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Keeping the promise - Rapporto del Segretario Generale Onu 2010

Materiale didattico per il corso di "Diritto internazionale dello sviluppo" della Prof.ssa Cristiana Carletti utile alla presentazione degli elaborati finali. Trattasi del rapporto del Segretario Generale dell'Onu del 2010 sul raggiungimento dei "millennium development goals" in cui sono messi in evidenza i risultati raggiunti ma anche le difficoltà... Vedi di più

Esame di Diritto internazionale dello sviluppo docente Prof. C. Carletti

Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

A/64/665 and those from the poorest 20 per cent is more than 40 percentage points. Children

with disabilities remain among the most marginalized and least likely to go to

11

school;

(b) Very young children are especially vulnerable. Children who are stunted

at age 2 tend to suffer severe life-long consequences in terms of poorer health and

reduced cognitive development and economic opportunities;

(c) Indigenous people are overrepresented among the poor, with their level

of access to adequate health and education services well below national averages.

They are especially vulnerable to environmental degradation. Indigenous peoples

make up 15 per cent of the world’s poor and a third of the world’s 900 million

25

extremely poor rural people;

(d) Around 1.8 million children under the age of 15 in sub-Saharan Africa

live with HIV, while some 12 million children under the age of 18 have lost one or

both parents to AIDS. In 56 countries for which recent household survey data are

available, orphans who had lost both parents were 12 per cent less likely to be in

school, and often become a head of household, assuming enormous responsibilities

at an early age. The impact of being orphans may be especially severe for girls, who

26 Children without the

are generally more likely than boys not to be in school.

guidance and protection of their primary caregivers are more at risk of becoming

victims of violence, exploitation, trafficking, discrimination and other abuses

resulting in malnutrition, illness, physical and psychosocial trauma, and impaired

cognitive and emotional development. Unaccompanied girls are at especially high

risk of sexual abuse;

(e) At the end of 2008, there were some 42 million forcibly displaced people

worldwide. This included 15.2 million refugees, 827,000 asylum-seekers (pending

cases) and 26 million internally displaced persons. Women and girls represent

47 per cent of refugees and asylum-seekers and half of all internally displaced

persons and returnees. Among refugees and asylum-seekers, 44 per cent are children

below 18 years of age. More than 5.7 million refugees are trapped in protracted

situations for which there is limited hope of finding a solution in the near future,

27 In sub-Saharan Africa, 7 out of

including some 70 per cent of refugees in Africa.

10 refugees reside in often isolated and insecure refugee camps, with restrictions on

28 They

movements affecting employment, education and health and other services.

become dependent on subsistence-level assistance, or less, and lead lives of poverty,

frustration and unrealized potential.

__________________

International Fund for Agricultural Development, “Statistics and key facts about indigenous

25 peoples”, available at www.ruralpovertyportal.org.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, “Report on the global AIDS epidemic” (2008).

26 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2008 Global Trends: Refugees,

27 Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons (2009).

Ibid., The State of The World’s Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium

28 (2006). 10-23802

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III. Lessons learned for accelerating progress in achieving the

Millennium Development Goals

A. Lessons learned 29

National ownership

48. National ownership of development strategies is fundamental, as one-size-fits-

all policies and programmes are bound to fail owing to wide variations among

countries in terms of their capacity (resources, institutions, administration) and

historical and geographical circumstances. Ownership is also vital to ensure national

commitment to development goals. Successful countries have pursued pragmatic,

heterodox mixtures of policies, with enhanced domestic capacities. Countries should

therefore be encouraged to design and implement their own development strategies

and to strengthen their domestic capacities. Global partnerships should support such

national development strategies and domestic capacity-building efforts.

Sustained and equitable growth

49. Sustained and equitable growth based on dynamic structural economic change

is necessary for making substantial progress in reducing poverty. It also enables

faster progress towards the other Millennium Development Goals. While economic

growth is necessary, it is not sufficient for progress on reducing poverty. The

countries that were most successful in reducing extreme poverty managed to sustain

high economic growth over prolonged periods, and most managed to do so by

jumpstarting the growth process by increasing agricultural productivity followed by

dynamic growth of modern industry and services sectors. Effective industrial

policies typically underpinned the economic transformation, and high growth

facilitated job creation and income growth for workers. Income growth underpinned

greater resource availability, facilitating — when combined with adequate social

policies — better coverage and quality of social services in support of the

achievement of the other Millennium Development Goals.

Macroeconomic policies

50. Forward-looking macroeconomic policies are needed to safeguard the

sustainability of public investment strategies in support of broad-based growth and

the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Macroeconomic policies

should not focus narrowly on debt stabilization and curbing inflation, but should

ultimately be supportive of growth of real output and employment. It is often

necessary, therefore, to relax unnecessarily stringent fiscal and monetary restrictions

and to use countercyclical fiscal and monetary policies to boost employment and

incomes and to minimize the impact of external and other shocks on poverty. This

requires countries to strengthen mobilization of domestic resources and adopt

mechanisms that promote countercyclical policy responses. Enhanced international

cooperation to strengthen tax revenue collection and increase sovereign debt

sustainability can greatly buttress the fiscal capacities of all Governments.

__________________

For evidence and an analytical discussion, see Rethinking Poverty: Report on the World Social

29 Situation 2010 and the work of the United Nations Development Group Millennium

Development Goal Gap Task Force (see www.undg.org). See also World Bank, Economic

Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform (2005).

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A/64/665 Social services

51. Ensuring universal access to social services and providing a social protection

floor with wide coverage are essential to consolidate and achieve further gains in

achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The social consequences of

economic crises have been most severe in countries where social protection systems

were weakest and least adequate, made worse by their weak institutional and fiscal

capacity. More importantly, when growth collapses owing to external shocks,

natural disasters or health epidemics, societal cohesion may rupture, leading to civil

violence. Not surprisingly, civil violence is more prevalent and also more likely to

recur in poorer societies, especially where Governments are unwilling or unable to

afford social protection or promote social integration. Countries should therefore

have universal social protection floors in place to support the maintenance and

regeneration of livelihoods, particularly of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups.

The “social protection floor” concept promotes a set of social transfers and rights

allowing individuals to access essential goods and services. Social protection

schemes are not merely desirable, but are a sine qua non for inclusive development

by addressing inequality and social exclusion. Social development should be

considered broadly to include: support for smallholder agriculture, nutrition

programmes, school meals, access to primary health and education, access to safe

water and sanitation, and support for indigent, disabled and otherwise impoverished

households. Food-for-work programmes can often provide a vital buffer. The

provision of basic social protection schemes (like social pensions and other cash

transfer programmes) for all are fiscally affordable for most developing

30 but not for the poorest, unless they receive ample international

economies,

assistance to finance such programmes.

Inequality

52. Inequality and social exclusion, which limit the contribution of growth to the

Millennium Development Goals, must be addressed. Inequalities of access, social

protection and opportunities need to be greatly reduced. While most interventions

related to the Goals primarily seek to redress inequalities in access to services

(e.g., employment, health, education, water and sanitation), other interventions put

greater emphasis on inequalities in social protection and economic opportunities.

The community

53. Holistic, community-led strategies are more effective than stand-alone

programmes. The Millennium Villages project, supported by the United Nations

Development Programme (UNDP) with many partner institutions in civil society,

academia and business, has shown that synergistic investments in agriculture,

health, education, infrastructure, business development and environmental

conservation can lead to rapid and considerable progress in food security, school

attendance and performance, reduced hunger and improved livelihoods in a short

period of time. Governments and development partners should put more emphasis

on such holistic approaches in both rural and urban contexts, and should scale up

successful efforts currently under way.

__________________

International Labour Organization, “Can low-income countries afford basic social security?”

30 Social security policy briefings, No. 3 (Geneva, 2008). 10-23802

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Interventions

54. Targeted intervention programmes, based on complementary public and private

investments, have proven successful and have been crucial for progress towards

achieving most Millennium Development Goals. Investments in smallholder

agriculture are vital for fighting hunger; investments in schools and teachers are

vital for universal primary education; investments in public health are vital for

Goals 4, 5 and 6. Investments in water and sanitation are vital for Goal 7. When

public investments are targeted and of sufficient scale, progress in achieving the

Goals is more likely to be rapid. When public investments are not forthcoming, as in

efforts to ensure maternal deliveries, then progress has been modest at best.

55. Accelerating interventions is feasible and is of paramount importance in order

to speed up progress where current trends make achievement of the Millennium

Development Goals unlikely. Targeted interventions can quickly improve people’s

lives by providing access to essential goods and services. Examples include

providing subsidized agricultural inputs, scaling-up school meal programmes,

eliminating user fees for education and health care, and providing conditional cash

transfers to poor households. While such measures should not substitute for well-

planned and managed national development strategies backed by responsive

partnerships for development, they should not wait for longer-term structural

transformations as delays have irreversible adverse consequences for the poorest

and most vulnerable.

Financial support

56. Adequate, consistent and predictable financial support, as well as a coherent

and predictable policy environment, at both the national and international levels, are

crucial for achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Lack of adequate

and predictable international financing has been an important constraint. There is an

urgent need to broaden and strengthen partnerships to ensure supportive

international frameworks for trade, taxation, technology and climate change

mitigation and adaptation to sustain long-term human development; and for

sufficient, predictable and well-coordinated financing for development, including

national budgets, ODA, philanthropy, debt relief and new financing sources,

instruments, arrangements and institutions.

Governance

57. Governance and institutional implementation capacities at the country level,

which are both development outcomes and desirable ends in themselves, can

contribute to accelerating progress towards achieving the Millennium Development

Goals. Countries can accelerate progress by adhering to the fundamental norms and

values of the Millennium Declaration, including human rights, gender equality and

democratic governance. In order to achieve the Goals, integrity, accountability and

transparency are crucial for managing resources, recovering assets and combating the

abuse, corruption and organized crime that are adversely affecting the poor.

Democratic governance, as a process of empowering people and communities, is

essential for human development. “Good governance” goals should however be

pursued in conjunction with development, especially in the face of limited fiscal

resources and administrative capacities. Pragmatic developmental governance reforms

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A/64/665 to address bottlenecks in the process of accelerating development and progress

towards the Millennium Development Goals should be emphasized in the short term.

Monitoring

58. Better monitoring and data are vital for better design of and timely

intervention in programmes and policies. It is also crucial for ensuring

31 Although slowly

accountability by development partners and stakeholders.

improving, the availability of reliable statistics for monitoring development remains

inadequate in many poor countries and the challenge of building effective in-country

capacity to produce better policy-relevant data remains huge. Although statistics are

increasingly recognized as an indispensable tool for development, resources devoted

to statistics are still very limited. With support from development partners, countries

also need to increase public expenditure for national statistical systems to

effectively monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and other

development indicators in order to better inform policy interventions.

Key success factors

32

Key success factors are listed below:

1. Effective Government leadership and national ownership of development

strategies.

2. Effective policies to support implementation, defined in this context as

laws, regulations, standards, administrative procedures and guidelines

(general or specific to the Millennium Development Goals) that affect

private behaviour and the conduct of service providers and others with

whom they must interact.

3. Improved quantity, quality and focus of investments, financed both by

domestic sources and international development assistance, based on a

holistic approach, including smallholder agriculture, health, education,

infrastructure, business development and environmental conservation.

4. Appropriate institutional capacity to deliver quality services equitably on

a national scale, such as adequate facilities, competent staff, appropriate

supplies and equipment and effective monitoring and evaluation.

5. Civil society and community involvement and empowerment, which

enhances the likelihood of success by giving individuals and

communities the ability to take charge of their own lives.

6. Effective global partnerships, involving all relevant stakeholders,

including donor Governments, local communities, non-governmental

organizations, the private sector and foundations, with mutual

accountability of all stakeholders.

__________________

Millennium Development Goal tracking and monitoring at the global, regional and country

31 levels, briefing note prepared by the Bureau for Development Policy, United Nations

Development Programme, 27 August 2009.

For further details, see “Accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals”

32 (United Nations Development Programme, forthcoming) and the work of the United Nations

Development Group Millennium Development Goal Task Force. 10-23802

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7. Good governance by donors and recipients, which, inter alia, involves

timely and predictable delivery of aid by donors on the one hand, and

enhanced State and societal capacity of recipient countries to manage

scaled-up resource flows transparently and with accountability on the

other.

59. One significant achievement of the past decade is that national Governments

and their partners, even in countries lagging far behind on many Millennium

Development Goals, have a good sense of the programmes and interventions

required to meet the Goals. The three critical challenges, in most cases, have been to

have in place a feasible national scale-up plan, to obtain adequate financing based

on both domestic and foreign sources, including development assistance, and to

develop well-functioning delivery mechanisms for public investment and service

delivery. The success stories highlight, for each Millennium Development Goal,

how these critical success factors came together to produce remarkable results.

While country characteristics (geographic, demographic, economic, cultural)

inevitably vary and the specific interventions that have been successfully

implemented differ with country specificities, the examples demonstrate these

common success factors.

60. The success stories underscore the imperative of a holistic approach and

confirm that positive results across the Millennium Development Goals and the

broader enabling environment enhance the likelihood of sustained progress towards

each of the Goals. They help define our collective accountability, but must be seen

holistically. The synergies among the Goals are clear and indisputable, as

demonstrated in the Millennium Villages. Taking advantage of these will reduce

costs, increase effectiveness and catalyse local action. The education target, for

example, requires progress on health. The health targets require progress on hunger

and nutrition. The hunger target requires progress in agriculture and nutrition, and

so on. There are many positive examples of integrated approaches to the Goals

yielding tremendous success. We must learn from these examples and scale up

successful interventions. The goals, targets and indicators of the Millennium

Development Goals were conceived to reflect an integrated approach to

development as worded in the Millennium Declaration and the 2005 World Summit

Outcome document.

B. Accelerating progress

61. The critical question today is how to dramatically increase the pace of change

on the ground in the remaining five years, so that the promises of 2000 translate into

real progress for the world’s poorest people, particularly at this time of global

economic downturn. In the light of the 2015 deadline, accelerating progress is

essential; with barely half a decade left, much more accelerated progress is required,

especially for the poorest countries.

62. Significant gaps still remain and many targets are not on track to being

achieved in a good number of countries. Moreover, challenges persist in areas such

as environmental sustainability, even in countries that have made impressive gains

in reducing poverty over the past decade, including large parts of Asia. Rollbacks on

progress as a result of the food, fuel and financial crises, and emerging issues such

as climate change, have compounded the challenge. Delayed job recovery from the

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A/64/665 global economic downturn remains a major challenge for poverty reduction in the

years to come, and climate change is likely to have devastating impacts on

vulnerable countries and communities.

63. Although the primary focus of the Millennium Development Goals is

developing countries, where deprivation is most stark, deficits in human

development are to be found in developed countries as well, especially among

specific marginalized communities. Vulnerability, discrimination, social exclusion

and gender disparities still persist in advanced countries and must not be

overlooked.

64. As the country success stories demonstrate, targeted, near-term, “acceleration”

interventions — such as subsidizing crucial agricultural inputs, immunization,

eliminating user fees for education and health services and addressing human

resource constraints in health — are still of paramount importance to speed up

progress where current trends make achievement of the Millennium Development

Goals unlikely. New technology-based solutions that did not exist when the Goals

were endorsed, can and should be leveraged to allow for rapid scaling up. The most

important of these technologies involve use of mobile telephones, broadband

Internet, and other information and communications technologies.

65. At the same time, interventions need to be framed in the context of national

development strategies that define actions to ensure sustainability of the results in

the long term. Especially, even if not exclusively, in times of global economic, food

and climate volatility, when Millennium Development Goals reversals are a real

possibility, creating the enabling environment essential to sustaining progress

towards the Goals can be just as important as accelerating achievements. While a

short-term perspective, focused on securing immediate gains, can be effective in

saving lives and alleviating suffering, it should not be understood as exclusive of, or

even incompatible with, longer-term structural changes necessary to sustain

progress over time.

66. The very fact that the challenges of poverty, food, energy, global recession and

climate change are all interrelated has presented the global community with a

unique opportunity to tackle them together. The critical requirement for a “global

green new deal” is a commitment by all to frontload large public investments in

renewable energy in order to achieve economies of scale and learning, generate

employment in both rich and poor countries, and lay the foundation for a new phase

of global economic and technological advancement. Besides benefiting the poor,

such investment would also lay the basis for sustainable development, stimulate

complementary investments in infrastructure and agriculture, and help raise

agricultural productivity, thus enhancing food security and creating decent jobs for

33

the rural poor.

67. The main elements of this framework include ensuring that responses to the

economic downturn provide support for what has worked in the past, especially

protecting the growth momentum in developing countries, sustaining support for

integrated poverty eradication programmes, enhancing the reach of targeted

interventions, laying the infrastructural foundations for a new era of sustainable

__________________

The World Economic and Social Survey 2009 contains a detailed proposal for synergistic

33 achievement of developmental and climate goals. See also, World Bank, World Development

Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. 10-23802

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economic development, and protecting poor countries and communities from the

adverse impacts of global crises.

68. Both acceleration and sustainability of progress must therefore be pursued

concomitantly. Accelerated and sustainable progress towards achievement of the

Millennium Development Goals will be contingent on our combined efforts to do

three things much more effectively than we have been able to do in the past:

(a) To scale up implementation of proven and innovative interventions in

such key domains as gender, sustainable agriculture (including inputs for

smallholders and sustainable environmental management), energy, education and

health. This effort needs to be backed by targeted investment, informed community

participation, and adequate institutional capacities to effectively mobilize and

manage financial resources and deliver public services;

(b) To build the structural and economic foundations to support and sustain

progress and mitigate risks of reversal in achieving the Millennium Development

Goals through effective social and economic policies and institutions grounded in

universal rights and supportive of structural changes and social cohesion, improved

conditions for peace, security and good governance, public and private investments

that lead to faster pro-poor growth, and effective measures to ensure environmental

sustainability;

(c) To broaden and strengthen partnerships to ensure greater global and

regional integration, a supportive international framework for trade, technology

transfer and climate change mitigation and adaptation in order to sustain long-term

human development; and to ensure sufficient, predictable, and well-coordinated

financing for development, including national budgets, ODA, philanthropy, debt

relief and new financing instruments. This third element builds on the recognition

that both within and across countries, no single stakeholder can achieve the first two

strategic priorities on their own.

69. Specific Millennium Development Goals will require specific acceleration

efforts, as outlined below:

Poverty and hunger (Millennium Development Goal 1)

70. To achieve Millennium Development Goal 1:

(a) Poor countries with large agricultural sectors should focus on bolstering

agricultural productivity and output quality. A sharp increase in agricultural

productivity can accomplish several things simultaneously: (i) reduced hunger;

(ii) reduced child mortality through improved nutrition; (iii) reduced maternal

mortality through improved nutrition; and (iv) higher household incomes and

economic growth;

(b) To boost productivity, smallholder farmers must gain immediate access

to inputs — such as fertilizer, high-yield seeds, equipment, small-scale irrigation,

technical extension and post-harvest storage — in order to modernize and

commercialize traditional farming. At the same time, sustainable agricultural

practices need to be introduced. Intensive farming, if not properly regulated, can

lead to the depletion of water sources, pollution by chemical fertilizers and

pesticides, and a loss of biodiversity;

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A/64/665 34

(c) Producing more food directly affects only one aspect of food security

(i.e., availability) and must be complemented by other interventions to address

inequities of access to food and to bolster nutrition. Food security programmes

should therefore also address issues of access to adequate nutritious food (taking

into account local food consumption preferences and different nutritional

requirements) and implement integrated nutrition programmes for the poor and

vulnerable. In the short term, hunger hotspots within countries should be a top

priority. Prevention-based interventions such as the distribution of vital

micronutrient fortification and supplementation, as well as targeted support of

children through the provision of school-based meals, must also be complemented

by treatment-based interventions such as the treatment of severe and moderate

levels of acute malnutrition and mass de-worming for children;

(d) Access to decent and productive employment and promotion of

entrepreneurship is fundamental to pro-poor growth and efforts to address poverty

and hunger. Successful programmes, especially employment-intensive initiatives,

small and medium-sized enterprise promotion, employment guarantee schemes and

conditional cash transfers, as well as vocational and technical training and

entrepreneurial skills development, especially for unemployed youth, can yield

positive results in reducing poverty and should be more widely applied to cover

larger parts of the population, especially women and in rural areas;

(e) Close attention should be paid to the recommendations contained in the

Global Jobs Pact, adopted by the Governments and employers’ and workers’

delegates of the International Labour Organization (ILO) 183 member States. The

Pact proposes a range of tested crisis-response and recovery measures that focus on

employment and social protection. It is not a one-size-fits-all solution, but a

portfolio of tried and tested policy options that countries can adapt to their specific

needs and situation.

Education (Millennium Development Goal 2)

71. To achieve Millennium Development Goal 2:

(a) National education systems need to be strengthened by addressing

infrastructure, human resource and governance constraints, backed by international

donor support;

(b) When scaling up education budgets, inequalities across income, gender

and geographical, linguistic and ethnic lines should be addressed when allocating

resources. Interventions should address problems of access to schooling from the

supply and demand side. On the supply side, adequate services need to be provided

and made accessible based on a robust needs analysis. On the demand side, targeted

measures need to be put in place to attract children from poor households, rural

areas or minority ethnic groups to school. Successful examples of making primary

education more available, accessible and affordable include abolishing school fees,

subsidies for other costs (e.g., textbooks, uniforms and transportation) and

innovative approaches to school (e.g., community schools, mobile schooling,

distance learning and multi-grade teaching). Programmes strengthening linkages

between education, health and nutrition, such as school meal programmes and social

__________________

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious

34 food for an active and healthy life. 10-23802

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protection measures (e.g., cash transfers and social insurance), have also proven

successful;

(c) Progression through the school system — retention, completion and

learning achievement — is another challenge that needs to be urgently addressed.

Appropriate learning environments and quality of education can be ensured through

the development of child-friendly schools, effective and comprehensive teacher

strategies (e.g., recruitment and retention policies, underpinned by initial and

in-service teacher education and development; teacher status and working

conditions), enhanced pedagogical support and learner-relevant curricula,

educational materials and languages of instruction.

Gender equality (Millennium Development Goal 3)

72. To achieve Millennium Development Goal 3:

(a) Key barriers to girls’ education need to be removed, including by

providing scholarships, cash transfers and eliminating user fees; support for girls,

especially at the secondary level where too many girls are forced to leave school

because of school expenses, should be expanded; completion and attendance rates

need to be tracked; the quality of education must be improved; and investment in

girls’ enrolment in secondary school must be scaled up;

(b) The generation of full and productive employment and the creation of

decent work and income for those beyond school age must be made the primary goal

of macroeconomic, social and development policies, including by promoting equal

skills development and employment opportunities, reducing wage gaps between

women and men;

(c) Social protection measures and labour laws and policies that are gender-

responsive should be introduced; and legal protections for the most vulnerable

women workers introduced and enforced. Particular attention should be paid to

gender gaps in school-to-work transition for young people, making education and

training relevant to labour market demand, based on a life-cycle and rights-based

approach;

(d) Positive action to improve the numbers and influence of women in all

political decision-making should be introduced, including by investing in women’s

leadership in local decision-making structures and by creating an even playing field

for men and women within political parties. With few exceptions, the 26 countries

that have achieved or surpassed the goal of women securing 30 per cent of seats in

national assemblies over the past five years have introduced some form of positive

action;

(e) National-level capacity to track and report on progress, gaps and

opportunities should be improved through better generation and use of sex-

disaggregated data and statistics, including on time use;

(f) Women’s work burden must be reduced through investment in

infrastructure, labour saving technologies and gender-responsive economic stimulus

packages;

(g) Accountability for enhancing women’s rights and ending gender

discrimination should be strengthened — in line with commitments made in the

Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, the Beijing

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A/64/665 Platform for Action and relevant ILO conventions — including through eliminating

inequalities in access to land and property and by investing in implementation of

laws, policies and programmes to prevent and address violence against women;

(h) Investments for gender equality must be scaled up, including by

institutionalizing “gender-responsive budgeting”, as part of public financial

management reforms to ensure that financial commitments advance gender equality.

Health (Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6)

73. To achieve Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6:

(a) Strengthening national health systems with the active participation of

civil society organizations can significantly improve both maternal and child health.

Strengthening health systems involves addressing human resource constraints,

building new infrastructure, upgrading and improving supply systems, and

improving governance and stewardship through a larger role in informal, formal and

decentralized systems of health protection. Additional international development

assistance is vital for scaling up health systems in low-income countries;

(b) Targeted interventions in key areas — such as immunization

programmes, increasing the number of trained midwives and the use of insecticide-

treated bednets — are known to have strong positive impacts but are more

sustainable when embedded in a strategy aimed at providing comprehensive

universal primary health care;

(c) Interventions that have the greatest impact on health-related Millennium

Development Goal targets, such as universal access to sexual and reproductive

health, immunization and key child-survival interventions, HIV prevention,

mitigation and treatment, prevention and treatment of neglected tropical diseases,

prevention and treatment services for malaria and tuberculosis and low-cost access

to safe water and sanitation should be urgently scaled up and made universal to

accelerate progress on the health Millennium Development Goals;

(d) There is a need for a scale up of global financing, but it needs to be done

in predictable ways. Targeted disease-control programmes have been highly

successful;

(e) Specific regions and vulnerable and marginalized groups should be

prioritized (with special attention to the poor, rural populations, women and youth)

with a view to extending health protection to those in need and the excluded;

(f) The capacity of all stakeholders to address issues of gender equality and

delivery of health services should be strengthened and partnerships with civil

society organizations, including women’s groups, non-governmental organizations

and the private sector, should be promoted.

Promoting sustainable development (Millennium Development Goal 7)

74. One of the difficulties in making progress towards the overall objective of

Millennium Development Goal 7 is the lack of a framework or means of integrating

different components of environmental sustainability. While Goal 7 contains

elements that contribute to environmental sustainability, when added together, they

do not provide a full picture. This weakness can be exacerbated at the national level

if countries mechanically adopt the global set of targets and indicators without 10-23802

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explicitly linking or tailoring them to national priorities. What is needed is for

countries to adopt the principle of environmental sustainability and then adapt that

principle to national priorities and policies, the local context and subnational or

ecosystem specificities.

Ecological sustainability and addressing climate change

75. Efforts to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals

must take account of the rapidly changing development landscape transformed by

ecosystem decline, including the challenges posed by climate change. Pro-poor

development centred on natural resources can be pursued at a local or community

level or on a national scale. Both approaches are necessary for maximum poverty

reduction. Comprehensive and coherent development planning frameworks,

including national sustainable development strategies, are a useful means of

integrating all of the aspects related to environmental sustainability that are relevant

to any given country in a balanced manner. This is one of the conclusions drawn

from the indicators that are making good progress. Furthermore, successful

strategies tend to build on the active involvement of the local and municipal

authorities and population and of all relevant stakeholders in the planning,

programming and budgeting cycle, as well as the adoption of strong national

legislation with mandatory targets and commitments towards the attainment of the

objectives. It is important that public-private partnerships ensure genuine

contributions by the private sector that would not have occurred without such

partnerships.

76. Greater efforts are needed in both developed and developing countries to

promote alternative renewable energy sources and low-emission technologies.

Policy reforms to substantially reduce perverse subsidies for carbon-intensive

development, and to create positive incentives, appropriate taxes and other

initiatives (such as a global feed-in tariff arrangement to encourage renewal energy

generation and use) that will encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources

and low-emission technologies, are urgently needed. The internationally subsidized

generation of renewable energy as the basis for development in developing countries

will address the perceived trade-off between addressing climate change at the

expense of development and will in addition provide major new opportunities for

private investment to emerge from the economic crisis and generate considerable

employment.

77. Greatly expanded investment in sustainable ecosystem management is needed

to reduce the vulnerability of the poor and to maximize the contribution of natural

resources to rural development. Poor people need secure resource rights and other

enabling conditions for poverty reduction. Biodiversity protection measures must

respect indigenous peoples’ traditional rights to marine- and forest-based

livelihoods.

78. National action plans and investment in energy efficiency and renewable

energy will be key to shifting to low carbon growth, creating “green” employment

and reducing poverty.

Safe drinking water and sanitation

79. Considering the lack of progress on sanitation, delivering on sanitation targets

will require considerable political will together with significant financial, technical

10-23802 23

A/64/665 and human resources. Past experience suggests that the main problems have been

over-reliance on supply-driven approaches, neglect of user needs and emphasis on

large-scale projects, often due to public sector neglect or relinquishment of

responsibility, often due to fiscal constraints. A demand-responsive approach is

almost always constrained by poor people not having enough purchasing power to

pay for improved sanitation. Retaining public provisioning of such services often

conserves scarce governance and regulatory capabilities in developing countries,

while achieving more universal access.

80. Integrated national water strategies addressing the four main uses of fresh

water — agriculture, households, industry and ecosystem services — must robustly

respond to the growing water shortages, which are exacerbated by climate change.

Reducing slum populations

81. Cities in developing countries around the world are home to rising numbers of

poor people and do not have the capacity to create jobs to sustainably absorb the

population influx and achieve the necessary progress needed to meet the Millennium

Development Goals. In the face of rapid urbanization, these challenges will only

become more acute unless adequate corrective actions are taken. These measures

should include sound urban planning, which is essential for the sustainable growth

of urban centres. They should stipulate the roles of the key stakeholders — local

authorities, organizations of the urban poor, private sector (formal and informal),

central Government, district, state and provincial authorities and line ministries.

Ultimately, more balanced growth, including rural development, is the only long-

term solution insofar as it addresses the pull and push factors involved in rural-

urban migration.

Expanding and strengthening international partnerships (Millennium

Development Goal 8)

82. In the countdown to 2015, amidst a global economic crisis, the need to

accelerate delivery on Millennium Development Goal 8 commitments has now

reached emergency proportions, rather than simply being a matter of urgency.

Official development assistance

83. Although ODA reached its highest level ever in 2008, there remain large gaps

in meeting existing and long-standing commitments. The Gleneagles Group of Eight

(G-8) ODA target for 2010 is approximately $154 billion in present values, and

additional flows of $35 billion by 2010 will need to be delivered this year to achieve

this target. Africa would need an extra $20 billion of the increase in ODA in 2010 in

order to reach the Gleneagles target level of $63 billion for the region by 2010. In

2007, ODA to the least developed countries was equivalent to 0.09 per cent of the

gross national income of the countries of the Organization for Economic

Cooperation and Development (OECD), with less than half the OECD Development

Assistance Committee (DAC) countries meeting the 0.15 to 0.20 per cent target for

aid to the least developed countries.

84. The distribution of development assistance remains highly skewed. Although

the share of ODA flows allocated to the poorer countries increased somewhat

between 2000 and 2007, with sub-Saharan Africa continuing to be the largest

recipient of ODA, having more than doubled receipts in current dollar terms, most 10-23802

24 A/64/665

of the increase in ODA since 2000 has been limited to a few post-conflict countries,

including Iraq and Afghanistan. Together, these two countries received about a sixth

of country allocations from DAC countries, even though they account for less than

2 per cent of the total population of the developing countries. African aid lags far

behind commitments and far behind needs. Detailed analyses by the International

Monetary Fund and UNDP have shown that highly worthy Millennium Development

Goal-based programmes are unfunded because of non-delivery of promised donor

35

funding.

85. There is an urgent need to improve the quality, predictability and durability of

aid, in addition to the quantity. Developing countries and their partners will have to

reduce the fragmentation of assistance and ensure that ODA supports national

development strategies. Pooling of donor resources into multi-donor funds has

proved time and again to be a fruitful approach, with great successes, for example,

in the control of several infectious diseases. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid

Effectiveness and the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action set out a number of principles

and practices to enhance aid effectiveness which need to be implemented urgently.

The $20 billion over three years pledged for food security by the G-8 at L’Aquila,

Italy, and the Group of Twenty (G-20) at Pittsburgh, United States of America,

should be provided urgently to initiate implementation of the comprehensive plan of

action for smallholder farmers, notably through the launch of a new multi-donor

trust fund.

Trade and development

86. The failure to reach agreement in the Doha Round of multilateral trade

negotiations represents a major gap in strengthening the global partnership for

achieving the Millennium Development Goals by depriving developing countries of

the benefits of more timely completion of a truly developmental round of

negotiations. As currently envisaged, the Doha Round falls short of the original

developmental promise that was intended. This would include effective market

access for agricultural, manufactured and service exports, particularly in sectors and

modes of supply of interest to the developing countries, including modes 1 (cross-

border supply) and 4 (movement of natural persons), and removal of trade distorting

agricultural subsidies. In the negotiations there has been some progress in reaching

agreement on a range of hitherto intractable issues, but progress on other key issues,

including implementation issues and concerns of developing countries, as well as

special and differential treatment, is falling short of what had been envisioned. In

addition, the process of accession to the World Trade Organization by developing

countries and countries with economies in transition should be facilitated, consistent

with World Trade Organization agreements and their development status.

87. There are large regional and sectoral variations in market-access conditions

between developing countries and least developed countries, as well as among least

developed countries. Generally, developing countries that do not fall into the

category of least developed countries continue to face higher average tariffs than

least developed countries for their exports, including agriculture, textiles and

clothing. Since 2000, small-island and African least developed countries have

gained substantial preferences in major markets for their exports, while Asian least

__________________

United Nations Development Programme and International Monetary Fund, “Scaling up

35 development assistance to Africa: the Gleneagles scenario approach” (2009).

10-23802 25

A/64/665 developed countries, which tend to be more competitive, continue to face higher

tariffs and receive lower duty-free access, especially on their clothing and textile

exports. However, the preferential access of least developed countries, compared

with all developing countries, continues to be eroded except in agricultural exports.

88. Aid for trade is also critical in helping least developed countries, which

continue to experience difficulties in fully utilizing preferential schemes and in

overcoming supply-side constraints. In 2007, total aid for trade commitments

increased by 8 per cent from 2006 and by over 20 per cent from the 2002-2005

baseline; but more than half the amount was provided to only 11 countries.

89. Donors need to deliver on commitments to substantially increase technical,

financial and political support for aid for trade and the Enhanced Integrated

Framework initiative. Aid for trade is especially vital to finance export-oriented

infrastructure (e.g., roads, ports and power) to support the export competitiveness of

low-income countries. Developed countries also need to honour the 2005 pledge to

eliminate, by 2013, all export subsidies including on agriculture, which remain a

major distortion affecting trade and farm production in developing countries. Even

though overall agricultural support in relation to the GDP of developed countries

declined further in 2007, it remained high in absolute terms and in relation to ODA.

90. Since late 2007, the multilateral trading system has come under heightened

pressure as the food and financial crises have given rise to new waves of

protectionism. It is crucial to maintain an open, equitable, rule-based, predictable

and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system during the crises by ensuring that

protectionist measures are dismantled as soon as possible and that new measures,

including new non-tariff barriers, are resisted.

Debt sustainability

91. Substantial progress has been made with regard to debt relief, but full delivery

on the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative requires continued efforts

from the international community. By September 2009, 35 out of 40 eligible

countries had qualified for debt relief under the initiative, 26 of which had qualified

for irrevocable debt relief under the HIPC Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief

(MDR) initiative. The 35 qualifying countries have received, or are expected to

receive, debt relief totalling $57 billion under the HIPC initiative and $23 billion in

additional debt relief under the MDR initiative.

92. Prior to the global financial turmoil, high commodity prices and strong trade

growth had improved the export revenues of many developing countries.

Consequently, the burden of servicing external debt for the developing countries as

a group had fallen from almost 13 per cent of export earnings in 2000 to below 4 per

cent in 2007. This has allowed the HIPC countries to increase their social

expenditure, but this trend is being reversed as developing country exports and

commodity prices have fallen starkly as a consequence of the current crisis. The

ratios of external debt to GDP and external debt service to exports for developing

countries have risen significantly since the last quarter of 2008. Developing

countries also face significant reversals in access to new external financing because

of the global credit crunch.

93. The combination of these factors is creating increasing balance-of-payment

problems for a large number of countries. Rising risk premiums on borrowing by 10-23802

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DESCRIZIONE DISPENSA

Materiale didattico per il corso di "Diritto internazionale dello sviluppo" della Prof.ssa Cristiana Carletti utile alla presentazione degli elaborati finali. Trattasi del rapporto del Segretario Generale dell'Onu del 2010 sul raggiungimento dei "millennium development goals" in cui sono messi in evidenza i risultati raggiunti ma anche le difficoltà incontrate e le raccomandazioni per il futuro.


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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in relazioni internazionali
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A.A.: 2007-2008

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Diritto internazionale dello sviluppo e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Roma Tre - Uniroma3 o del prof Carletti Cristiana.

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