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Modello dei network e processi di apprendimento interattivo Appunti scolastici Premium

Temi trattati in questa lezione (interamente in inglese) sono:
- Il modello dei network di conoscenza ed innovazione
- Tre tipi e fasi di un network regionale di innovazione
- L'evoluzione dei clusters industriali attraverso le “learning region
- I network di imprese nei sistemi locali di produzione
- L'interdipendenza... Vedi di più

Esame di Economia dell'innovazione docente Prof. R. Cappellin

Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

Facoltà di Economia

Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

Anno accademico 2010/11

Secondo semestre

Corso:

Economia della Innovazione

Docente

Prof. Riccardo Cappellin

LEZIONE 10

Il MODELLO DEI NETWORK E I PROCESSI DI APPRENDIMENTO INTERATTIVO

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

International Knowledge and Innovation Networks: Knowledge Creation

Cappellin, R. and Wink, R. (2009),

and Innovation in Medium Technology Clusters. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

http://books.google.it/books?id=1BpcJGekx18C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=

&f=false

Cap. 4.9, pp. 116-119

9. The model of knowledge and innovation networks

more complex, risky

The relationships between the firms become and require to be redesigned in a long-term

perspective.

interactive learning process tacit knowledge

The role of for knowledge creation and the access to underline the

knowledge and innovation networks

importance of the concept of

networks are an appropriate form of organization

In fact, facilitating the interaction and the flows of

information and knowledge. Knowledge circulates within networks through formal and informal institutions.

Explicit or codified knowledge may be exchanged on technology markets. 1

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

LARGE FIRMS

SMEs RESEARCH

INSTITUTIONS

PUBLIC

KNOWLEDGE

INTENSIVE INSTITUTIONS

SERVICES FINANCIAL

SERVICES

Figure 4: Information and knowledge links in a regional innovation system

The structure of a network can be illustrated by the relationships between various actors, which can be classified

in six groups: large industrial firms, industrial SMEs, business services, financial services, research institutions

and public institutions, as indicated in figure 4. 2

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

In particular, the structure of a network is characterized by:

• nodes, which may be firms and other private and public actors,

• links, which connect directly or indirectly the various nodes,

• flows, which may be material or immaterial, such as product, services, financial, labour, power, information

and knowledge flows,

• distances, which may be geographical but also technological, organizational, cultural, institutional and

determines obstacles or transaction costs in the circulation of the flows,

• infrastructures, which may be material or immaterial, such as norms, institutions and social capital, and

reduce the transaction costs, thus facilitating the circulation of the flows between the nodes.

five characteristics.

Network relations present a precise direction and a hierarchical

First of all, the relationship between two nodes is characterized by

character. specific function.

Secondly, each node has a interconnected between themselves.

Thirdly, the various networks are

different geographical reach.

Fourth, networks have a in a particular time

Fifth, the relations existing within a specific network are normally related to the relations

existing in the previous periods. 3

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

In fact, networks can be analysed in a dynamic perspective and are characterized by their flexibility. Their

evolution (figure 5) is related to:

• nodes capabilities

the change in the and in the of the various nodes,

• intensity of the various flows,

the change in the

• creation and disappearance of some links,

the

• change in the alternative paths

the linking directly or indirectly the same nodes,

• creation of hard or soft infrastructures

the between particular nodes,

• overall structure of the network.

the path of evolution of the

Time 1

Time 0 Figure 5: The evolution of the network form 4

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

different from the neoclassical approach

The network approach is very firms are all different

In the model of the networks the and integrated between them through different types of

relations. underlines the vertical dimension

The network paradigm of the relations of production integration between the

firms. concepts of integration, sequential

The crucial characteristic of a network of firms is indicated by the

interaction, circulation, diffusion, feedback, recursive processes, symbiosis and co-evolution.

Reference:

* Cappellin, R. (2009), La governance dell'

innovazione: libero mercato e concertazione nell'

economia della

conoscenza, Rivista di Politica Economica, 99, 4-6: 221-282.

http://www.rivistapoliticaeconomica.it/2009/apr-giu/Cappellin.pdf 5

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

International Knowledge and Innovation Networks: Knowledge Creation

Cappellin, R. and Wink, R. (2009),

and Innovation in Medium Technology Clusters. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

http://books.google.it/books?id=1BpcJGekx18C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=

&f=false

Cap. 4.12, pp. 127-130

12. Three types and phases of a regional innovation network

Regional production systems are evolving from the model of industrial clusters and industrial districts based on

many rather homogenous firms linked by flows of knowledge spill-over to the model of territorial innovation

networks made by complementary specialized firms, linked by formal forms of cooperation in production,

commercial and technological field, not only locally but increasingly also at the interregional and international

level. Territorial networks may be classified into three types of networks: “ecological networks”, “identity

networks” and “strategic networks”, which have different characteristics, as indicated in table 7.

‘Ecology networks’ may be assimilated to ‘agglomeration economies’, which are also defined as “localization

economies” or “urbanization economies”.

‘Identity networks’ are based on specialised intermediate institutions (“social capital”). They may be defined as

places of collective learning. 6

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

Table 7: Types and phases of a regional innovation network

Ecological networks Identity networks Strategy networks

Type of relationship External economies Exchange Joint investment

Form of interaction Interdependence Cooperation Strategic coordination

Objective homogeneity Subjective factors, Subjective factors,

Self-consciousness intended relationships, intended relationships,

sense of identity joint aims

Informal relationships: Informal relationships: Formal relationships:

Formalism imitation trust relationships contracts

Geographical proximity Common infrastructures, Joint decision making

External support intermediate institutions and policy making

and social capital

Key knowledge Symbolic/synthetic Synthetic/symbolic Analytical/ synthetic

base knowledge knowledge knowledge

Key knowledge Exploitation Examination/ Exploitation Exploration/ Examination

phase

Knowledge interaction Knowledge spill-over Interactive learning TKM and R&D

Differentiation process Homogeneity Autonomous specialization Division of tasks

Innovation Process Organizational Product

New firms Imitative More specialized Innovative

Sectors Low tech Medium tech High tech 7

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

networks’

‘Strategy are based on cooperative agreements between firms and other organisations. They are the

result of negotiations, agreements on specific strategies and the creation of formal and explicit ‘joint ventures’

by the participating actors.

These three types of networks are characterized by different forms of knowledge interactions. In fact, knowledge

spill-overs characterize the ecological networks, interactive learning processes are characterizing the identity

networks and explicit governance of knowledge relations between the various local and non local actors is a

characteristic of strategy networks.

Moreover, it is useful to distinguish three types knowledge (Asheim and Coenen, 2005, Asheim, Boschma and

Cooke, 2007), such as: 1) the science based or “analytical” knowledge, which is important in high tech sectors, 2)

the engineering based or “synthetic” knowledge, which is most important in medium technology sectors, and 3)

the creativity based or “symbolic” knowledge, which is most important in low technology sectors.

The shift to the model of “strategy” networks implies the design and creation of specific infrastructures,

institutions and procedures, which may facilitate the knowledge flows. These policy measures may be

represented by the “territorial knowledge management” and the “competence centres”, in the case of synthetic or

engineering based knowledge, and by international integrated projects and networks of excellence, in the case of

analytic or science based knowledge. 8

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

Table 8: The knowledge flows in different types of networks

Forms of governance Ecological networks Identity networks Strategic networks

---------------------------

Types of knowledge Localized knowledge Interactive learning within Interdisciplinary

Symbolic knowledge spillover, labour mobility, professional communities integration and

competitors imitations collaboration

Localized knowledge Interactive learning Technological

Synthetic knowledge spillover, labour mobility, collaborations within the

between SMEs and with

competitors imitations clients supply chain

Localized knowledge Technology transfers from Joint R&D projects and

spillover, university universities and networks of centres of

Analytic knowledge education service centres to SMEs excellence 9

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

International Knowledge and Innovation Networks: Knowledge Creation

Cappellin, R. and Wink, R. (2009),

and Innovation in Medium Technology Clusters. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

http://books.google.it/books?id=1BpcJGekx18C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=

&f=false

Cap. 4.18, pp. 159-161

18. The evolution of industrial clusters toward the “learning region”

The factors of competitiveness of a cluster have changed.

Defining a region as a ‘learning region’ means that the actors of the system are committed to an interactive

learning process allowing the development of knowledge, know-how and other capabilities required for creating

innovation and maintaining regional competitiveness (Maillat and Kebir, 1999).

The objective of a ‘learning region’ is the integration of tacit or traditional production knowledge, which is

bounded within the local context, with the codified knowledge available at the world level, in order to stimulate

the regional endogenous potential. A ‘learning region’ may represent the final outcome of the evolution of an

‘industrial district’. 10

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

The increasing complexity of technology requires a broadening of the scope of the technologies to be

adopted.

Traditional boundaries between pure and basic research and applied research can no longer hold and medium and

high-technology knowledge should be connected in industrial products. connect

This means the need to

synthetic or traditional engineering and problem-solving knowledge with analytical or science-based

knowledge. a long-term effort for strengthening the multi-

The transfer of scientific knowledge to SMEs requires

dimensioned and multi-institutional regional knowledge infrastructure. improve their

Moreover, the increasing complexity and differentiation of needs by the users require that firms

cognitive proximity with the users.

The more radical an innovation is the more important it is to change the cognitive perspective of the customers

on needs and solutions so that they will be satisfied by the innovation. Consequently, knowledge exploitation

requires a perspective on potential demanders, their hidden, needs and channels to reach them. That requires to

invest in the design, the perceived quality and the brand value of the product or services and to improve the

relationships between the industrial firms and the modern knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) (Muller

symbolic or creativity-based knowledge has to be combined with technological

and Zenker, 2001). Thus,

excellence or synthetic knowledge. 11

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

Table 11: From an industrial to a knowledge economy

in medium technology clusters

Knowledge economy:

competitiveness through innovation,

high creativity

Systemic innovation and

Interactive learning and territorial knowledge

incremental innovation Governance:

Governance: management strategic

identity Process innovation, networks

Networks Vertical integration, large

technology suppliers, firms and technology

competitors imitation transfers to subcontractors

and lock-in effect

Industrial economy:

cost competition,

low creativity

The linkages between SMEs in the process of interactive learning within a cluster are often informal, rather

chaotic and time-consuming. That highlights the need for an explicit effort to be devoted to the organization of

knowledge networks and knowledge interactions between the firms and the shift from a model of automatic free

market interdependence, as in “identity” networks, to a strategic model, as in the “strategic” networks. Table 11

illustrates this shift. 12

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

The risks of lock-in in traditional productions and technologies. In the perspective of a knowledge economy,

identity networks imply, as indicated above, interactive learning and incremental innovation. However, regional

production systems may evolve toward the form of ‘strategy networks’, which are based on intended

relationships and formalized cooperative agreements between firms and other organisations.

forms of central coordination,

Strategy networks imply the creation of procedures for the exchange of

the codification of individual tacit knowledge and the investment in the creation of collective

information,

codified knowledge. The model of

Instead of traditional ways of control within a strategic process, strategic governance is needed.

“territorial knowledge management” aims to formulate a theoretical framework for such a governance to

the adoption of systemic innovations, which are based on the coordination of the investments

enhance

made by various SMEs and are focused on strategic joint projects. 13

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

Cappellin, R. (2003), Networks and Technological Change in Regional Clusters in Bröcker, J., Dohse, D. and

Innovation Clusters and Interregional Competition,

Soltwedel, R. eds., Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.

The neoclassical model of the production function

In a neoclassical model, the growth of the production in a regional or national economy is determined through the

tool of the aggregate production function, which indicates the effect on the production level of the use of various

production factors, such as capital (K) and labor (L), given the characteristics of the technology (T), as this latter

is supposed constant among all firms, as indicated in figure 1.

L

T K Σ Σ Σ

Y = f (T, K , L ) aggregate production function

Y = f (T, K, L) i i i i i i

Figure 1:

Y The model of the neoclassical production function 14

Riccardo Cappellin, Corso di Economia dell’Innovazione, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"

The networks of firms in the local production systems

According to the approach of “territorial networks” the various forms of integration or the various

networks, which may be identified in a local economy, may be described as in table 1 (Cappellin and

Orsenigo 2000).

Table 1: Different networks in a local production system

Technological integration,

pointed out by the development of the local production know how, the sharing of knowledge and values

promoted by learning processes on the job, the continuous education of the workers, the vocational education of

young workers, the joint investments in R&D by local firms and the technological cooperation with external

firms.

Integration of the local labor market,

between the workers and the firms and the mobility of the workers between the

related with the cooperation

firms of the same sector and also the capability to attract qualified workers from other regions and from other

sectors.

Production integration between the firms,

through subcontracting relationships between the firms which play a crucial role in promoting the gradual

diversification of the local productions.

Integration between the service sectors and the manufacturing firms,

related to the development of modern commercial distribution services, transport and logistic services and also

qualified services in the certification of the quality of the productions and in the diffusion of modern

technologies. 15


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DESCRIZIONE DISPENSA

Temi trattati in questa lezione (interamente in inglese) sono:
- Il modello dei network di conoscenza ed innovazione
- Tre tipi e fasi di un network regionale di innovazione
- L'evoluzione dei clusters industriali attraverso le “learning region
- I network di imprese nei sistemi locali di produzione
- L'interdipendenza tra diversi tipi di network
- Il modello dei network e la spiegazione della crescita aggregata


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in economia e management
SSD:
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Economia dell'innovazione e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Tor Vergata - Uniroma2 o del prof Cappellin Riccardo.

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