(5) a. a dark a room that is dark
b. a a room from which daylight is excluded so that photographs can be processed.
There are sometimes instances of in Thus a
structural ambiguity California history
may be someone that teaches California history, or it may be a history teacher from
California. The first meaning is obtained by making a morphological constituent.
The second meaning is obtained by the morphological tree found on the right.
(6) California history teacher
a. N b. N
N N N N
N N N N
California history history teacher
Types of compounds: how they are written
Since English is a mostly unlike most other Germanic languages, it creates
compounds by concatenating words without case markers. As in other Germanic languages, the
compounds may be arbitrarily long. However, this is obscured by the fact that the written
representation of long compounds always contains blanks. Short compounds may be written in
three different ways, which do not correspond to different pronunciations, however:
1. The ‘solid’ or ‘closed’ forms in which two usually moderately short words appear together as
one. Solid compounds most likely consist of short (monosyllabic) units that often have been
established in the language for a long time. Examples are etc.
housewife, lawsuit, wallpaper,
2. The form in which two or more words are connected by a hyphen. Compounds that
contain affixes, such as and as well as adjective-adjective
compounds and verb-verb compounds, such as and are often hyphenated.
Compounds that contain articles, such as and are also often
3. The ‘open’ or ‘spaced’ form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer words, such as
distance learning, player piano, lawn tennis,
Usage in the US and in the UK differs and often depends on the individual choice of the writer
rather than on a hard-and-fast rule; therefore, open, hyphenated, and closed forms may be
encountered for the same compound noun, such as the triplets container ship/container-
ship/containership particle board/particle-board/particleboard
Types of compounds: how they are interpreted
In general, the meaning of a compound is a specialization of the meaning of its head. The modifier
limits the meaning of the head. This is most obvious in descriptive compounds, in which the
modifier is used in an attributive or appositional manner. A is a particular kind of board,
which is (generally) black, for instance.
In determinative compounds, however, the relationship is not attributive. For example, a is
not a particular type of stool that is like a foot. Rather, it is a (It can be
stool for one's foot or feet.
used for sitting on, but that is not its primary purpose.) In a similar manner, the is
the manager of an office, an is a and a is a
armchair chair with arms, raincoat coat against the rain.
These relationships, which are expressed by prepositions in English, would be expressed by
grammatical case in other languages. Both of the above types of compounds are called endocentric
compounds because the semantic head is contained within the compound itself -- a blackboard is a
type of board, for example, and a footstool is a type of stool.
However, in another common type of compound, the compound, the semantic head is
is not with
not explicitly expressed. A for example, a kind of head, but is a person red
hair. Similarly, a is also not a head, but a person with a head that is as hard and
unreceptive as a block (i.e. stupid). And, outside of veterinary surgery, a is not a type of
heart, but a person with a heart like a lion (in its bravery, courage, fearlessness, etc.).
Note in general the way to tell the two apart: is
1. Can you paraphrase the meaning of the compound "[X . Y]" to or
A person/thing that a Y, ...
does if Y is a verb (with X having some unspecified connection)? This is an endocentric
2. Can you paraphrase the meaning if the compound "[X . Y]" to with
A person/thing that is Y,
X having some unspecified connection? This is an exocentric compound.
Exocentric compounds occur more often in adjectives than nouns.
These types account for most compound nouns, but there are other, rarer types as well.
Coordinative, copulative or dvandva compounds combine elements with a similar meaning, and
the compound meaning may be a generalization instead of a specialization. Bosnia-Herzegovina,
for example, is the combined area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but a is an aircraft
that is both a fighter and a bomber. or compounds repeat a single element, to
express repetition or as an emphasis. and are examples of this type of
compound, which has more than one head.
In the case of verb+noun compounds, the noun may be either the subject or the object of the verb.
In for example, the noun is the subject of the verb (the whereas it is the object
playboy, boy plays),
callgirl calls the girl)
English syntax distinguishes between phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs. Consider the following:
I held up my hand.
I held up a bank.
I held my hand up.
*I held a bank up.
The first three sentences are possible in English; the last one is unlikely. When means
to hold up to
it is a prepositional verb; the preposition can be detached from the verb and has its own
individual meaning "from As a prepositional verb, it has a literal
lower to a higher position".
meaning. However, when to hold up means it is a phrasal verb. A phrasal verb is used in an
idiomatic, figurative or even metaphorical context. The preposition is inextricably linked to the
verb; the meaning of each word cannot be determined independently but is in fact part of the idiom.
The distinguishes seven types of prepositional or phrasal verbs in
Oxford English Grammar
1. 1. intransitive phrasal verbs (e.g. give in)
2. 2. transitive phrasal verbs (e.g. [discover])
3. 3. monotransitive prepositional verbs (e.g. [care
look after for])
4. 4. doubly transitive prepositional verbs (e.g. [something] [someone])
5. 5. copular prepositional verbs. (e.g. serve as)
6. 6. monotransitive phrasal-prepositional verbs (e.g. [respect])
look up to
7. 7. doubly transitive phrasal-prepositional verbs (e.g. [something]
put down to
[someone] [attribute to])
Definition: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted.
Motor + hotel Motel
Breakfast + lunch Brunch (1896)
Wireless + Fidelity Wi-fi
Sheep + goat Shoat
Tanganyika + Zanzibar Tanzania (1964)
Spanish + English Spanglish
Oxford + Cambridge Oxbridge
Eletric + execute electrocute
Black + exploitation Blaxploitation (film genre)
Bill + Hillary Billary (referring to the two Clintons)
Tom + Katie Tomkat (referring to Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes)
Many blends have been created in recent years as names for new forms of exercise regimes, many
of them trade names: (the first name of blended with
Jazzercise aquacise, dancercise, sexercise, slimnastics.
(jazz + and Among
sports we have terms like (parachute + and and nonce adjectives
such as or which blend words with the last element of sensational.
The media, advertising and show business have been responsible for an especially large crop:
(an written as though it were an (a
advertisement editorial); documentary
written as with variable felicity concerning actual events), which is also known as a
from though this is a clipped compound, not a blend); an
dramadoc, dramatised documentary,
is a television in the form of an announcement;
commercial information magalogue
is a blend, in reality as well as etymology, of and a is a cross
between a and a a is a From the
magazine catalogue; television evangelist.
entertainment field we have (a blend of and
(camera + (a and, for a while in Britain, (a
recorder), rock documentary)
used to receive satellite television signals).
square aerial, Clintonomics,
Politics and the economy have a fair representation in the list. We have
and which all combine the name of a political figure with the word
In similar vein are a near-disastrous combination of and
and (slump + The US has punning blends like
Science and technology has been responsible for large numbers of new blends. Some well-
transistor Chunnel smog
established ones are (transfer + (Channel + (smoke +
(nucleon + and (transistor + However, there is
fog); electronics), computer).
a set of new scientific words which fall somewhere in the same territory as blends but which also
could also be said to look like extended abbreviations or acronyms. An excellent example is
amphetamine, which comes from its full chemical name of Such
alpha methyl phenyl ethyl amine.
creative mangling of names is now common when making up the vast number of trade and generic
names needed for new drugs: the generic name of the AIDS drug AZT, is formed from
azidodeoxythymidine with the letters inserted for no obvious reason; used to treat
stomach ulcers and better known by its trade name Zantac, is furan + +
+1 anno fa
Questa è la prima lezione del corso di Inglese per il giornalismo e l'editoria tenuto dalla prof.ssa Donati. Viene spiegato cosa si intende per Morfologia, ovvero lo studio della struttura interna della parole. Nello specifico, vengono illustrate due tipologie di morfologia dell'inglese e di formazione di parole: Compounding e derivation.
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di INGLESE PER IL GIORNALISMO E L’EDITORIA e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università La Sapienza - Uniroma1 o del prof Donati Caterina.
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