 30 years after World War II trade policies in
many developing countries were strongly influenced
by the belief that the key to economic development
was creation of a strong manufacturing sector.
– The best way to create a strong manufacturing sector
was by protecting domestic manufacturers from
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-3
Table 10-1: Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, 1999 (dollars)
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-4
From World War II until the 1970s many developing
countries attempted to accelerate their development
by limiting imports of manufactured goods to foster a
manufacturing sector serving the domestic market.
The most important economic argument for
protecting manufacturing industries is the infant
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-5
The Infant Industry Argument
• It states that developing countries have a potential
comparative advantage in manufacturing and they can
realize that potential through an initial period of
• It implies that it is a good idea to use tariffs or import
quotas as temporary measures to get industrialization
– Example: The U.S. and Germany had high tariff rates
on manufacturing in the 19 century, while Japan had
extensive import controls until the 1970s.
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-6
Problems with the Infant Industry Argument
• It is not always good to try to move today into the
industries that will have a comparative advantage in
– Example: In the 1980s South Korea became an exporter
of automobiles, whereas in the 1960s its capital and
skilled labor were still very scarce.
• Protecting manufacturing does no good unless the
protection itself helps make industry competitive.
– Example: Pakistan and India have protected their heavy
manufacturing sectors for decades and have recently
begun to develop significant exports of light
manufactures like textiles.
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-7
Market Failure Justifications for Infant Industry
• Two market failures are identified as reasons why
infant industry protection may be a good idea:
– Imperfect capital markets justification
– If a developing country does not have a set of financial
institutions that would allow savings from traditional sectors
(such as agriculture) to be used to finance investment in new
sectors (such as manufacturing), then growth of new industries
will be restricted.
– Appropriability argument
– Firms in a new industry generate social benefits for which they
are not compensated (e.g. start-up costs of adapting
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-8
Promoting Manufacturing Through Protection
• Import-substituting industrialization
– The strategy of encouraging domestic industry by
limiting imports of manufactured goods
– Many less-developed countries have pursued this strategy.
• Has import-substituting industrialization promoted
– Many economists are now harshly critical of the results
of import substitution, arguing that it has fostered high-
cost, inefficient production
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-9
• Why not encourage both import substitution and
– A tariff that reduces imports also necessarily reduces
– Until the 1970s many developing countries were
skeptical about the possibility of exporting
– In many cases, import-substituting industrialization
policies dovetailed naturally with existing political
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-10
Table 10-2: Exports as a Percentage of National Income, 1999
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-11
Results of Favoring Manufacturing: Problems of
• Many countries that have pursued import substitution
have not shown any signs of catching up with the
– Example: In India, after 20 years of economic plans
between the early 1950s and the early 1970s, its per
capita income was only a few percent higher than
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-12
• Why didn’t import-substituting industrialization work
the way it was supposed to?
– The infant industry argument was not as universally
valid as many people assumed: lack of skilled labor,
entrepreneurs, managerial competence, reliable supplies
– Allows inefficient manufacturing sector to survive, but
cannot directly make that sector more efficient
• Import-substituting industrialization generated:
– High rates of effective protection
– Inefficient (small) scale of production, too many firms
– Higher income inequality and unemployment
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-13
Table 10-3: Effective Protection of Manufacturing in Some Developing
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-14
+1 anno fa
Materiale didattico per il corso di Economia Internazionale del prof. Alireza Jay Naghavi. Trattasi di slides in lingua inglese a cura del docente, all'interno delle quali sono affrontati i seguenti argomenti: la politica commerciale nei paesi in via di sviluppo; lo sviluppo dell'industria e l'industrializzazione import-substituting; il protezionismo come strumento di sviluppo industriale; il peso delle esportazioni nelle economie dei paesi in via di sviluppo; il dualismo economico ed i suoi problemi; l'industrializzazione export-oriented dei paesi del sud-est asiatico; le "tigri asiatiche".
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Economia internazionale e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Bologna - Unibo o del prof Naghavi Alireza Jay.
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