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…ne riparleremo durante la lezione sul digital divide

Chrome OS

• Crhome OS, presentazione

• Twitter: #chromeos

• FB: commenti

• Un convegno Pic Ais a Urbino:

“Reti socievoli. Fare ricerca

sul/nel web sociale”

• http://twitter.com/#search?q=

%23retisocievoli

…e poi su FB

Programma del corso

• Calendario del corso

• “Internet studies is a field of academia dealing with the interaction between

the Internet and modern society, and the sociological and technological

implications on one another”

(voce Internet Studies, Wikipedia)

• Internet Studies: a “meta-field” (D. Silver)

• The changing role of disciplinarity (Markham e

Baym)

A meta-field of study

For the time being, it appears as though the largest umbrella underneath

which many of us would huddle is called internet studies.

While simultaneously drawing and building from other, older research streams

(computers and composition, computer-supported cooperative work, hyper/

cybertext theory, and human–computer interaction, to name just a few) –

and waiting for others to join, follow, or contest – internet studies (also

labeled studies of cyberculture, digital culture, information society, or new

media) continues to grow as what can only be called a meta-field of study.

The meta-field’s development and directions, coupled with attention towards

the affiliations that its members do and do not make, constitute an

important and interesting site of intellectual, academic, and political work”

David Silver, 2004, “Internet/cyberculture/digital culture/new media/fill-in-the-

blank studies”, New media and society, Vol6(1):55–64

Come si scrive “internet”?

• “Internet” is often spelled with a capital “I”. In

keeping with current trends in internet studies, we

prefer the lower case “i”. Capitalizing suggests that

“internet” is a proper noun and implies either that it

is a being, like Nancy or Annette, or that it is a

specific place, like Madison or Lawrence. Both

metaphors lead to granting the internet agency

and power that are better granted to those who

develop and use it”

• (Baym e Markham, Internet Inquiry. Conversations

about method, Sage, 2009)

Internet e la ricerca empirica (primi cenni)

• “The internet is directly implicated in at least four

major transformations of our epoch:

– Media convergence

– Mediated identities

– Redefinitions of social boundaries

– The transcendence of geographical boundaries

• Each of these intertwined cultural context inevitably

affects the identification of research objects,

engagement with research fields, and design and

conduct of qualitative inquiry of contemporary social

life” (Baym e Markham, p. x)

The changing role of disciplinarity

• “While most disciplines have awakened to an

understanding of the importance of the internet in

their fields, most do not have a richly developed

core of scholars who agree on methodological

approaches or standards. This absence of

disciplinary boundaries keeps internet studies

both desirable and frustrating” (Baym e Markham, p. xiv)

• Absence of canonical texts, few key journals, such

as: new media and society; Information Society;

Journal of Computer-Mediated-Communication;

Information Community and Society

The three ages of Internet Studies

• B. Wellman (2004): “The tree ages of Internet Studies: ten,

five and zero years ago”, in New media and society

• La preistoria (1992-1994): Computer Supported Cooperative

Work (CSCW); esperimenti in laboratorio (vedi Sproull e

Kiesler Connections, 1991)

• “I remember standing lonely at the microphone during a

comments period at the CSCW 1992 conference. Feeling

extremely frustrated, I exclaimed: You don’t understand! The

future is not writing stand alone applications for small groups.

It is in understanding that computer networks support the

kinds of social networks in which people usually live and often

work (…) They are sparsely-knit (…) People don’t just relate

to each other online, they incorporate thei computer-mediated

communication into their full range of interaction: in-person,

phone, fax, ad even writing”

The first age of Internet Studies

• The Internet became dot.com-ed (metà anni ’90)

• Utopians: “The most transforming technological event since

the capture of fire” (John Perry Barlow, 1995); presentism e

parochialism; guardavano ai fenomeni online come se fossero

isolati

• Dystopians: “it disconnects us from each other”

• “Pundits and computer scientists alike were still trying to get a

handle of what was happening without taking much account of

social science knowledge”

• “Computer supported social networks”: Internet vista come

nuova tecnologia che segue la via tracciata da altri promotori

di connettività

The second age of Internet Studies (1998-2003)

• Crescente attenzione da parte del mercato e dei policymakers

• Crescita continua dell’uso di Internet: “We have moved from a

world of internet wizards to a world of ordinary people

routinely using the internet” (internet diventa una cosa

importante, ma non una cosa speciale)

• Ricerca empirica su larga scala (università, governi, aziende –

Pew Internet & American Life Project e World Internet Project)

• “Neither the utopians hopes… nor the dystopians fears…”

• Dalle ricerche emerge che a un uso crescente di Internet si

accompagnano maggiori contatti anche con altri mezzi (face

to face, telefono, ecc.)

La terza fase: dalla documentazione all’analisi (2004- … )

• Progetti di ricerca più focalizzati, supportati dalla

teoria (tipologie di relazioni sociali supportate,

sviluppo di individualized networks:

personalizzazione, portabilità, connettività ubiqua)

• “The Internet is helping each person to become a

communication and information switchboard

(quadro comandi) between persons, networks, and

insititutions”

• “Groups have clearly become individualized

networks”

• “The person has become the portal”

Alcuni temi di ricerca (Association of Internet Researchers)

Ronald E. Rice, “New media/Internet research topics of the association of Internet researchers”

(2005). Information Society. 21 (4), pp. 285-299. Postprint available free at:

http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/943

• 2008 – IR 9.0: Rethinking Communities, Rethinking

Place (Copenhagen)

2007 – IR 8.0: Let’s Play! (Vancouver)

2006 – IR 7.0: Internet Convergences (Brisbane)

2005 – IR 6.0: Internet Generations (Chicago)

2004 – IR 5.0: Ubiquity? (Brighton)

2003 – IR 4.0: Broadening the Band (Toronto)

2002 – IR 3.0: Net/Work/Theory (Maastricht)

2001 – IR 2.0: InterConnections (Minneapolis)

2000 – IR 1.0: The State of the Discipline

(Lawrence)

1. Introduzione alla CMC

Comunicazione mediata dal computer: di cosa

parliamo?

• Computer?

• Comunicazione?

• Mediata?

Discutere di CMC attraverso la CMC: la ML dell’AIR

(Association of Internet Researchers)

http://courses.ischool.berkeley.edu/i290-12/f07/air-l_cmc.php

Association of Internet Researchers mailing list discussion of

"CMC"

Date: Mon, 24 Jul 2006 17:05:45 +0200

From: Jillana Enteen Subject: [Air-l] CMC, ICT, digital communication

To: air-l@listserv.aoir.org

Hello all, I'm trying to sort out the differences in etymology and

meaning between CMC, ICT and digital communication. I'm

having a hard time-- other than recognizing the academic/educational

basis for ICT and its roots in IT, it seems to me that these terms are

used interchangeably.

Any thoughts?

best wishes, jillana

Jillana Enteen

jillana@jillana.net

AIR-L: CMC datato?

• Date: Mon, 24 Jul 2006 16:18:36 +0100 From: "Martin Garthwaite"

Subject: Re: [Air-l] CMC, ICT, digital communication To: air-

l@listserv.aoir.org

• Jillana, I would agree, if you look at a time line, I remember reading

about CMC over 15 years ago, and I'll go out on a limb here and say

that quite a lot of the research on CMC was done pre-mass

adoption of Internet. So services like CompuServe, CIX and AOL

that provided walled gardens that were not originally part of the

Internet. CMC also referred to mailing lists like this one, e-mail,

usenet groups, all these systems were pre-html technologies. ICT

appears to me to be a catch all term, and I find digital communication

a little ambiguous.

• Martin.

• m.k.garthwaite@lse.ac.uk

• MSc candidate media@lse

AIR-L: CMC come termine ombrello

• Date: Mon, 24 Jul 2006 11:24:30 -0500

• From: "Ledbetter, Andrew Michael"

• Subject: Re: [Air-l] CMC, ICT, digital communication To:

• I've struggled with the term "CMC" in my own writing. While I wouldn't agree

that the term is "archaic" (as many scholars still use the term frequently), it

does "feel" dated to me. (…). But, in my own writing, I have tried to refer to

specific media as much as possible (e-mail, IM, chat, Facebook, etc.)

rather than using the term "CMC"... which might be a healthy move on the

whole, since we know that there are significant qualitative and quantitative

differences in communication across those media, despite their common

online nature. Yet, simultaneously, people sometimes seem to think about,

and socially construct, online communication channels as a unified whole.

Thus, it seems reasonable that we have an umbrella term to refer to such

media. Recently, I have tended to use "online communication"---it is less

verbose than "computer-mediated communication", seems less intrusive than

an acronym, and seems broad enough to include a lot of different

technologies (e.g., both Internet and non-Internet interaction, etc.). In short, it

seems to get the job done all right, though I'm sure the term has shortcomings

too. But of course, I'm sure appropriate terminology varies from discipline to

discipline.

• Andrew M. Ledbetter Ph.D. Candidate and Graduate Teaching Assistant

Department of Communication Studies University of Kansas

AIR-L: aggiornare la terminologia

• Date: Tue, 25 Jul 2006 15:40:17 +0200 From: Jillana Enteen Subject: Re: [Air-l] CMC, ICT, digital

communication To: air-l@listserv.aoir.org

• Thanks for all your thoughts on this. I'm eager to see how the discussion continues (...) I do think it's

necessary to find an umbrella term to talk about digital networked communication (I use this term

tentively)--one that takes into account that we cannot anticipate how what we "communicate," (…)

or how the bytes we transmit will "travel," (i.e. the route of the information) or how they will be received.

In other words, understanding that information is transmitted digitally from "others" (other people, other

places) encourages a media-specific term, but assuming that this term, as Charlie points out, means

computer to computer is now out of the question. Think of different browser qualities (safari versus

outlook explorer or computer versus blackberry, for instance)--what people see can vary greatly from

what is sent.

• In the past, it has been useful to place television in one category when considering broadcasting and/or

spectatorship, and telephony in another, when examining the implications of (almost) instantaneous

voice transmission. Consequently, I find it imperative to have a category (as most have agreed) that

takes into account the increasing flexibility--where we might as easily be watching a downloaded

television show on our ipod OR on our harddrive, networked television or talk through regular

telephones via vonage as surfing the internet--yet the way information arrives is related. The term must

maintain an awareness of the complexity of these new vehicles for digital transmission and increasing

possible interfaces for their consumption. This is not to discourage specific considerations--which

should use terms as specifically as possible. At this point, studying "internet use" may be too broad--

www or IRC or mobile-to-mobile SMS, located in a particular moment and among specific users speaks

more to the point. I find it interesting, and compelling, that CMC is outdated. And as a "former"

scholar of CMC, I'm still pondering over what term might speak best for my framework. thanks

and best wishes—

• jillana Jillana Enteen jillana@jillana.net

AIR-L: Barry Wellman

• Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2006 11:57:51 -0400

• From: Barry Wellman Subject: [Air-l] CMC, network of networks To: aoir list

• I believe that Roxanne Hiltz and Murray Turoff were first/early users of "Computer

Mediated Communication" (CMC) in the first edition of Hiltz, S. Roxanne, and Murray

Turoff. 1978. The Network Nation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Yup, that's before

some list members were born. (But I don't have the book handy.) THeir Network Nation

title was consciously adopted from Paul Craven and my "The Network City" paper

(1973). Which also introduced "network of networks" well before the Internet. And which

may have begat "THe Network Society" (Castells, 1996), and certainly begat Tracy

Kennedy and my "The Network Household" (2007; ICS) and my "networked

individualism" (2000; IJURR) As far as CMC/ICT, I've been increasingly using ICT

because it encompasses information as well as communication. (Of course, info has to

be communicated to be useful.) My sense is that the CSCW crowd still uses CMC a fair

amount. Talk about anachronisms -- CSCW sure is a misleading one. But yet there is

an annual conference. Everything old is new again. Barry

_____________________________________________________________________

Barry Wellman Professor of Sociology NetLab Director wellman at chass.utoronto.ca

http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman Centre for Urban & Community Studies

University of Toronto 455 Spadina Avenue Toronto Canada M5S 2G8 fax:+1-416-978-

7162 You're invited to visit & contribute to the new version of "Updating Cybertimes: It's

Time to Bring Our Culture into Cyberspace"

http://chass.utoronto.ca/oldnew/cybertimes.php

AIR-L: William Dutton (direttore OII)

• Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2006 21:12:02 +0100

• From: "William Dutton" Subject: Re: [Air-l] Social software and ICT on

Wikipedia To: ,

• As Paolo Massa and Barry Wellman point out, all of these terms --

ICT, new media, CMC, etc -- are anchored in specific research

programmes, historical periods, and technologies. They are not

interchangeable. While it would be great to improve Wikipedia, I

suggest that a useful source might be a book by Loader and others,

which is part of the Key Concepts series of Routledge. It is a 2004

publication, but this discussion might encourage them to update

Cyberculture: Key Concepts. See:

http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs143.html In my opinion, these

terms matter, so its great to see that a single post has generated

such a stir around the meaning of closely related by distinct terms.

Bill


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DESCRIZIONE DISPENSA

Questa lezione fa riferimento al corso di Internet studies tenuto dalla Prof.ssa Comunello. Gli argomenti che si affrontano sono: The tree ages of Internet Studies; internet Studies oggi: sistematizzazione di un ambito disciplinare; modelli ed evoluzione della CMC: la comunicazione mediata dal computer/dalle tecnologie; studiare la CMC oggi: ambienti, strumenti, temi di ricerca...; Internet Inquiry: metodologie e tecniche della ricerca con/su Internet.


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in industria culturale e comunicazione digitale
SSD:
A.A.: 2010-2011

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di INTERNET STUDIES e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università La Sapienza - Uniroma1 o del prof Comunello Francesca.

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