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tabella …per acquisire conoscenza…

Tecnologia: diffusione e creazione Receipts Research

Patents of royalties and

granted to Researchers

and licence development

MDG MDG MDG residents fees in R&D

(R&D)

a a expenditures

Telephone mainlines Cellular subscribers Internet users (per million (US$ per (per million

(per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) people) person) (% of GDP) people)

b b b

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2000–05 2005 2000–05 1990–2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 512 653 39 1,024 0 869 0 0.0 3.0 6,807

2 Norway 503 460 46 1,028 7 735 103 78.4 1.7 4,587

3 Australia 456 564 11 906 6 698 31 25.0 1.7 3,759

4 Canada 550 566 21 514 4 520 35 107.6 1.9 3,597

5 Ireland 280 489 7 1,012 0 276 80 142.2 1.2 2,674

c

6 Sweden 683 717 54 935 6 764 166 367.7 3.7 5,416

7 Switzerland 587 689 19 921 6 498 77 .. 2.6 3,601

8 Japan 441 460 7 742 (.) 668 857 138.0 3.1 5,287

9 Netherlands 464 466 5 970 3 739 110 236.8 1.8 2,482

10 France 495 586 5 789 1 430 155 97.1 2.2 3,213

11 Finland 535 404 52 997 4 534 214 230.0 3.5 7,832

c c

12 United States 545 606 21 680 8 630 244 191.5 2.7 4,605

13 Spain 325 422 1 952 (.) 348 53 12.9 1.1 2,195

14 Denmark 566 619 29 1,010 1 527 19 .. 2.6 5,016

15 Austria 418 450 10 991 1 486 92 21.3 2.3 2,968

16 United Kingdom 441 528 19 1,088 1 473 62 220.8 1.9 2,706

c

17 Belgium 393 461 4 903 (.) 458 51 106.5 1.9 3,065

18 Luxembourg 481 535 2 1,576 0 690 31 627.9 1.8 4,301

19 New Zealand 426 422 16 861 0 672 10 24.8 1.2 3,945

20 Italy 394 427 5 1,232 (.) 478 71 19.3 1.1 1,213

c

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 434 546 23 1,252 0 508 5 31.2 0.6 1,564

22 Germany 401 667 3 960 1 455 158 82.6 2.5 3,261

c

23 Israel 349 424 3 1,120 1 470 48 91.2 4.5 ..

24 Greece 389 568 0 904 0 180 29 5.4 0.6 1,413

c

25 Singapore 346 425 17 1,010 0 571 96 125.8 2.3 4,999

26 Korea (Republic of) 310 492 2 794 (.) 684 1,113 38.2 2.6 3,187

27 Slovenia 211 408 0 879 0 545 113 8.2 1.6 2,543

28 Cyprus 424 554 5 949 0 430 7 18.1 0.4 630

29 Portugal 240 401 1 1,085 0 279 14 5.7 0.8 1,949

c

30 Brunei Darussalam 136 224 7 623 0 277 .. .. 0.0 274

31 Barbados 281 500 0 765 0 594 .. 5.8 .. ..

32 Czech Republic 157 314 0 1,151 0 269 34 6.2 1.3 1,594

33 Kuwait 156 201 10 939 0 276 .. 0.0 0.2 ..

34 Malta 356 501 0 803 0 315 0 7.5 0.3 681

35 Qatar 197 253 8 882 0 269 .. .. .. ..

36 Hungary 96 333 (.) 924 0 297 13 82.7 0.9 1,472

37 Poland 86 309 0 764 0 262 28 1.6 0.6 1,581

38 Argentina 93 227 (.) 570 0 177 4 1.4 0.4 720

39 United Arab Emirates 224 273 19 1,000 0 308 .. .. .. ..

40 Chile 66 211 1 649 0 172 1 3.3 0.6 444

41 Bahrain 191 270 10 1,030 0 213 .. .. .. ..

d

42 Slovakia 135 222 0 843 0 464 9 9.2 0.5 1,984

43 Lithuania 211 235 0 1,275 0 358 21 0.6 0.8 2,136

44 Estonia 204 328 0 1,074 0 513 56 4.0 0.9 2,523

45 Latvia 232 318 0 814 0 448 36 4.3 0.4 1,434 Indicatori

46 Uruguay 134 290 0 333 0 193 1 (.) 0.3 366

47 Croatia 172 425 (.) 672 0 327 4 16.1 1.1 1,296

48 Costa Rica 92 321 0 254 0 254 .. 0.0 0.4 .. di

c c

49 Bahamas 274 439 8 584 0 319 .. .. .. .. sviluppo

50 Seychelles 124 253 0 675 0 249 .. .. 0.1 19

51 Cuba 32 75 0 12 0 17 3 .. 0.6 .. umano

52 Mexico 64 189 1 460 0 181 1 0.7 0.4 268

53 Bulgaria 250 321 0 807 0 206 10 0.7 0.5 1,263 331

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

13

tabella Tecnologia: diffusione e creazione Receipts Research

Patents of royalties and

granted to Researchers

and licence development

MDG MDG MDG residents fees in R&D

(R&D)

a a expenditures

Telephone mainlines Cellular subscribers Internet users (per million (US$ per (per million

(per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) people) person) (% of GDP) people)

b b b

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2000–05 2005 2000–05 1990–2005

c c

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 231 532 0 213 0 .. .. 0.0 .. ..

c

55 Tonga 46 .. 0 161 0 29 .. .. .. 45,454

d c c c

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 51 133 0 41 0 36 .. 0.0 .. 361

c c

57 Antigua and Barbuda 252 467 0 663 0 350 .. 0.0 .. ..

58 Oman 57 103 1 519 0 111 .. .. .. ..

c

59 Trinidad and Tobago 136 248 0 613 0 123 .. .. 0.1 ..

c

60 Romania 102 203 0 617 0 208 24 2.2 0.4 976

c

61 Saudi Arabia 75 164 1 575 0 70 (.) 0.0 .. ..

62 Panama 90 136 0 418 0 64 .. 0.0 0.3 97

63 Malaysia 89 172 5 771 0 435 .. 1.1 0.7 299

64 Belarus 154 336 0 419 0 347 76 0.3 0.6 ..

c

65 Mauritius 53 289 2 574 0 146 .. (.) 0.4 360

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 248 0 408 0 206 3 .. .. ..

67 Russian Federation 140 280 0 838 0 152 135 1.8 1.2 3,319

c c

68 Albania 12 88 0 405 0 60 .. 0.2 .. ..

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 150 262 0 620 0 79 11 1.5 0.3 504

c

70 Brazil 63 230 (.) 462 0 195 1 0.5 1.0 344

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT c c

71 Dominica 161 293 0 585 0 361 .. 0.0 .. ..

c c e

72 Saint Lucia 127 .. 0 573 0 339 0 .. 0.4 ..

c c

73 Kazakhstan 82 167 0 327 0 27 83 (.) 0.2 629

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 75 136 (.) 470 0 125 1 0.0 0.3 ..

75 Colombia 69 168 0 479 0 104 (.) 0.2 0.2 109

c

76 Ukraine 135 256 0 366 0 97 52 0.5 1.2 ..

d

77 Samoa 25 73 0 130 0 32 0 .. .. ..

c

78 Thailand 24 110 1 430 0 110 1 0.3 0.3 287

79 Dominican Republic 48 101 (.) 407 0 169 .. 0.0 .. ..

80 Belize 92 114 0 319 0 130 .. .. .. ..

81 China 6 269 (.) 302 0 85 16 0.1 1.4 708

c c

82 Grenada 162 309 2 410 0 182 .. 0.0 .. ..

c

83 Armenia 158 192 0 106 0 53 39 .. 0.3 ..

c

84 Turkey 122 263 1 605 0 222 1 0.0 0.7 341

85 Suriname 91 180 0 518 0 71 .. .. .. ..

c c c

86 Jordan 78 119 (.) 304 0 118 .. .. .. 1,927

87 Peru 26 80 (.) 200 0 164 (.) 0.1 0.1 226

c

88 Lebanon 144 277 0 277 0 196 .. 0.0 .. ..

c

89 Ecuador 48 129 0 472 0 47 0 0.0 0.1 50

c

90 Philippines 10 41 0 419 0 54 (.) 0.1 0.1 48

91 Tunisia 37 125 (.) 566 0 95 .. 1.4 0.6 1,013

d

92 Fiji 59 122 0 229 0 77 .. .. .. ..

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 120 189 0 593 0 84 0 .. 0.2 ..

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 40 278 0 106 0 103 8 .. 0.7 1,279

95 Paraguay 27 54 0 320 0 34 .. 33.2 0.1 79

c c

96 Georgia 99 151 0 326 0 39 42 2.1 0.3 ..

97 Guyana 22 147 0 375 0 213 .. 47.9 .. ..

98 Azerbaijan 87 130 0 267 0 81 .. (.) 0.3 ..

umano c

99 Sri Lanka 7 63 (.) 171 0 14 3 .. 0.1 128

c

100 Maldives 29 98 0 466 0 59 .. 8.6 .. ..

c

sviluppo 101 Jamaica 44 129 0 1,017 0 404 1 4.7 0.1 ..

d

102 Cape Verde 23 141 0 161 0 49 .. 0.2 .. 127

e

103 El Salvador 24 141 0 350 0 93 .. 0.4 0.1 47

di 104 Algeria 32 78 (.) 416 0 58 1 .. .. ..

Indicatori 105 Viet Nam 1 191 0 115 0 129 (.) .. 0.2 115

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. 96 0 302 0 67 .. .. .. ..

332 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 13

tabella

Receipts Research

Patents of royalties and

granted to Researchers

and licence development

MDG MDG MDG residents fees in R&D

(R&D)

a a expenditures

Telephone mainlines Cellular subscribers Internet users (per million (US$ per (per million

(per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) people) person) (% of GDP) people)

b b b

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2000–05 2005 2000–05 1990–2005

107 Indonesia 6 58 (.) 213 0 73 .. 1.2 0.1 207

108 Syrian Arab Republic 39 152 0 155 0 58 2 .. .. 29

d c c

109 Turkmenistan 60 80 0 11 0 8 .. .. .. ..

110 Nicaragua 12 43 0 217 0 27 1 0.0 0.0 73

c e

111 Moldova 106 221 0 259 0 96 67 0.4 0.8 ..

112 Egypt 29 140 (.) 184 0 68 1 1.9 0.2 493

d c

113 Uzbekistan 68 67 0 28 0 34 10 .. .. 1,754

114 Mongolia 32 61 0 218 0 105 44 .. 0.3 ..

115 Honduras 18 69 0 178 0 36 1 0.0 0.0 ..

116 Kyrgyzstan 71 85 0 105 0 54 17 0.4 0.2 ..

117 Bolivia 27 70 0 264 0 52 .. 0.2 0.3 120

c

118 Guatemala 21 99 (.) 358 0 79 (.) (.) .. ..

119 Gabon 22 28 0 470 0 48 .. .. .. ..

c

120 Vanuatu 17 33 (.) 60 0 38 .. .. .. ..

121 South Africa 94 101 (.) 724 0 109 .. 0.9 0.8 307

d c

122 Tajikistan 45 39 0 41 0 1 2 0.2 .. 660

c c

123 Sao Tome and Principe 19 46 0 77 0 131 .. .. .. ..

124 Botswana 18 75 0 466 0 34 .. 0.3 .. ..

c c d

125 Namibia 38 64 0 244 0 37 .. 0.0 .. ..

126 Morocco 17 44 (.) 411 0 152 1 0.4 0.6 ..

127 Equatorial Guinea 4 20 0 192 0 14 .. .. .. ..

d

128 India 6 45 0 82 0 55 1 (.) 0.8 119

129 Solomon Islands 15 16 0 13 0 8 .. .. .. ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2 13 0 108 0 4 .. .. .. ..

d c

131 Cambodia (.) 3 0 75 0 3 .. (.) .. ..

d

132 Myanmar 2 9 0 4 0 2 .. 0.0 0.1 17

133 Bhutan 3 51 0 59 0 39 .. .. .. ..

134 Comoros 8 28 0 27 0 33 .. .. .. ..

135 Ghana 3 15 0 129 0 18 .. 0.0 .. ..

136 Pakistan 8 34 (.) 82 0 67 0 0.1 0.2 75

137 Mauritania 3 13 0 243 0 7 .. .. .. ..

c

138 Lesotho 8 27 0 137 0 24 .. 9.1 0.0 ..

c

139 Congo 6 4 0 123 0 13 .. .. .. 30

140 Bangladesh 2 8 0 63 0 3 .. (.) 0.6 51

c

141 Swaziland 18 31 0 177 0 32 .. (.) .. ..

142 Nepal 3 17 0 9 0 4 .. .. 0.7 59

143 Madagascar 3 4 0 27 0 5 (.) (.) 0.1 15

c d

144 Cameroon 3 6 0 138 0 15 .. (.) .. ..

c

145 Papua New Guinea 7 11 0 4 0 23 .. .. .. ..

c c

146 Haiti 7 17 0 48 0 70 .. 0.0 .. ..

147 Sudan 2 18 0 50 0 77 .. 0.0 0.3 ..

148 Kenya 7 8 0 135 0 32 .. 0.5 .. ..

149 Djibouti 10 14 0 56 0 13 .. .. .. ..

150 Timor-Leste .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

151 Zimbabwe 12 25 0 54 0 77 0 .. .. ..

c

152 Togo 3 10 0 72 0 49 .. 0.0 .. 102 Indicatori

c c

153 Yemen 10 39 0 95 0 9 .. .. .. ..

154 Uganda 2 3 0 53 0 17 .. 0.3 0.8 ..

c

155 Gambia 7 29 0 163 0 33 .. .. .. .. di

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT sviluppo

c

156 Senegal 6 23 0 148 0 46 .. 0.0 .. ..

157 Eritrea .. 9 0 9 0 16 .. .. .. .. umano

158 Nigeria 3 9 0 141 0 38 .. .. .. ..

c c c

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 3 4 0 52 0 9 .. 0.0 .. .. 333

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

13

tabella Tecnologia: diffusione e creazione Receipts Research

Patents of royalties and

granted to Researchers

and licence development

MDG MDG MDG residents fees in R&D

(R&D)

a a expenditures

Telephone mainlines Cellular subscribers Internet users (per million (US$ per (per million

(per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) (per 1,000 people) people) person) (% of GDP) people)

b b b

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2000–05 2005 2000–05 1990–2005

c c

160 Guinea 2 3 0 20 0 5 .. 0.0 .. ..

c

161 Rwanda 1 3 0 32 0 6 .. 0.0 .. ..

162 Angola 7 6 0 69 0 11 .. 3.1 .. ..

c

163 Benin 3 9 0 89 0 50 .. 0.0 .. ..

164 Malawi 3 8 0 33 0 4 0 .. .. ..

c e

165 Zambia 8 8 0 81 0 20 .. .. 0.0 51

c c

166 Côte d’Ivoire 6 14 0 121 0 11 .. (.) .. ..

c

167 Burundi 1 4 0 20 0 5 .. 0.0 .. ..

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 1 (.) 0 48 0 2 .. .. .. ..

169 Ethiopia 2 9 0 6 0 2 .. (.) .. ..

c

170 Chad 1 1 0 22 0 4 .. .. .. ..

171 Central African Republic 2 2 0 25 0 3 .. .. .. 47

c c

172 Mozambique 4 4 0 62 0 7 .. 0.1 0.6 ..

c

173 Mali 1 6 0 64 0 4 .. (.) .. ..

174 Niger 1 2 0 21 0 2 .. .. .. ..

d

175 Guinea-Bissau 6 7 0 42 0 20 .. .. .. ..

e

176 Burkina Faso 2 7 0 43 0 5 .. .. 0.2 17

d c c

177 Sierra Leone 3 .. 0 22 0 2 .. 0.2 .. ..

Developing countries 21 132 (.) 229 (.) 86 .. .. 1.0 ..

Least developed countries 3 9 0 48 0 12 .. 0.2 .. ..

Arab States 34 106 (.) 284 0 88 .. 0.9 .. ..

East Asia and the Pacific 18 223 (.) 301 (.) 106 .. 1.7 1.6 722

Latin America and the Caribbean 61 .. (.) 439 0 156 .. 1.1 0.6 256

South Asia 7 51 (.) 81 0 52 .. (.) 0.7 119

Sub-Saharan Africa 10 17 (.) 130 0 26 .. 0.3 .. ..

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 125 277 (.) 629 0 185 73 4.1 1.0 2,423

OECD 390 441 10 785 3 445 239 104.2 2.4 3,096

High-income OECD 462 .. 12 828 3 524 299 130.4 2.4 3,807

High human development 308 394 7 743 2 365 189 75.8 2.4 3,035

Medium human development 16 135 (.) 209 0 73 .. 0.3 0.8 ..

Low human development 3 7 0 74 0 17 .. 0.2 .. ..

High income 450 500 12 831 3 525 286 125.3 2.4 3,781

Middle income 40 211 (.) 379 0 115 .. 1.0 0.8 725

Low income 6 37 (.) 77 0 45 .. (.) 0.7 ..

World 98 180 2 341 1 136 .. 21.6 2.3 ..

NOTES SOURCES

Columns 1–6, 9 and 10:

a. Telephone mainlines and cellular subscribers World Bank 2007b;

combined form an indicator for MDG 8; see Index aggregates calculated for HDRO by the World Bank.

Column 7:

to Millennium Development Goal Indicators in the calculated on the basis of data on patents

indicator tables. from WIPO 2007 and data on population from

b. Data refer to the most recent year available during UN 2007e.

Column 8:

the period specified. calculated on the basis of data on

c. Data refer to 2004. royalties and license fees from World Bank 2007b

d. Data refer to 2003. and data on pupulation from UN 2007e; aggregates

e. Data refer to year other than specified. calculated for HDRO by the World Bank.

umano

sviluppo

di

Indicatori

334 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

14

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Andamento dell’economia GDP per capita Highest

GDP Average annual change

value during

Annual growth rate in consumer price index

1975–2005 Year of

PPP US$ 2005 PPP (%) (%)

a highest

US$ billions billions US$ US$ 2005 PPP

a value

2005 2005 2005 2005 1975–2005 1990–2005 US$ 1990–2005 2004–05

HDI rank

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 15.8 10.8 53,290 36,510 1.8 2.2 36,510 2005 3.3 4.2

2 Norway 295.5 191.5 63,918 41,420 2.6 2.7 41,420 2005 2.2 1.5

3 Australia 732.5 646.3 36,032 31,794 2.0 2.5 31,794 2005 2.5 2.7

4 Canada 1,113.8 1,078.0 34,484 33,375 1.6 2.2 33,375 2005 1.9 2.2

5 Ireland 201.8 160.1 48,524 38,505 4.5 6.2 38,505 2005 2.9 2.4

6 Sweden 357.7 293.5 39,637 32,525 1.6 2.1 32,525 2005 1.6 0.5

7 Switzerland 367.0 265.0 49,351 35,633 1.0 0.6 35,633 2005 1.2 1.2

8 Japan 4,534.0 3,995.1 35,484 31,267 2.2 0.8 31,267 2005 0.2 -0.3

9 Netherlands 624.2 533.4 38,248 32,684 1.8 1.9 32,684 2005 2.5 1.7

10 France 2,126.6 1,849.7 34,936 30,386 1.8 1.6 30,386 2005 1.6 1.7

11 Finland 193.2 168.7 36,820 32,153 2.0 2.5 32,153 2005 1.6 0.9

12 United States 12,416.5 12,416.5 41,890 41,890 2.0 2.1 41,890 2005 2.6 3.4

13 Spain 1,124.6 1,179.1 25,914 27,169 2.3 2.5 27,169 2005 3.4 3.4

14 Denmark 258.7 184.0 47,769 33,973 1.7 1.9 33,973 2005 2.1 1.8

15 Austria 306.1 277.5 37,175 33,700 2.1 1.9 33,700 2005 2.0 2.3

16 United Kingdom 2,198.8 2,001.8 36,509 33,238 2.2 2.5 33,238 2005 2.7 2.8

17 Belgium 370.8 336.6 35,389 32,119 1.9 1.7 32,119 2005 1.9 2.8

18 Luxembourg 36.5 27.5 79,851 60,228 3.8 3.3 60,228 2005 2.0 2.5

19 New Zealand 109.3 102.5 26,664 24,996 1.1 2.1 24,996 2005 1.9 3.0

20 Italy 1,762.5 1,672.0 30,073 28,529 2.0 1.3 28,944 2002 3.1 2.0

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 177.7 241.9 25,592 34,833 4.2 2.4 34,833 2005 2.5 0.9

22 Germany 2,794.9 2,429.6 33,890 29,461 2.0 1.4 29,461 2005 1.7 2.0

23 Israel 123.4 179.1 17,828 25,864 1.8 1.5 25,864 2005 6.6 1.3

24 Greece 225.2 259.6 20,282 23,381 1.3 2.5 23,381 2005 6.5 3.6

25 Singapore 116.8 128.8 26,893 29,663 4.7 3.6 29,663 2005 1.2 0.5

26 Korea (Republic of) 787.6 1,063.9 16,309 22,029 6.0 4.5 22,029 2005 4.3 2.7

b b

27 Slovenia 34.4 44.6 17,173 22,273 3.2 3.2 22,273 2005 9.2 2.5

c c c c b b

28 Cyprus 15.4 16.3 20,841 22,699 4.0 2.3 22,699 2004 3.3 2.6

29 Portugal 183.3 215.3 17,376 20,410 2.7 2.1 20,679 2002 3.8 2.3

b b

30 Brunei Darussalam 6.4 .. 17,121 .. -1.9 -0.8 .. .. 1.3 1.2

b b

31 Barbados 3.1 .. 11,465 .. 1.3 1.5 .. .. 2.2 6.1

b b

32 Czech Republic 124.4 210.2 12,152 20,538 1.9 1.9 20,538 2005 5.2 1.8

d d b b b

33 Kuwait 80.8 66.7 31,861 26,321 -0.5 0.6 34,680 1979 1.8 4.1

34 Malta 5.6 7.7 13,803 19,189 4.1 2.7 19,862 2002 2.8 3.0

35 Qatar 42.5 .. 52,240 .. .. .. .. .. 2.7 8.8

36 Hungary 109.2 180.4 10,830 17,887 1.3 3.1 17,887 2005 15.0 3.6

b b

37 Poland 303.2 528.5 7,945 13,847 4.3 4.3 13,847 2005 16.0 2.1

38 Argentina 183.2 553.3 4,728 14,280 0.3 1.1 14,489 1998 7.1 9.6

d d

39 United Arab Emirates 129.7 115.7 28,612 25,514 -2.6 -0.9 50,405 1981 .. ..

40 Chile 115.2 196.0 7,073 12,027 3.9 3.8 12,027 2005 6.3 3.1

b b

41 Bahrain 12.9 15.6 17,773 21,482 1.5 2.3 21,482 2005 0.5 2.6

b b

42 Slovakia 46.4 85.5 8,616 15,871 1.0 2.8 15,871 2005 7.8 2.7

b b

43 Lithuania 25.6 49.5 7,505 14,494 1.9 1.9 14,494 2005 14.6 2.7

b b

44 Estonia 13.1 20.8 9,733 15,478 1.1 4.2 15,478 2005 12.0 4.1

45 Latvia 15.8 31.4 6,879 13,646 0.6 3.6 13,646 2005 15.5 6.8 Indicatori

46 Uruguay 16.8 34.5 4,848 9,962 1.1 0.8 10,459 1998 22.3 4.7

b b

47 Croatia 38.5 57.9 8,666 13,042 2.6 2.6 13,042 2005 40.6 3.3

d d

48 Costa Rica 20.0 44.1 4,627 10,180 1.5 2.3 10,180 2005 13.5 13.8 di

e f e f b b b

49 Bahamas 5.5 5.3 17,497 18,380 1.3 0.4 19,162 2000 2.0 1.6 sviluppo

50 Seychelles 0.7 1.4 8,209 16,106 2.6 1.5 18,872 2000 2.5 0.9

b

51 Cuba .. .. .. .. .. 3.5 .. .. .. .. umano

52 Mexico 768.4 1,108.3 7,454 10,751 1.0 1.5 10,751 2005 14.8 4.0

b b

53 Bulgaria 26.6 69.9 3,443 9,032 0.7 1.5 9,032 2005 67.6 5.0 335

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

14

tabella Andamento dell’economia GDP per capita Highest

GDP Average annual change

value during

Annual growth rate in consumer price index

1975–2005 Year of

PPP US$ 2005 PPP (%) (%)

a highest

US$ billions billions US$ US$ 2005 PPP

a value

2005 2005 2005 2005 1975–2005 1990–2005 US$ 1990–2005 2004–05

HDI rank c c b b

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.5 0.6 9,438 13,307 4.9 2.9 13,307 2004 3.0 1.8

d d b b

55 Tonga 0.2 0.8 2,090 8,177 1.8 1.9 8,177 2005 5.2 8.3

b

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 38.8 .. 6,621 .. 2.5 .. .. .. 1.9 ..

c c b b

57 Antigua and Barbuda 0.9 1.0 10,578 12,500 3.7 1.5 12,500 2004 .. ..

c c c c b b

58 Oman 24.3 38.4 9,584 15,602 2.4 1.8 15,602 2004 0.1 1.2

59 Trinidad and Tobago 14.4 19.1 11,000 14,603 0.6 4.3 14,603 2005 5.1 6.9

b b

60 Romania 98.6 196.0 4,556 9,060 -0.3 1.6 9,060 2005 66.5 9.0

d d

61 Saudi Arabia 309.8 363.2 13,399 15,711 -2.0 0.1 27,686 1977 0.4 0.7

62 Panama 15.5 24.6 4,786 7,605 1.0 2.2 7,605 2005 1.0 3.3

63 Malaysia 130.3 275.8 5,142 10,882 3.9 3.3 10,882 2005 2.9 3.0

b b

64 Belarus 29.6 77.4 3,024 7,918 2.2 2.2 7,918 2005 144.6 10.3

b b

65 Mauritius 6.3 15.8 5,059 12,715 4.4 3.8 12,715 2005 5.8 4.9

b

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.9 .. 2,546 .. .. 12.7 .. .. .. ..

b b

67 Russian Federation 763.7 1,552.0 5,336 10,845 -0.7 -0.1 11,947 1989 53.5 12.7

b b

68 Albania 8.4 16.6 2,678 5,316 0.9 5.2 5,316 2005 15.6 2.4

b b

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 5.8 14.6 2,835 7,200 -0.1 -0.1 7,850 1990 5.7 (.)

70 Brazil 796.1 1,566.3 4,271 8,402 0.7 1.1 8,402 2005 86.0 6.9

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT c c b b

71 Dominica 0.3 0.4 3,938 6,393 3.1 1.3 6,393 2004 1.6 2.2

c c b b

72 Saint Lucia 0.8 1.1 5,007 6,707 3.6 0.9 6,707 2004 2.7 3.9

b b

73 Kazakhstan 57.1 119.0 3,772 7,857 2.0 2.0 7,857 2005 29.7 7.6

d

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 140.2 176.3 5,275 6,632 -1.0 -1.0 8,756 1977 37.6 16.0

d d

75 Colombia 122.3 333.1 2,682 7,304 1.4 0.6 7,304 2005 15.2 5.0

b b

76 Ukraine 82.9 322.4 1,761 6,848 -3.8 -2.4 10,587 1989 63.9 13.5

b b

77 Samoa 0.4 1.1 2,184 6,170 1.4 2.5 6,170 2005 4.0 1.8

78 Thailand 176.6 557.4 2,750 8,677 4.9 2.7 8,677 2005 3.7 4.5

d d

79 Dominican Republic 29.5 73.1 3,317 8,217 2.1 3.9 8,217 2005 10.5 4.2

80 Belize 1.1 2.1 3,786 7,109 3.1 2.3 7,120 2004 1.8 3.6

g g

81 China 2,234.3 8,814.9 1,713 6,757 8.4 8.8 6,757 2005 5.1 1.8

c c b b

82 Grenada 0.5 0.8 4,451 7,843 3.4 2.5 8,264 2003 2.0 ..

b b

83 Armenia 4.9 14.9 1,625 4,945 4.4 4.4 4,945 2005 27.3 0.6

84 Turkey 362.5 605.9 5,030 8,407 1.8 1.7 8,407 2005 64.2 8.2

85 Suriname 1.3 3.5 2,986 7,722 -0.5 1.1 8,634 1978 60.7 ..

86 Jordan 12.7 30.3 2,323 5,530 0.5 1.6 5,613 1986 2.8 3.5

87 Peru 79.4 168.9 2,838 6,039 -0.3 2.2 6,097 1981 15.0 1.6

b b

88 Lebanon 21.9 20.0 6,135 5,584 3.2 2.8 5,586 2004 .. ..

89 Ecuador 36.5 57.4 2,758 4,341 0.3 0.8 4,341 2005 34.1 2.4

90 Philippines 99.0 426.7 1,192 5,137 0.4 1.6 5,137 2005 6.6 7.6

91 Tunisia 28.7 84.0 2,860 8,371 2.3 3.3 8,371 2005 3.6 2.0

b b b

92 Fiji 2.7 5.1 3,219 6,049 0.9 1.4 6,056 2004 3.1 2.4

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.4 0.8 3,612 6,568 3.2 1.6 6,568 2005 1.8 3.7

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 189.8 543.8 2,781 7,968 -0.2 2.3 9,311 1976 21.3 13.4

d d

95 Paraguay 7.3 27.4 1,242 4,642 0.5 -0.6 5,430 1981 11.1 6.8

96 Georgia 6.4 15.1 1,429 3,365 -3.9 0.2 6,884 1985 12.8 8.2

d d

97 Guyana 0.8 3.4 1,048 4,508 0.9 3.2 4,618 2004 5.5 6.3

b b

98 Azerbaijan 12.6 42.1 1,498 5,016 (.) (.) 5,310 1990 66.4 9.5

umano 99 Sri Lanka 23.5 90.2 1,196 4,595 3.2 3.7 4,595 2005 9.5 11.6

b

100 Maldives 0.8 .. 2,326 .. .. 3.8 .. .. 4.3 3.3

sviluppo 101 Jamaica 9.6 11.4 3,607 4,291 1.0 0.7 4,291 2005 16.6 15.3

d d b b

102 Cape Verde 1.0 2.9 1,940 5,803 2.9 3.4 5,803 2005 3.9 0.4

d d

103 El Salvador 17.0 36.2 2,467 5,255 0.3 1.6 5,745 1978 5.9 4.7

di d d

104 Algeria 102.3 232.0 3,112 7,062 0.1 1.1 7,062 2005 10.7 1.6

Indicatori b b

105 Viet Nam 52.4 255.3 631 3,071 5.2 5.9 3,071 2005 3.3 8.3

b

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 4.0 .. 1,107 .. .. -2.9 .. .. .. ..

336 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 14

tabella

GDP per capita Highest

GDP Average annual change

value during

Annual growth rate in consumer price index

1975–2005 Year of

PPP US$ 2005 PPP (%) (%)

a highest

US$ billions billions US$ US$ 2005 PPP

a value

2005 2005 2005 2005 1975–2005 1990–2005 US$ 1990–2005 2004–05

HDI rank

107 Indonesia 287.2 847.6 1,302 3,843 3.9 2.1 3,843 2005 13.3 10.5

108 Syrian Arab Republic 26.3 72.5 1,382 3,808 0.9 1.4 3,808 2005 4.9 ..

h h b b

109 Turkmenistan 8.1 15.4 1,669 3,838 .. -6.8 6,752 1988 .. ..

d d

110 Nicaragua 4.9 18.9 954 3,674 -2.1 1.8 7,187 1977 18.9 9.4

b b

111 Moldova 2.9 8.8 694 2,100 -4.4 -3.5 4,168 1989 16.5 13.1

112 Egypt 89.4 321.1 1,207 4,337 2.8 2.4 4,337 2005 6.6 4.9

b b

113 Uzbekistan 14.0 54.0 533 2,063 -0.4 0.3 2,080 1989 .. ..

b b

114 Mongolia 1.9 5.4 736 2,107 1.2 2.2 2,107 2005 19.2 8.9

d d

115 Honduras 8.3 24.7 1,151 3,430 0.2 0.5 3,430 2005 15.0 8.8

b b

116 Kyrgyzstan 2.4 9.9 475 1,927 -2.3 -1.3 2,806 1990 13.2 4.4

117 Bolivia 9.3 25.9 1,017 2,819 -0.2 1.3 3,025 1977 6.3 5.4

d d

118 Guatemala 31.7 57.6 2,517 4,568 0.4 1.3 4,568 2005 8.6 8.4

119 Gabon 8.1 9.6 5,821 6,954 -1.4 -0.4 13,812 1976 3.0 (.)

b b

120 Vanuatu .. .. .. 3,225 0.1 .. 3,833 1984 .. ..

d d

121 South Africa 239.5 520.9 5,109 11,110 -0.3 0.6 11,617 1981 7.4 3.4

b b

122 Tajikistan 2.3 8.8 355 1,356 -6.3 -4.0 3,150 1988 .. ..

b b

123 Sao Tome and Principe 0.1 0.3 451 2,178 0.3 0.5 2,178 2005 .. ..

124 Botswana 10.3 21.9 5,846 12,387 5.9 4.8 12,387 2005 7.9 8.6

d d b b

125 Namibia 6.1 15.4 3,016 7,586 0.1 1.4 7,586 2005 .. 2.3

126 Morocco 51.6 137.4 1,711 4,555 1.4 1.5 4,555 2005 2.8 1.0

c,d c,d b b

127 Equatorial Guinea 3.2 3.8 6,416 7,874 11.7 16.6 7,874 2004 7.6 ..

d d

128 India 805.7 3,779.0 736 3,452 3.4 4.2 3,452 2005 7.2 4.2

d d

129 Solomon Islands 0.3 1.0 624 2,031 1.1 -2.4 2,804 1996 9.6 7.2

b b

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2.9 12.1 485 2,039 3.4 3.8 2,039 2005 28.0 7.2

d d b b

131 Cambodia 6.2 38.4 440 2,727 .. 5.5 2,727 2005 3.9 5.7

b b

132 Myanmar .. .. .. .. 2.6 6.6 .. .. 25.2 9.4

b b

133 Bhutan 0.8 .. 1,325 .. 5.4 5.6 .. .. 7.0 5.3

d d b b

134 Comoros 0.4 1.2 645 1,993 -0.6 -0.4 2,272 1984 .. ..

d d

135 Ghana 10.7 54.8 485 2,480 0.7 2.0 2,480 2005 25.6 15.1

136 Pakistan 110.7 369.2 711 2,370 2.5 1.3 2,370 2005 7.5 9.1

d d

137 Mauritania 1.9 6.9 603 2,234 -0.1 0.3 2,338 1976 5.8 12.1

d d

138 Lesotho 1.5 6.0 808 3,335 2.7 2.3 3,335 2005 8.5 3.4

139 Congo 5.1 5.0 1,273 1,262 -0.1 -1.0 1,758 1984 6.4 5.3

140 Bangladesh 60.0 291.2 423 2,053 2.0 2.9 2,053 2005 5.1 7.0

141 Swaziland 2.7 5.5 2,414 4,824 1.6 0.2 4,824 2005 8.7 4.8

142 Nepal 7.4 42.1 272 1,550 2.0 2.0 1,550 2005 6.8 6.8

143 Madagascar 5.0 17.2 271 923 -1.6 -0.7 1,450 1975 14.7 18.5

144 Cameroon 16.9 37.5 1,034 2,299 -0.4 0.6 3,175 1986 4.7 2.0

d d

145 Papua New Guinea 4.9 15.1 840 2,563 0.5 0.2 2,986 1994 10.1 1.7

d d

146 Haiti 4.3 14.2 500 1,663 -2.2 -2.0 3,151 1980 19.6 15.7

d d

147 Sudan 27.5 75.5 760 2,083 1.3 3.5 2,083 2005 41.8 8.5

148 Kenya 18.7 42.5 547 1,240 0.1 -0.1 1,263 1990 11.6 10.3

d d b b

149 Djibouti 0.7 1.7 894 2,178 -2.7 -2.7 3,200 1990 .. ..

150 Timor-Leste 0.3 .. 358 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

151 Zimbabwe 3.4 26.5 259 2,038 -0.5 -2.1 3,228 1998 36.1 ..

d d

152 Togo 2.2 9.3 358 1,506 -1.1 (.) 2,133 1980 5.7 6.8 Indicatori

b b

153 Yemen 15.1 19.5 718 930 1.5 1.5 943 2002 20.8 ..

d d b b

154 Uganda 8.7 41.9 303 1,454 2.4 3.2 1,454 2005 7.1 8.2

d d

155 Gambia 0.5 2.9 304 1,921 -0.1 0.1 1,932 1984 5.0 3.2 di

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT sviluppo

156 Senegal 8.2 20.9 707 1,792 (.) 1.2 1,792 2005 3.7 1.7

d d b b

157 Eritrea 1.0 4.9 220 1,109 .. 0.3 1,435 1997 .. .. umano

158 Nigeria 99.0 148.3 752 1,128 -0.1 0.8 1,177 1977 23.5 13.5

b b

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 12.1 28.5 316 744 1.4 1.7 744 2005 13.8 8.6 337

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

14

tabella Andamento dell’economia GDP per capita Highest

GDP Average annual change

value during

Annual growth rate in consumer price index

1975–2005 Year of

PPP US$ 2005 PPP (%) (%)

a highest

US$ billions billions US$ US$ 2005 PPP

a value

2005 2005 2005 2005 1975–2005 1990–2005 US$ 1990–2005 2004–05

HDI rank b b

160 Guinea 3.3 21.8 350 2,316 1.0 1.2 2,316 2005 .. ..

d d

161 Rwanda 2.2 10.9 238 1,206 -0.3 0.1 1,358 1983 11.2 9.1

d d b b

162 Angola 32.8 37.2 2,058 2,335 -0.6 1.5 2,335 2005 393.3 23.0

163 Benin 4.3 9.6 508 1,141 0.4 1.4 1,141 2005 5.6 5.4

164 Malawi 2.1 8.6 161 667 -0.2 1.0 719 1979 28.4 15.4

165 Zambia 7.3 11.9 623 1,023 -1.8 -0.3 1,559 1976 40.0 18.3

166 Côte d’Ivoire 16.3 29.9 900 1,648 -2.1 -0.5 3,195 1978 5.4 3.9

d d

167 Burundi 0.8 5.3 106 699 -1.0 -2.8 1,047 1991 13.8 13.0

d d

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 7.1 41.1 123 714 -4.9 -5.2 2,488 1975 424.3 21.3

d d b b

169 Ethiopia 11.2 75.1 157 1,055 -0.2 1.5 1,055 2005 4.2 11.6

d d

170 Chad 5.5 13.9 561 1,427 0.5 1.7 1,427 2005 5.3 7.9

d d

171 Central African Republic 1.4 4.9 339 1,224 -1.5 -0.6 1,935 1977 3.9 2.9

d d b b

172 Mozambique 6.6 24.6 335 1,242 2.3 4.3 1,242 2005 22.1 7.2

173 Mali 5.3 14.0 392 1,033 0.2 2.2 1,033 2005 3.8 6.4

d d

174 Niger 3.4 10.9 244 781 -1.7 -0.5 1,293 1979 4.4 7.8

d d

175 Guinea-Bissau 0.3 1.3 190 827 -0.6 -2.6 1,264 1997 20.2 3.3

d d

176 Burkina Faso 5.2 16.0 391 1,213 0.9 1.3 1,213 2005 4.1 6.4

177 Sierra Leone 1.2 4.5 216 806 -2.1 -1.4 1,111 1982 19.7 12.1

Developing countries 9,812.5 T 26,732.3 T 1,939 5,282 2.5 3.1 .. .. .. ..

Least developed countries 306.2 T 1,081.8 T 424 1,499 0.9 1.8 .. .. .. ..

Arab States 1,043.4 T 1,915.2 T 3,659 6,716 0.7 2.3 .. .. .. ..

East Asia and the Pacific 4,122.5 T 12,846.6 T 2,119 6,604 6.1 5.8 .. .. .. ..

Latin America and the Caribbean 2,469.5 T 4,639.2 T 4,480 8,417 0.7 1.2 .. .. .. ..

South Asia 1,206.1 T 5,152.2 T 800 3,416 2.6 3.4 .. .. .. ..

Sub-Saharan Africa 589.9 T 1,395.6 T 845 1,998 -0.5 0.5 .. .. .. ..

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 1,873.0 T 3,827.2 T 4,662 9,527 1.4 1.4 .. .. .. ..

OECD 34,851.2 T 34,076.8 T 29,860 29,197 2.0 1.8 .. .. .. ..

High-income OECD 32,404.5 T 30,711.7 T 35,696 33,831 2.1 1.8 .. .. .. ..

High human development 37,978.4 T 39,633.4 T 22,984 23,986 1.9 1.8 .. .. .. ..

Medium human development 5,881.2 T 20,312.6 T 1,412 4,876 3.2 4.0 .. .. .. ..

Low human development 236.4 T 544.2 T 483 1,112 -0.7 0.6 .. .. .. ..

High income 34,338.1 T 32,680.7 T 34,759 33,082 2.1 1.8 .. .. .. ..

Middle income 8,552.0 T 22,586.3 T 2,808 7,416 2.1 3.0 .. .. .. ..

Low income 1,416.2 T 5,879.1 T 610 2,531 2.2 2.9 .. .. .. ..

World 44,155.7 T 60,597.3 T 6,954 9,543 1.4 1.5 .. .. .. ..

NOTES SOURCES

Columns 1–4:

a. GDP values expressed in 2005 constant prices. World Bank 2007b; aggregates

b. Data refer to a period shorter than that specified. calculated for HDRO by the World Bank.

Columns 5 and 6:

c. Data refer to 2004. World Bank 2007b; aggregates

d. World Bank estimates based on regression. calculated for HDRO by the World Bank using the least

e. Data refer to 2003. squares method.

Columns 7 and 8:

f. Data refer to 2002. calculated based on GDP per

g. Estimate based on a bilateral comparison capita (PPP US$) time series from World Bank 2007b.

Columns 9 and 10:

between China and the United States (Ruoen and calculated based on data on the

Kai 1995). consumer price index from World Bank 2007b.

h. Data refer to 2000.

i. Data refer to 2001.

umano

sviluppo

di

Indicatori

338 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

15

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Disuguaglianza di reddito e di consumo

MDG Inequality measures

Share of income or expenditure Richest 10% Richest 20%

(%) to poorest to poorest

a a b

Survey year Poorest 10% Poorest 20% Richest 20% Richest 10% 10% 20% Gini index

HDI rank

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

2 Norway 2000 3.9 9.6 37.2 23.4 6.1 3.9 25.8

c

3 Australia 1994 2.0 5.9 41.3 25.4 12.5 7.0 35.2

c

4 Canada 2000 2.6 7.2 39.9 24.8 9.4 5.5 32.6

c

5 Ireland 2000 2.9 7.4 42.0 27.2 9.4 5.6 34.3

c

6 Sweden 2000 3.6 9.1 36.6 22.2 6.2 4.0 25.0

c

7 Switzerland 2000 2.9 7.6 41.3 25.9 9.0 5.5 33.7

c

8 Japan 1993 4.8 10.6 35.7 21.7 4.5 3.4 24.9

c

9 Netherlands 1999 2.5 7.6 38.7 22.9 9.2 5.1 30.9

c

10 France 1995 2.8 7.2 40.2 25.1 9.1 5.6 32.7

c

11 Finland 2000 4.0 9.6 36.7 22.6 5.6 3.8 26.9

c

12 United States 2000 1.9 5.4 45.8 29.9 15.9 8.4 40.8

c

13 Spain 2000 2.6 7.0 42.0 26.6 10.3 6.0 34.7

c

14 Denmark 1997 2.6 8.3 35.8 21.3 8.1 4.3 24.7

c

15 Austria 2000 3.3 8.6 37.8 23.0 6.9 4.4 29.1

c

16 United Kingdom 1999 2.1 6.1 44.0 28.5 13.8 7.2 36.0

c

17 Belgium 2000 3.4 8.5 41.4 28.1 8.2 4.9 33.0

18 Luxembourg .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

19 New Zealand 1997 2.2 6.4 43.8 27.8 12.5 6.8 36.2

c

20 Italy 2000 2.3 6.5 42.0 26.8 11.6 6.5 36.0

c

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 1996 2.0 5.3 50.7 34.9 17.8 9.7 43.4

c

22 Germany 2000 3.2 8.5 36.9 22.1 6.9 4.3 28.3

c

23 Israel 2001 2.1 5.7 44.9 28.8 13.4 7.9 39.2

c

24 Greece 2000 2.5 6.7 41.5 26.0 10.2 6.2 34.3

c

25 Singapore 1998 1.9 5.0 49.0 32.8 17.7 9.7 42.5

c

26 Korea (Republic of) 1998 2.9 7.9 37.5 22.5 7.8 4.7 31.6

d

27 Slovenia 1998 3.6 9.1 35.7 21.4 5.9 3.9 28.4

28 Cyprus .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

29 Portugal 1997 2.0 5.8 45.9 29.8 15.0 8.0 38.5

30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

31 Barbados .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

32 Czech Republic 1996 4.3 10.3 35.9 22.4 5.2 3.5 25.4

33 Kuwait .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

34 Malta .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

35 Qatar .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

36 Hungary 2002 4.0 9.5 36.5 22.2 5.5 3.8 26.9

d

37 Poland 2002 3.1 7.5 42.2 27.0 8.8 5.6 34.5

e c

38 Argentina 2004 0.9 3.1 55.4 38.2 40.9 17.8 51.3

39 United Arab Emirates .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

40 Chile 2003 1.4 3.8 60.0 45.0 33.0 15.7 54.9

41 Bahrain .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

42 Slovakia 1996 3.1 8.8 34.8 20.9 6.7 4.0 25.8

d

43 Lithuania 2003 2.7 6.8 43.2 27.7 10.4 6.3 36.0

d

44 Estonia 2003 2.5 6.7 42.8 27.6 10.8 6.4 35.8

d

45 Latvia 2003 2.5 6.6 44.7 29.1 11.6 6.8 37.7 Indicatori

e c

46 Uruguay 2003 1.9 5.0 50.5 34.0 17.9 10.2 44.9

d

47 Croatia 2001 3.4 8.3 39.6 24.5 7.3 4.8 29.0

c

48 Costa Rica 2003 1.0 3.5 54.1 37.4 37.8 15.6 49.8 di

49 Bahamas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. sviluppo

50 Seychelles .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

51 Cuba .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d umano

52 Mexico 2004 1.6 4.3 55.1 39.4 24.6 12.8 46.1

d

53 Bulgaria 2003 3.4 8.7 38.3 23.9 7.0 4.4 29.2 339

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

15

tabella Disuguaglianza di reddito e di consumo

MDG Inequality measures

Share of income or expenditure Richest 10% Richest 20%

(%) to poorest to poorest

a a b

Survey year Poorest 10% Poorest 20% Richest 20% Richest 10% 10% 20% Gini index

HDI rank

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

55 Tonga .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

58 Oman .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

59 Trinidad and Tobago 1992 2.2 5.9 44.9 28.8 12.9 7.6 38.9

d

60 Romania 2003 3.3 8.1 39.2 24.4 7.5 4.9 31.0

61 Saudi Arabia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

62 Panama 2003 0.7 2.5 59.9 43.0 57.5 23.9 56.1

c

63 Malaysia 1997 1.7 4.4 54.3 38.4 22.1 12.4 49.2

d

64 Belarus 2002 3.4 8.5 38.3 23.5 6.9 4.5 29.7

65 Mauritius .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001 3.9 9.5 35.8 21.4 5.4 3.8 26.2

d

67 Russian Federation 2002 2.4 6.1 46.6 30.6 12.7 7.6 39.9

d

68 Albania 2004 3.4 8.2 39.5 24.4 7.2 4.8 31.1

d

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 2003 2.4 6.1 45.5 29.6 12.5 7.5 39.0

c

70 Brazil 2004 0.9 2.8 61.1 44.8 51.3 21.8 57.0

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

72 Saint Lucia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

73 Kazakhstan 2003 3.0 7.4 41.5 25.9 8.5 5.6 33.9

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2003 0.7 3.3 52.1 35.2 48.3 16.0 48.2

c

75 Colombia 2003 0.7 2.5 62.7 46.9 63.8 25.3 58.6

d

76 Ukraine 2003 3.9 9.2 37.5 23.0 5.9 4.1 28.1

77 Samoa .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

78 Thailand 2002 2.7 6.3 49.0 33.4 12.6 7.7 42.0

c

79 Dominican Republic 2004 1.4 4.0 56.7 41.1 28.5 14.3 51.6

80 Belize .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

81 China 2004 1.6 4.3 51.9 34.9 21.6 12.2 46.9

82 Grenada .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

83 Armenia 2003 3.6 8.5 42.8 29.0 8.0 5.0 33.8

d

84 Turkey 2003 2.0 5.3 49.7 34.1 16.8 9.3 43.6

85 Suriname .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

86 Jordan 2002-03 2.7 6.7 46.3 30.6 11.3 6.9 38.8

c

87 Peru 2003 1.3 3.7 56.7 40.9 30.4 15.2 52.0

88 Lebanon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

89 Ecuador 1998 0.9 3.3 58.0 41.6 44.9 17.3 53.6

d

90 Philippines 2003 2.2 5.4 50.6 34.2 15.5 9.3 44.5

d

91 Tunisia 2000 2.3 6.0 47.3 31.5 13.4 7.9 39.8

92 Fiji .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1998 2.0 5.1 49.9 33.7 17.2 9.7 43.0

c

95 Paraguay 2003 0.7 2.4 61.9 46.1 65.4 25.7 58.4

d

96 Georgia 2003 2.0 5.6 46.4 30.3 15.4 8.3 40.4

97 Guyana .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

98 Azerbaijan 2001 3.1 7.4 44.5 29.5 9.7 6.0 36.5

umano d

99 Sri Lanka 2002 3.0 7.0 48.0 32.7 11.1 6.9 40.2

100 Maldives .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

sviluppo 101 Jamaica 2004 2.1 5.3 51.6 35.8 17.3 9.8 45.5

102 Cape Verde .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

c

103 El Salvador 2002 0.7 2.7 55.9 38.8 57.5 20.9 52.4

di d

104 Algeria 1995 2.8 7.0 42.6 26.8 9.6 6.1 35.3

Indicatori d

105 Viet Nam 2004 4.2 9.0 44.3 28.8 6.9 4.9 34.4

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

340 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 15

tabella

MDG Inequality measures

Share of income or expenditure Richest 10% Richest 20%

(%) to poorest to poorest

a a b

Survey year Poorest 10% Poorest 20% Richest 20% Richest 10% 10% 20% Gini index

HDI rank d

107 Indonesia 2002 3.6 8.4 43.3 28.5 7.8 5.2 34.3

108 Syrian Arab Republic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

109 Turkmenistan 1998 2.6 6.1 47.5 31.7 12.3 7.7 40.8

d

110 Nicaragua 2001 2.2 5.6 49.3 33.8 15.5 8.8 43.1

d

111 Moldova 2003 3.2 7.8 41.4 26.4 8.2 5.3 33.2

d

112 Egypt 1999-00 3.7 8.6 43.6 29.5 8.0 5.1 34.4

d

113 Uzbekistan 2003 2.8 7.2 44.7 29.6 10.6 6.2 36.8

d

114 Mongolia 2002 3.0 7.5 40.5 24.6 8.2 5.4 32.8

c

115 Honduras 2003 1.2 3.4 58.3 42.2 34.2 17.2 53.8

d

116 Kyrgyzstan 2003 3.8 8.9 39.4 24.3 6.4 4.4 30.3

c

117 Bolivia 2002 0.3 1.5 63.0 47.2 168.1 42.3 60.1

c

118 Guatemala 2002 0.9 2.9 59.5 43.4 48.2 20.3 55.1

119 Gabon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

120 Vanuatu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

121 South Africa 2000 1.4 3.5 62.2 44.7 33.1 17.9 57.8

d

122 Tajikistan 2003 3.3 7.9 40.8 25.6 7.8 5.2 32.6

123 Sao Tome and Principe .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

124 Botswana 1993 1.2 3.2 65.1 51.0 43.0 20.4 60.5

c

125 Namibia 1993 0.5 1.4 78.7 64.5 128.8 56.1 74.3

d

126 Morocco 1998-99 2.6 6.5 46.6 30.9 11.7 7.2 39.5

127 Equatorial Guinea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

128 India 2004-05 3.6 8.1 45.3 31.1 8.6 5.6 36.8

129 Solomon Islands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2002 3.4 8.1 43.3 28.5 8.3 5.4 34.6

d

131 Cambodia 2004 2.9 6.8 49.6 34.8 12.2 7.3 41.7

132 Myanmar .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

133 Bhutan .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

134 Comoros .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

135 Ghana 1998-99 2.1 5.6 46.6 30.0 14.1 8.4 40.8

d

136 Pakistan 2002 4.0 9.3 40.3 26.3 6.5 4.3 30.6

d

137 Mauritania 2000 2.5 6.2 45.7 29.5 12.0 7.4 39.0

d

138 Lesotho 1995 0.5 1.5 66.5 48.3 105.0 44.2 63.2

139 Congo .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

140 Bangladesh 2000 3.7 8.6 42.7 27.9 7.5 4.9 33.4

c

141 Swaziland 2000-01 1.6 4.3 56.3 40.7 25.1 13.0 50.4

d

142 Nepal 2003-04 2.6 6.0 54.6 40.6 15.8 9.1 47.2

d

143 Madagascar 2001 1.9 4.9 53.5 36.6 19.2 11.0 47.5

d

144 Cameroon 2001 2.3 5.6 50.9 35.4 15.7 9.1 44.6

d

145 Papua New Guinea 1996 1.7 4.5 56.5 40.5 23.8 12.6 50.9

c

146 Haiti 2001 0.7 2.4 63.4 47.7 71.7 26.6 59.2

147 Sudan .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

148 Kenya 1997 2.5 6.0 49.1 33.9 13.6 8.2 42.5

149 Djibouti .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

150 Timor-Leste .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

151 Zimbabwe 1995-96 1.8 4.6 55.7 40.3 22.0 12.0 50.1

152 Togo .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Indicatori

d

153 Yemen 1998 3.0 7.4 41.2 25.9 8.6 5.6 33.4

d

154 Uganda 2002 2.3 5.7 52.5 37.7 16.6 9.2 45.7

d

155 Gambia 1998 1.8 4.8 53.4 37.0 20.2 11.2 50.2 di

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT sviluppo

d

156 Senegal 2001 2.7 6.6 48.4 33.4 12.3 7.4 41.3

157 Eritrea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d umano

158 Nigeria 2003 1.9 5.0 49.2 33.2 17.8 9.7 43.7

d

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 2000-01 2.9 7.3 42.4 26.9 9.2 5.8 34.6 341

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

15

tabella Disuguaglianza di reddito e di consumo

MDG Inequality measures

Share of income or expenditure Richest 10% Richest 20%

(%) to poorest to poorest

a a b

Survey year Poorest 10% Poorest 20% Richest 20% Richest 10% 10% 20% Gini index

HDI rank d

160 Guinea 2003 2.9 7.0 46.1 30.7 10.5 6.6 38.6

d

161 Rwanda 2000 2.1 5.3 53.0 38.2 18.6 9.9 46.8

162 Angola .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

163 Benin 2003 3.1 7.4 44.5 29.0 9.4 6.0 36.5

d

164 Malawi 2004-05 2.9 7.0 46.6 31.8 10.9 6.7 39.0

d

165 Zambia 2004 1.2 3.6 55.1 38.8 32.3 15.3 50.8

d

166 Côte d’Ivoire 2002 2.0 5.2 50.7 34.0 16.6 9.7 44.6

d

167 Burundi 1998 1.7 5.1 48.0 32.8 19.3 9.5 42.4

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

169 Ethiopia 1999-00 3.9 9.1 39.4 25.5 6.6 4.3 30.0

170 Chad .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

171 Central African Republic 1993 0.7 2.0 65.0 47.7 69.2 32.7 61.3

d

172 Mozambique 2002-03 2.1 5.4 53.6 39.4 18.8 9.9 47.3

d

173 Mali 2001 2.4 6.1 46.6 30.2 12.5 7.6 40.1

d

174 Niger 1995 0.8 2.6 53.3 35.4 46.0 20.7 50.5

d

175 Guinea-Bissau 1993 2.1 5.2 53.4 39.3 19.0 10.3 47.0

d

176 Burkina Faso 2003 2.8 6.9 47.2 32.2 11.6 6.9 39.5

d

177 Sierra Leone 1989 0.5 1.1 63.4 43.6 87.2 57.6 62.9

NOTES SOURCES

b. A value of 0 represents absolute equality, and a Columns 1–5 and 8:

Because the underlying household surveys differ World Bank 2007b.

value of 100 absolute inequality. Columns 6 and 7:

c.

in method and in the type of data collected, the calculated based on data on

Data refer to income shares by percentiles of

distribution data are not strictly comparable income or expenditure from World Bank 2007b.

population, ranked by per capita income.

d.

across countries. Data refer to expenditure shares by percentiles of

a. Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure population, ranked by per capita expenditure.

e.

share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Data refer to urban areas only.

Because of rounding, results may differ from

ratios calculated using the income or expenditure

shares in columns 2-5.

umano

sviluppo

di

Indicatori

342 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

16

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Struttura del commercio High-technology

a

Imports of goods exports

Exports of goods Primary exports Manufactured exports Terms of

trade

and services and services (% of merchandise (% of merchandise (% of manufactured b

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) exports) exports) exports) (2000=100)

c

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2004–05

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 32 45 34 32 91 80 8 19 10.0 27.1 ..

2 Norway 34 28 40 45 67 80 32 17 12.4 17.3 122

d d

3 Australia 16 21 16 18 73 67 27 25 11.9 12.7 131

d d

4 Canada 26 34 26 39 36 37 59 58 13.7 14.4 111

d d

5 Ireland 52 68 57 83 26 10 70 86 .. .. 99

6 Sweden 30 41 30 49 16 15 83 79 13.3 16.7 90

d d

7 Switzerland 34 39 36 46 6 6 94 93 12.1 21.7 ..

d d

8 Japan 10 11 10 13 3 4 96 92 23.8 22.5 83

9 Netherlands 52 63 56 71 37 31 59 68 16.4 30.1 100

10 France 23 27 21 26 23 18 77 80 16.1 20.0 111

11 Finland 24 35 22 39 17 15 83 84 7.6 25.2 86

d d

12 United States 11 15 10 10 21 15 75 82 33.7 31.8 97

13 Spain 19 31 16 25 24 22 75 77 6.4 7.1 102

14 Denmark 33 44 37 49 35 31 60 65 15.2 21.6 104

15 Austria 37 48 38 53 12 16 88 80 7.8 12.8 102

16 United Kingdom 27 30 24 26 19 18 79 77 23.6 28.0 105

e e

17 Belgium 68 85 69 87 19 19 77 79 .. 8.7 99

18 Luxembourg 88 136 102 158 .. 14 .. 82 .. 11.8 ..

d d

19 New Zealand 27 30 27 29 72 66 26 31 9.5 14.2 112

20 Italy 19 26 19 26 11 12 88 85 7.6 7.8 101

f

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 122 185 131 198 7 3 92 96 12.1 33.9 98

22 Germany 25 35 25 40 10 10 89 83 11.1 16.9 101

23 Israel 45 51 35 46 13 4 87 83 10.4 13.9 95

24 Greece 28 28 18 21 46 41 54 56 2.2 10.2 95

25 Singapore .. 213 .. 243 27 15 72 81 39.7 56.6 87

26 Korea (Republic of) 29 40 28 42 6 9 94 91 17.8 32.3 77

f f f

27 Slovenia 79 65 91 65 14 12 86 88 3.2 4.6 ..

28 Cyprus 57 .. 52 .. 42 36 58 63 8.2 46.3 ..

d d

29 Portugal 38 37 31 29 19 16 80 75 4.4 8.7 102

d d d

30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. .. .. 97 88 3 12 .. 4.9 ..

f d

31 Barbados 52 69 49 58 55 56 43 43 20.2 14.8 ..

d

32 Czech Republic 43 70 45 72 .. 10 .. 88 .. 12.9 ..

d d d

33 Kuwait 58 30 45 68 94 93 6 7 3.5 1.0 ..

34 Malta 99 82 85 71 7 4 93 95 43.6 53.5 85

f

35 Qatar .. 33 .. 68 82 84 18 7 0.4 1.2 ..

f

36 Hungary 29 69 31 66 35 11 63 84 4.0 24.5 97

f

37 Poland 22 37 29 37 36 20 58 78 3.7 3.8 107

f

38 Argentina 5 19 10 25 71 68 29 31 7.1 6.6 107

f d f d f d

39 United Arab Emirates 41 76 66 94 88 76 12 24 (.) 10.2 ..

d

40 Chile 31 34 34 42 87 84 11 14 4.6 4.8 115

d d

41 Bahrain 95 64 116 82 54 93 45 7 .. 2.0 ..

42 Slovakia 36 83 27 79 .. 16 .. 84 .. 7.3 ..

f f f

43 Lithuania 61 65 52 58 38 44 59 56 0.4 6.1 ..

f f

44 Estonia 54 90 60 84 .. 22 .. 69 .. 17.6 ..

45 Latvia 49 62 48 48 .. 40 .. 57 .. 5.3 .. Indicatori

d

46 Uruguay 18 28 24 30 61 68 39 32 .. 2.4 108

f f f f f

47 Croatia 86 56 78 47 32 32 68 68 5.3 11.5 ..

48 Costa Rica 36 54 30 48 66 34 27 66 .. 38.0 102 di

f d f d d

49 Bahamas .. .. .. .. 81 58 19 42 .. 4.9 .. sviluppo

f d

50 Seychelles 67 121 62 110 74 93 26 6 59.4 18.2 99

d d d

51 Cuba .. .. .. .. .. 81 .. 19 .. 29.1 .. umano

52 Mexico 20 32 19 30 56 23 43 77 8.3 19.6 98

53 Bulgaria 37 77 33 61 .. 37 .. 59 .. 4.7 .. 343

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

16

tabella Struttura del commercio High-technology

a

Imports of goods exports

Exports of goods Primary exports Manufactured exports Terms of

trade

and services and services (% of merchandise (% of merchandise (% of manufactured b

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) exports) exports) exports) (2000=100)

c

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2004–05

d d d

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 83 61 52 49 .. 4 .. 96 .. 0.7 ..

d d g d d d

55 Tonga 65 44 34 10 74 93 24 5 .. 0.3 ..

d d f,g f d

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 31 36 40 48 96 .. 4 .. .. .. 186

d d d

57 Antigua and Barbuda 87 69 89 62 .. 71 .. 29 .. 16.1 ..

d d

58 Oman 28 43 47 57 94 89 5 6 2.1 2.2 ..

d d f

59 Trinidad and Tobago 29 46 45 58 73 74 27 26 0.8 1.3 ..

60 Romania 26 43 17 33 26 20 73 80 2.5 3.4 ..

f

61 Saudi Arabia 32 26 41 61 92 90 8 9 0.7 1.3 ..

62 Panama 79 72 87 69 78 91 21 9 .. 0.9 94

63 Malaysia 72 100 75 123 46 24 54 75 38.2 54.7 99

64 Belarus 44 60 46 61 .. 46 .. 52 .. 2.6 ..

65 Mauritius 71 61 64 57 34 29 66 70 0.5 21.3 85

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 81 .. 36 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

67 Russian Federation 18 22 18 35 .. 60 .. 19 .. 8.1 ..

68 Albania 23 46 15 22 .. 20 .. 80 .. 1.0 ..

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 36 62 26 45 .. 28 .. 72 .. 1.1 ..

70 Brazil 7 12 8 17 47 46 52 54 7.1 12.8 101

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica 81 69 55 45 65 40 35 60 .. 7.2 ..

d d f d

72 Saint Lucia 84 70 73 60 68 63 32 36 4.5 20.1 ..

f f d d d

73 Kazakhstan 75 45 74 54 .. 84 .. 16 .. 2.3 ..

d

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 20 21 39 41 90 91 10 9 3.9 2.7 108

f

75 Colombia 15 21 21 21 74 64 25 36 5.2 4.9 93

76 Ukraine 29 53 28 54 .. 30 .. 69 .. 3.7 ..

d d d d d

77 Samoa .. 51 .. 27 90 23 10 77 .. 0.1 ..

78 Thailand 42 75 34 74 36 22 63 77 20.7 26.6 93

f d f d d

79 Dominican Republic 44 38 34 34 22 60 78 34 .. 1.3 95

g d d f d

80 Belize 60 63 62 55 88 86 15 13 10.4 2.8 ..

f

81 China 16 32 19 37 27 8 72 92 6.1 30.6 92

d d d d d

82 Grenada 63 76 42 43 66 64 34 36 .. 4.7 ..

83 Armenia 46 40 35 27 .. 29 .. 71 .. 0.7 ..

84 Turkey 18 34 13 27 32 17 68 82 1.2 1.5 101

d d d

85 Suriname 44 60 42 41 26 27 74 80 .. 0.2 ..

86 Jordan 93 93 62 52 44 28 56 72 6.8 5.2 88

f

87 Peru 14 19 16 25 82 83 18 17 1.6 2.6 109

d d d

88 Lebanon 100 44 18 19 .. 29 .. 70 .. 2.4 ..

89 Ecuador 32 32 33 31 98 91 2 9 0.3 7.6 108

f

90 Philippines 33 52 28 47 31 11 38 89 32.5 71.0 89

d d d

91 Tunisia 51 51 44 48 31 22 69 78 2.1 4.9 99

d

92 Fiji 67 .. 62 74 64 74 35 25 12.1 3.2 ..

d

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 77 65 66 44 .. 75 .. 25 .. 7.7 ..

d

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 23 30 15 39 .. 88 .. 9 .. 2.6 ..

g d d d d

95 Paraguay 39 54 33 47 90 87 10 13 0.2 6.6 112

96 Georgia 46 54 40 42 .. 60 .. 40 .. 22.6 ..

97 Guyana 80 124 63 88 .. 78 .. 20 .. 1.1 ..

98 Azerbaijan 39 54 44 57 .. 87 .. 13 .. 0.8 ..

umano d d

99 Sri Lanka 38 46 29 34 42 28 54 70 0.6 1.5 101

100 Maldives .. 110 .. 62 .. 92 .. 8 .. 2.1 ..

d d f d

sviluppo 101 Jamaica 52 61 48 41 30 34 70 66 9.5 0.4 ..

d d d d d

102 Cape Verde 44 66 13 32 .. 65 .. 90 .. (.) 91

d d d

103 El Salvador 31 45 19 27 62 40 38 60 .. 4.1 91

di d d f d

104 Algeria 25 23 23 48 97 98 3 2 1.3 1.0 126

Indicatori d d d

105 Viet Nam 45 75 36 70 .. 46 .. 53 .. 5.6 ..

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. 68 .. 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

344 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 16

tabella

High-technology

a

Imports of goods exports

Exports of goods Primary exports Manufactured exports Terms of

trade

and services and services (% of merchandise (% of merchandise (% of manufactured b

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) exports) exports) exports) (2000=100)

c

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2004–05

107 Indonesia 24 29 25 34 65 53 35 47 1.2 16.3 104

d d d

108 Syrian Arab Republic 28 40 28 37 64 87 36 11 .. 1.0 ..

d d d

109 Turkmenistan .. 48 .. 65 .. 92 .. 7 .. 4.9 ..

110 Nicaragua 46 58 25 28 92 89 8 11 .. 5.2 91

111 Moldova 51 91 48 53 .. 61 .. 39 .. 2.7 ..

d d d

112 Egypt 33 33 20 30 57 64 42 31 .. 0.6 107

113 Uzbekistan 48 30 29 40 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

114 Mongolia 49 84 22 76 .. 79 .. 21 .. 0.1 ..

d

115 Honduras 40 61 37 41 91 64 9 36 .. 2.2 90

116 Kyrgyzstan 50 58 29 39 .. 35 .. 27 .. 2.2 ..

f d

117 Bolivia 24 33 23 36 95 89 5 11 6.8 9.2 108

118 Guatemala 25 30 21 16 76 43 24 57 .. 3.2 93

d d d

119 Gabon 31 39 46 59 .. 93 .. 7 .. 14.5 125

g d d d

120 Vanuatu 77 .. 49 .. 87 92 13 8 19.8 1.2 ..

f,h h f,h h f

121 South Africa 19 29 24 27 29 43 29 57 6.8 6.6 109

d d d

122 Tajikistan 35 73 28 54 .. 87 .. 13 .. 41.8 ..

123 Sao Tome and Principe 72 99 14 40 .. .. .. .. .. .. 137

i d,i i d,i d

124 Botswana 50 35 55 51 .. 13 .. 86 .. 0.2 92

i d,i i d,i d

125 Namibia 67 45 52 46 .. 58 .. 41 .. 2.9 97

126 Morocco 32 43 26 36 48 35 52 65 .. 10.1 100

127 Equatorial Guinea 70 .. 32 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 124

d

128 India 9 24 7 21 28 29 70 70 2.4 4.9 76

d d f,g

129 Solomon Islands 73 46 47 48 109 .. .. .. .. .. ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 25 31 12 27 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d d d

131 Cambodia 13 74 6 65 .. 3 .. 97 .. 0.2 ..

f f f

132 Myanmar 5 .. 3 .. 89 .. 11 .. 3.0 .. 102

f f

133 Bhutan 31 55 27 27 58 .. 42 .. .. .. ..

d d d

134 Comoros 37 35 14 12 .. 89 .. 8 .. 0.5 58

f d f d f d

135 Ghana 26 62 17 36 92 88 8 12 2.1 9.3 123

136 Pakistan 23 20 16 15 21 18 79 82 0.4 1.6 75

137 Mauritania 61 95 46 36 .. .. .. .. .. .. 95

i i i i

138 Lesotho 122 88 17 48 .. .. .. .. .. .. 91

139 Congo 46 55 54 82 .. .. .. .. .. .. 121

g d d d

140 Bangladesh 14 23 6 17 22 10 77 90 0.1 (.) 88

i d,i i d,i d

141 Swaziland 87 95 75 88 .. 23 .. 76 .. 0.5 94

g d d d

142 Nepal 21 33 11 16 17 26 83 74 .. 0.1 ..

d d d

143 Madagascar 28 40 17 26 85 76 14 22 7.5 0.8 82

144 Cameroon 17 25 20 23 91 85 9 3 3.1 2.0 112

d d d d d

145 Papua New Guinea 49 54 41 45 89 94 10 6 .. 39.4 ..

d d

146 Haiti 20 45 18 16 15 .. 85 .. 13.8 .. 87

f,g f d

147 Sudan .. 28 .. 18 98 99 2 (.) .. (.) 121

d d d

148 Kenya 31 35 26 27 70 79 30 21 3.9 3.1 ..

149 Djibouti 78 54 54 37 44 .. 8 .. .. .. ..

150 Timor-Leste .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d d d

151 Zimbabwe 23 53 23 43 68 72 31 28 1.5 0.9 104

f

152 Togo 45 47 33 34 89 42 9 58 0.6 0.1 30 Indicatori

f f

153 Yemen 20 38 14 46 85 96 15 4 .. 5.3 ..

154 Uganda 19 27 7 13 .. 83 .. 17 .. 14.0 88

g

155 Gambia 72 65 60 45 .. 84 .. 17 .. 5.9 115 di

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT sviluppo

156 Senegal 30 42 25 27 77 55 23 43 .. 11.7 96

f f

157 Eritrea 45 56 11 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 93

f d f d d umano

158 Nigeria 29 35 43 53 99 98 1 2 .. 1.7 122

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 37 26 13 17 .. 85 .. 14 .. 0.8 100 345

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

16

tabella Struttura del commercio High-technology

a

Imports of goods exports

Exports of goods Primary exports Manufactured exports Terms of

trade

and services and services (% of merchandise (% of merchandise (% of manufactured b

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) exports) exports) exports) (2000=100)

c

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 2004–05

d d d

160 Guinea 31 30 31 26 .. 75 .. 25 .. (.) 106

d d d

161 Rwanda 14 31 6 11 .. 90 .. 10 .. 25.4 89

162 Angola 21 48 39 74 100 .. (.) .. .. .. 121

f f

163 Benin 26 26 14 13 87 87 13 13 .. 0.3 93

164 Malawi 33 53 24 27 93 84 7 16 3.8 7.5 82

165 Zambia 37 25 36 16 .. 91 .. 9 .. 1.1 119

d d d

166 Côte d’Ivoire 27 42 32 50 .. 78 .. 20 .. 8.4 121

d

167 Burundi 28 36 8 8 .. 94 .. 6 .. 5.9 84

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 29 39 30 32 .. .. .. .. .. .. 94

d d d

169 Ethiopia 9 39 6 16 .. 89 .. 11 .. 0.2 91

170 Chad 28 39 13 59 .. .. .. .. .. .. 101

d d f f

171 Central African Republic 28 17 15 12 56 59 44 36 .. (.) 99

172 Mozambique 36 42 8 33 .. 89 .. 7 .. 7.5 94

g d d d d

173 Mali 34 37 17 26 98 44 2 55 .. 6.6 113

d d d

174 Niger 22 24 15 15 .. 91 .. 8 .. 3.2 131

175 Guinea-Bissau 37 55 10 38 .. .. .. .. .. .. 94

d d d

176 Burkina Faso 24 22 11 9 .. 92 .. 8 .. 9.8 97

d d d

177 Sierra Leone 24 43 22 24 .. 93 .. 7 .. 31.1 78

f

Developing countries 24 40 25 44 40 28 59 71 10.4 28.3 ..

f

Least developed countries 22 34 13 24 .. .. 31 .. .. .. ..

f f f d

Arab States 38 38 38 54 87 .. 14 .. 1.2 2.0 ..

f

East Asia and the Pacific 32 59 34 66 25 13 73 86 15.3 36.4 ..

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 23 17 26 63 46 36 54 6.6 14.5 ..

f d

South Asia 13 25 10 23 28 47 71 51 2.0 3.8 ..

d d d

Sub-Saharan Africa 26 35 27 33 .. 66 .. 34 .. 4.0 ..

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 28 43 29 45 .. 36 .. 54 .. 8.3 ..

d d

OECD 18 23 17 22 21 18 77 79 18.1 18.2 ..

d d

High-income OECD 18 22 17 21 19 17 79 79 18.5 18.8 ..

d d

High human development 19 25 19 25 24 20 74 76 18.1 20.3 ..

f

Medium human development 21 34 20 35 42 30 55 69 7.2 24.3 ..

f d f d d

Low human development 28 36 28 38 98 93 1 7 .. 3.1 ..

d

High income 19 24 18 24 21 18 77 78 18.3 20.9 ..

Middle income 21 33 22 36 48 33 50 65 .. 21.5 ..

f d f d d

Low income 16 29 13 25 50 49 49 50 .. 3.8 ..

d

World 19 26 19 26 26 21 72 75 17.5 21.0 ..

NOTES SOURCES

d. Data refer to an earlier year than that specified;

a. Columns 1–4 and 7–10:

Primary exports include exports of agricultural raw World Bank 2007b, based

from 2000 onwards.

e.

materials, food, fuels, ores and metals as defined on data from UNCTAD; aggregates calculated for

Data before 1999 include Luxembourg.

f.

in the Standard International Trade Classification. HDRO by the World Bank.

Data refer to the closest available year between Columns 5 and 6:

b. The ratio of the export price index to the import calculated on the basis of export

1988 and 1992.

g.

price index measured relative to the base year data on agricultural raw materials, food, fuels, ores

One or more of the components of primary exports

2000. A value of more than 100 means that the and metals and total merchandise from World Bank

are missing.

h.

price of exports has risen relative to the price of 2007b, based on data from UNCTAD; aggregates

Data refer to the South African Customs Union,

imports. calculated for HDRO by the World Bank.

which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Column 11:

c. Data refer to the most recent year available during World Bank 2007b.

South Africa, and Swaziland.

i

the period specified, unless otherwise noted. Included in data for South Africa.

umano

sviluppo

di

Indicatori

346 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

17

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Spese per aiuti dei paesi /

cas ocse

MDG

Net official development MDG

assistance (ODA) disbursed MDG ODA to basic MDG

a c

Total ODA to least

ODA per capita of social services

b Untied bilateral ODA

developed countries

donor country

(US$ (% of total allocable

As % of GNI

millions) (2005 US$) (% of total) by sector) (% of total)

d e e

HDI rank 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1996/97 2004/05 1990 2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

2 Norway 2,786 1.17 0.94 453 600 44 37 12.9 14.3 61 100

3 Australia 1,680 0.34 0.25 76 83 18 25 12.0 10.7 33 72

4 Canada 3,756 0.44 0.34 115 116 30 28 5.7 30.4 47 66

5 Ireland 719 0.16 0.42 27 180 37 51 0.5 32.0 .. 100

6 Sweden 3,362 0.91 0.94 256 371 39 33 10.3 15.2 87 98

7 Switzerland 1,767 0.32 0.44 148 237 43 23 8.6 7.2 78 97

8 Japan 13,147 0.31 0.28 91 103 19 18 2.5 4.6 89 90

9 Netherlands 5,115 0.92 0.82 247 313 33 32 13.1 22.0 56 96

10 France 10,026 0.60 0.47 166 165 32 24 .. 6.3 64 95

11 Finland 902 0.65 0.46 174 171 38 27 6.5 13.4 31 95

12 United States 27,622 0.21 0.22 63 93 19 21 20.0 18.4 .. ..

13 Spain 3,018 0.20 0.27 35 70 20 27 10.4 18.3 .. 87

14 Denmark 2,109 0.94 0.81 315 388 39 39 9.6 17.6 .. 87

15 Austria 1,573 0.11 0.52 29 191 63 16 4.5 13.9 32 89

16 United Kingdom 10,767 0.27 0.47 72 179 32 25 22.9 30.2 .. 100

17 Belgium 1,963 0.46 0.53 123 188 41 31 11.3 16.5 .. 96

18 Luxembourg 256 0.21 0.82 101 570 39 41 34.4 29.5 .. 99

19 New Zealand 274 0.23 0.27 44 67 19 25 .. 29.9 100 92

20 Italy 5,091 0.31 0.29 77 87 41 28 7.3 9.4 22 92

22 Germany 10,082 0.42 0.36 125 122 28 19 9.7 12.1 62 93

24 Greece 384 .. 0.17 .. 35 .. 21 16.9 18.8 .. 74

29 Portugal 377 0.24 0.21 25 36 70 56 8.5 2.7 .. 61

e e

DAC 106,777 T 0.33 0.33 93 122 28 24 7.3 15.3 68 92

NOTES SOURCES

b. Includes imputed multilateral flows that make All columns:

This table presents data for members of the OECD-DAC 2007b; aggregates

allowance for contributions through multilateral

Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of calculated for HDRO by OECD.

organizations. These are calculated using the

the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and geographic distribution of disbursements for the

Development (OECD). year specified.

a. c.

Some non-DAC countries and areas also provide Data exclude technical cooperation and

ODA. According to OECD-DAC 2007a., net administrative costs.

d.

ODA disbursed in 2005 by Taiwan Province of Data include forgiveness of non-ODA claims,

China, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, except for Total DAC.

e.

Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Aggregates are considered incomplete as missing

Slovakia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and data comprises a significant portion of total

other small donors, including Estonia, Latvia, disbursed ODA.

Lithuania and Slovenia totalled US$3,231 million.

China also provides aid but does not disclose the

amount. Indicatori

di

sviluppo

umano

347

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

18

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Flussi di aiuti, capitale privato e debito

Official development assistance MDG

a

(ODA) received Total debt service

(net disbursements) As % of exports of

Total Per Net foreign direct Other private goods, services

b b, c

capita flows

investment inflows and net income

(US$ As % of GDP As % of GDP from abroad

millions) (US$) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

HDI rank 2005 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland .. .. .. .. 0.3 15.6 .. .. .. .. .. ..

2 Norway .. .. .. .. 0.9 1.1 .. .. .. .. .. ..

3 Australia .. .. .. .. 2.5 -4.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..

4 Canada .. .. .. .. 1.3 3.1 .. .. .. .. .. ..

5 Ireland .. .. .. .. 1.3 -14.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..

6 Sweden .. .. .. .. 0.8 3.0 .. .. .. .. .. ..

7 Switzerland .. .. .. .. 2.4 4.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..

8 Japan .. .. .. .. 0.1 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. ..

9 Netherlands .. .. .. .. 3.5 6.5 .. .. .. .. .. ..

10 France .. .. .. .. 1.1 3.3 .. .. .. .. .. ..

11 Finland .. .. .. .. 0.6 2.1 .. .. .. .. .. ..

12 United States .. .. .. .. 0.8 0.9 .. .. .. .. .. ..

13 Spain .. .. .. .. 2.7 2.0 .. .. .. .. .. ..

14 Denmark .. .. .. .. 0.8 2.0 .. .. .. .. .. ..

15 Austria .. .. .. .. 0.4 3.0 .. .. .. .. .. ..

16 United Kingdom .. .. .. .. 3.4 7.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..

17 Belgium .. .. .. .. 4.0 8.6 .. .. .. .. .. ..

18 Luxembourg .. .. .. .. .. 301.3 .. .. .. .. .. ..

19 New Zealand .. .. .. .. 4.0 1.8 .. .. .. .. .. ..

20 Italy .. .. .. .. 0.6 1.1 .. .. .. .. .. ..

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. (.) .. .. 20.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..

22 Germany .. .. .. .. 0.2 1.1 .. .. .. .. .. ..

23 Israel .. .. 2.6 .. 0.3 4.5 .. .. .. .. .. ..

24 Greece .. .. .. .. 1.2 0.3 .. .. .. .. .. ..

25 Singapore .. .. (.) .. 15.1 17.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..

26 Korea (Republic of) .. .. (.) .. 0.3 0.6 .. .. .. .. .. ..

27 Slovenia .. .. .. .. .. 1.6 .. .. .. .. .. ..

d

28 Cyprus .. .. 0.7 .. 2.3 7.3 .. .. .. .. .. ..

29 Portugal .. .. .. .. 3.5 1.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..

30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

31 Barbados -2.1 -7.7 0.2 -0.1 0.7 2.0 -0.8 -0.3 8.2 3.1 15.1 4.7

d

32 Czech Republic .. .. .. .. 0.0 4.1 1.9 -3.8 3.0 4.8 .. ..

33 Kuwait .. .. (.) .. 0.0 0.3 .. .. .. .. .. ..

34 Malta .. .. 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

35 Qatar .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

36 Hungary .. .. .. .. 1.9 5.9 -1.4 4.7 12.8 21.5 34.3 31.0

37 Poland .. .. .. .. 0.2 3.2 (.) 5.1 1.6 11.2 4.9 28.8

38 Argentina 99.7 2.6 0.1 0.1 1.3 2.6 -1.5 0.5 4.4 5.8 37.0 20.7

39 United Arab Emirates .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

40 Chile 151.7 9.3 0.3 0.1 2.1 5.8 4.9 4.2 8.8 6.7 25.9 15.4

41 Bahrain .. .. 3.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. e

42 Slovakia .. .. .. .. 0.6 4.1 0.0 -5.0 .. 12.6 .. 13.8

43 Lithuania .. .. .. .. .. 4.0 0.0 0.4 .. 10.1 .. 16.5

44 Estonia .. .. .. .. .. 22.9 0.0 -7.1 .. 12.1 .. 13.7

45 Latvia .. .. .. .. .. 4.6 0.0 15.8 .. 19.6 .. 37.4

umano 46 Uruguay 14.6 4.2 0.6 0.1 0.4 4.2 -2.1 2.1 10.6 13.3 40.8 38.9

47 Croatia 125.4 28.2 .. 0.3 .. 4.6 .. 4.6 .. 12.8 .. 23.9

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 29.5 6.8 3.1 0.1 2.2 4.3 -1.9 1.3 6.8 3.0 23.9 5.9

e

49 Bahamas .. .. 0.1 .. -0.6 3.5 .. .. .. .. .. ..

50 Seychelles 18.8 222.6 9.6 2.7 5.5 11.9 -1.7 2.6 5.8 7.9 8.9 7.4

di 51 Cuba 87.8 7.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Indicatori 52 Mexico 189.4 1.8 0.1 (.) 1.0 2.4 2.7 0.5 4.3 5.7 20.7 17.2

53 Bulgaria .. .. .. .. (.) 9.8 0.0 4.7 .. 21.7 .. 31.5

348 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 18

tabella

Official development assistance MDG

a

(ODA) received Total debt service

(net disbursements) As % of exports of

Total Per Net foreign direct Other private goods, services

b b, c

capita flows

investment inflows and net income

(US$ As % of GDP As % of GDP from abroad

millions) (US$) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

HDI rank 2005 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 3.5 73.3 5.1 0.8 30.6 10.4 -0.3 -3.2 1.9 10.6 2.9 22.8

55 Tonga 31.8 310.3 26.2 14.8 0.2 2.1 -0.1 0.0 1.7 1.9 2.9 ..

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 24.4 .. (.) 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

57 Antigua and Barbuda 7.2 89.3 1.2 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

d d d

58 Oman 30.7 12.0 0.5 .. 1.2 0.8 0.0 -0.1 .. 4.1 .. 7.5 d

59 Trinidad and Tobago -2.1 -1.6 0.4 (.) 2.2 7.7 -3.5 -1.0 8.9 2.6 19.3 5.4

60 Romania .. .. .. .. (.) 6.7 (.) 7.7 (.) 7.0 0.3 18.3

61 Saudi Arabia 26.3 1.1 (.) (.) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

62 Panama 19.5 6.0 1.9 0.1 2.6 6.6 -0.1 2.5 6.5 13.5 6.2 17.5

63 Malaysia 31.6 1.2 1.1 (.) 5.3 3.0 -4.2 -1.6 9.8 7.2 12.6 5.6

64 Belarus 53.8 .. .. 0.2 .. 1.0 0.0 0.1 .. 2.3 .. 3.7

65 Mauritius 31.9 25.6 3.7 0.5 1.7 0.6 1.9 (.) 6.5 4.5 8.8 7.2

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 546.1 139.8 .. 5.5 .. 3.0 .. 2.8 .. 2.7 .. 4.9

67 Russian Federation .. .. .. .. .. 2.0 0.0 5.6 .. 5.5 .. 14.6

68 Albania 318.7 101.8 0.5 3.8 .. 3.1 0.0 0.4 .. 1.0 .. 2.5

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 230.3 113.2 .. 4.0 .. 1.7 0.0 2.8 .. 4.1 .. 8.6

70 Brazil 191.9 1.0 (.) (.) 0.2 1.9 -0.1 1.0 1.8 7.9 22.2 44.8

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica 15.2 210.7 11.8 5.3 7.7 9.2 -0.3 -0.2 3.5 6.0 5.6 13.2

72 Saint Lucia 11.1 66.8 3.1 1.3 11.3 13.1 -0.1 -0.6 1.6 4.0 2.1 7.1

73 Kazakhstan 229.2 15.1 .. 0.4 .. 3.5 0.0 11.9 .. 23.1 .. 42.1

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 48.7 1.8 0.2 (.) 1.0 2.1 -1.2 3.5 10.6 4.0 23.3 9.1

75 Colombia 511.1 11.2 0.2 0.4 1.2 8.5 -0.4 -0.2 9.7 8.3 40.9 35.3

76 Ukraine 409.6 .. .. 0.5 .. 9.4 0.0 4.8 .. 7.1 .. 13.0

77 Samoa 44.0 237.6 42.4 10.9 5.9 -0.9 0.0 0.0 4.9 5.5 5.8 17.3

78 Thailand -171.1 -2.7 0.9 -0.1 2.9 2.6 2.3 3.0 6.2 11.0 16.9 14.6

79 Dominican Republic 77.0 8.7 1.4 0.3 1.9 3.5 (.) 0.6 3.3 3.0 10.4 6.9

80 Belize 12.9 44.2 7.3 1.2 4.2 11.4 0.5 2.5 4.4 20.7 6.8 34.5

81 China 1,756.9 1.3 0.6 0.1 1.0 3.5 1.3 1.1 2.0 1.2 11.7 3.1

82 Grenada 44.9 421.3 6.2 9.5 5.8 5.6 0.1 -0.4 1.5 2.6 3.1 7.1

83 Armenia 193.3 64.1 .. 3.9 81.4 5.3 0.0 1.7 .. 2.8 .. 7.9

84 Turkey 464.0 6.4 0.8 0.1 0.5 2.7 0.8 6.5 4.9 11.6 29.4 39.1

85 Suriname 44.0 97.9 15.3 3.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

86 Jordan 622.0 114.9 22.0 4.9 0.9 12.1 5.3 1.6 15.6 4.8 20.4 6.5

87 Peru 397.8 14.2 1.5 0.5 0.2 3.2 0.1 3.1 1.8 7.0 10.8 26.0

88 Lebanon 243.0 67.9 8.9 1.1 0.2 11.7 0.2 11.3 3.5 16.1 .. 17.7

89 Ecuador 209.5 15.8 1.5 0.6 1.2 4.5 0.6 1.6 10.5 11.4 32.5 30.6

90 Philippines 561.8 6.8 2.9 0.6 1.2 1.1 0.2 2.6 8.1 10.0 27.0 16.7

91 Tunisia 376.5 37.6 3.2 1.3 0.6 2.5 -1.6 -0.4 11.6 7.2 24.5 13.0

92 Fiji 64.0 75.5 3.7 2.3 6.9 -0.1 -1.2 -0.1 7.9 0.6 12.0 ..

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4.9 41.1 7.8 1.1 3.9 12.9 0.0 5.3 2.2 5.5 2.9 11.2

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 104.0 1.5 0.1 0.1 -0.3 (.) (.) 0.3 0.6 1.3 3.2 ..

95 Paraguay 51.1 8.3 1.1 0.7 1.5 0.9 -0.2 (.) 6.2 6.7 12.4 11.4

96 Georgia 309.8 69.2 .. 4.8 .. 7.0 0.0 0.8 .. 2.9 .. 7.4

97 Guyana 136.8 182.1 42.4 17.4 2.0 9.8 -4.1 -0.1 74.5 4.2 .. 3.7

98 Azerbaijan 223.4 26.6 .. 1.8 (.) 13.4 0.0 0.1 .. 1.9 .. 2.6 Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 1,189.3 60.7 9.1 5.1 0.5 1.2 0.1 -1.3 4.8 1.9 13.8 4.5

100 Maldives 66.8 203.0 9.7 8.7 2.6 1.2 0.5 0.6 4.1 4.4 4.8 6.9

101 Jamaica 35.7 13.5 5.9 0.4 3.0 7.1 -1.0 9.8 14.4 10.1 26.9 16.3 di

102 Cape Verde 160.6 316.9 31.1 16.3 0.1 5.5 (.) 0.4 1.7 3.4 4.8 6.4 sviluppo

103 El Salvador 199.4 29.0 7.2 1.2 (.) 3.0 0.1 2.7 4.3 3.8 15.3 8.6

104 Algeria 370.6 11.3 0.2 0.4 (.) 1.1 -0.7 -0.8 14.2 5.8 63.4 .. umano

105 Viet Nam 1,904.9 23.0 2.8 3.6 2.8 3.7 (.) 1.3 2.7 1.8 .. 2.6

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 1,101.6 303.8 .. 27.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 349

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

18

tabella Flussi di aiuti, capitale privato e debito

Official development assistance MDG

a

(ODA) received Total debt service

(net disbursements) As % of exports of

Total Per Net foreign direct Other private goods, services

b b, c

capita flows

investment inflows and net income

(US$ As % of GDP As % of GDP from abroad

millions) (US$) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

HDI rank 2005 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

d

107 Indonesia 2,523.5 11.4 1.5 0.9 1.0 1.8 1.6 0.5 8.7 6.3 33.3 22.0

108 Syrian Arab Republic 77.9 4.1 5.5 0.3 0.6 1.6 -0.1 (.) 9.7 0.8 21.8 1.9

109 Turkmenistan 28.3 5.8 .. 0.4 .. 0.8 0.0 -1.0 .. 3.8 .. ..

110 Nicaragua 740.1 134.9 32.6 15.1 0.1 4.9 2.0 0.3 1.6 3.5 3.9 6.9

111 Moldova 191.8 45.6 .. 6.6 .. 6.8 0.0 2.9 .. 8.6 .. 10.2

112 Egypt 925.9 12.5 12.6 1.0 1.7 6.0 -0.2 5.8 7.1 2.8 20.4 6.8

113 Uzbekistan 172.3 6.5 .. 1.2 .. 0.3 0.0 -1.7 .. 5.6 .. .. d

114 Mongolia 211.9 82.9 0.6 11.3 .. 9.7 0.0 (.) .. 2.4 .. 2.9

115 Honduras 680.8 94.5 14.7 8.2 1.4 5.6 1.0 0.7 12.8 4.6 35.3 7.2

116 Kyrgyzstan 268.5 52.1 .. 11.0 .. 1.7 0.0 (.) .. 5.2 .. 10.0

117 Bolivia 582.9 63.5 11.2 6.2 0.6 -3.0 -0.5 3.4 7.9 5.7 38.6 14.8

118 Guatemala 253.6 20.1 2.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 -0.1 (.) 3.0 1.5 13.6 5.8 d

119 Gabon 53.9 38.9 2.2 0.7 1.2 3.7 0.5 0.1 3.0 1.4 6.4 5.3

120 Vanuatu 39.5 186.8 32.9 11.6 8.7 3.9 -0.1 0.0 1.6 0.7 2.1 1.3

121 South Africa 700.0 15.5 .. 0.3 -0.1 2.6 0.3 3.4 .. 2.0 .. 6.9

122 Tajikistan 241.4 37.1 .. 10.4 .. 2.4 0.0 -0.1 .. 3.4 .. 4.5

123 Sao Tome and Principe 31.9 203.8 94.0 45.2 .. 9.9 -0.2 0.0 4.9 13.8 34.4 ..

124 Botswana 70.9 40.2 3.8 0.7 2.5 2.7 -0.5 0.6 2.8 0.5 4.3 0.9

125 Namibia 123.4 60.7 5.1 2.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

126 Morocco 651.8 21.6 4.1 1.3 0.6 3.0 1.2 0.3 6.9 5.3 21.5 11.3

127 Equatorial Guinea 39.0 77.5 45.6 1.2 8.4 57.6 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.1 12.1 .. e

128 India 1,724.1 1.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.5 1.5 2.6 3.0 31.9 19.1

129 Solomon Islands 198.2 415.0 21.6 66.5 4.9 -0.3 -1.5 -2.1 5.5 4.7 11.8 ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 295.7 49.9 17.2 10.3 0.7 1.0 0.0 7.9 1.0 6.0 8.7 ..

131 Cambodia 537.8 38.2 3.7 8.7 .. 6.1 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.5 .. 0.7 d

132 Myanmar 144.7 2.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18.4 3.8

133 Bhutan 90.0 98.1 15.4 10.7 0.5 0.1 -0.9 0.0 1.7 0.8 .. ..

134 Comoros 25.2 42.0 17.9 6.5 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.0 2.3 ..

135 Ghana 1,119.9 50.6 9.5 10.4 0.3 1.0 -0.4 0.1 6.2 2.7 38.1 7.1

136 Pakistan 1,666.5 10.7 2.8 1.5 0.6 2.0 -0.2 1.3 4.8 2.2 21.3 10.2

137 Mauritania 190.4 62.0 23.2 10.3 0.7 6.2 -0.1 0.8 14.3 3.6 29.8 ..

138 Lesotho 68.8 38.3 22.6 4.7 2.8 6.3 (.) -0.5 3.8 3.7 4.2 5.0

139 Congo 1,448.9 362.3 7.8 28.5 -0.5 14.2 -3.6 0.0 19.0 2.3 35.3 2.4

140 Bangladesh 1,320.5 9.3 6.9 2.2 (.) 1.3 0.2 (.) 2.5 1.3 25.8 5.3

141 Swaziland 46.0 40.7 6.1 1.7 3.4 -0.6 -0.5 0.4 5.3 1.6 5.7 1.9

142 Nepal 427.9 15.8 11.7 5.8 0.2 (.) -0.4 (.) 1.9 1.6 15.7 4.6

143 Madagascar 929.2 49.9 12.9 18.4 0.7 0.6 -0.5 (.) 7.2 1.5 45.5 17.0 e

144 Cameroon 413.8 25.4 4.0 2.5 -1.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.3 4.6 4.7 20.3 15.4

145 Papua New Guinea 266.1 45.2 12.8 5.4 4.8 0.7 1.5 -3.3 17.2 7.9 37.2 10.7

146 Haiti 515.0 60.4 5.8 12.1 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.4 11.1 3.7

147 Sudan 1,828.6 50.5 6.2 6.6 -0.2 8.4 0.0 0.2 0.4 1.4 8.7 6.5

148 Kenya 768.3 22.4 13.8 4.1 0.7 0.1 0.8 (.) 9.2 1.3 35.4 4.4

149 Djibouti 78.6 99.1 42.8 11.1 .. 3.2 -0.1 0.0 3.3 2.6 .. ..

150 Timor-Leste 184.7 189.4 .. 52.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

151 Zimbabwe 367.7 28.3 3.8 10.9 -0.1 3.0 1.1 -0.5 5.4 6.7 23.1 .. d

152 Togo 86.7 14.1 15.9 3.9 1.1 0.1 0.3 0.0 5.3 0.8 11.9 2.2

umano 153 Yemen 335.9 16.0 8.3 2.2 -2.7 -1.8 3.3 0.2 3.5 1.4 5.6 2.6

154 Uganda 1,198.0 41.6 15.4 13.7 -0.1 2.9 0.4 0.1 3.4 2.0 81.4 9.2

sviluppo 155 Gambia 58.2 38.3 30.7 12.6 4.5 11.3 -2.4 0.0 11.9 6.3 22.2 12.0

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT d

156 Senegal 689.3 59.1 14.2 8.4 1.0 0.7 -0.2 0.2 5.7 2.3 19.9 11.8

di 157 Eritrea 355.2 80.7 .. 36.6 .. 1.2 .. 0.0 .. 2.1 .. ..

Indicatori 158 Nigeria 6,437.3 48.9 0.9 6.5 2.1 2.0 -0.4 -0.2 11.7 9.0 22.6 15.8

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 1,505.1 39.3 27.3 12.4 (.) 3.9 0.1 (.) 4.2 1.1 32.9 4.3

350 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 18

tabella

Official development assistance MDG

a

(ODA) received Total debt service

(net disbursements) As % of exports of

Total Per Net foreign direct Other private goods, services

b b, c

capita flows

investment inflows and net income

(US$ As % of GDP As % of GDP from abroad

millions) (US$) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

HDI rank 2005 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

d

160 Guinea 182.1 19.4 10.3 5.5 0.6 3.1 -0.7 0.0 6.0 4.9 20.0 19.9

161 Rwanda 576.0 63.7 11.1 26.7 0.3 0.4 -0.1 0.0 0.8 1.1 14.2 8.1

162 Angola 441.8 27.7 2.6 1.3 -3.3 -4.0 5.6 4.7 3.2 6.8 8.1 9.2 d

163 Benin 349.1 41.4 14.5 8.1 3.4 0.5 (.) -0.1 2.1 1.6 8.2 7.2

164 Malawi 575.3 44.7 26.6 27.8 1.2 0.1 0.1 -0.1 7.1 4.6 29.3 ..

165 Zambia 945.0 81.0 14.4 13.0 6.2 3.6 -0.3 1.8 6.1 3.3 14.7 ..

166 Côte d’Ivoire 119.1 6.6 6.4 0.7 0.4 1.6 0.1 -0.8 11.7 2.8 35.4 5.5

167 Burundi 365.0 48.4 23.2 45.6 0.1 0.1 -0.5 -0.6 3.7 4.9 43.4 41.4

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 1,827.6 31.8 9.6 25.7 0.2 5.7 -0.1 (.) 3.7 3.0 .. ..

169 Ethiopia 1,937.3 27.2 8.4 17.3 0.1 2.4 -0.5 1.0 2.0 0.8 39.0 4.1

170 Chad 379.8 39.0 17.9 6.9 0.5 12.9 (.) (.) 0.7 1.1 4.4 ..

171 Central African Republic 95.3 23.6 16.7 7.0 (.) 0.4 (.) 0.0 2.0 0.4 13.2 ..

172 Mozambique 1,285.9 65.0 40.5 19.4 0.4 1.6 1.0 -0.3 3.2 1.4 26.2 4.2 d

173 Mali 691.5 51.1 19.8 13.0 0.2 3.0 (.) 0.2 2.8 1.7 12.3 7.2 d

174 Niger 515.4 36.9 15.6 15.1 1.6 0.4 0.4 -0.2 4.0 1.1 17.4 7.1 d

175 Guinea-Bissau 79.1 49.9 51.8 26.3 0.8 3.3 (.) 0.0 3.5 10.8 31.1 40.2

176 Burkina Faso 659.6 49.9 10.5 12.8 (.) 0.4 (.) (.) 1.1 0.9 6.8 ..

177 Sierra Leone 343.4 62.1 9.1 28.8 5.0 4.9 0.6 0.0 3.3 2.1 10.1 9.2

Developing countries 86,043.0 T 16.5 1.4 0.9 0.9 2.7 0.5 1.5 4.4 4.6 .. 13.0

Least developed countries 25,979.5 T 33.9 11.8 9.3 0.3 2.6 0.5 0.8 3.0 2.3 16.9 7.0

Arab States 29,612.0 T 94.3 2.9 3.0 .. .. .. 1.8 .. .. .. ..

East Asia and the Pacific 9,541.6 T 4.9 0.8 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Latin America and the Caribbean 6,249.5 T 11.3 0.5 0.3 0.8 2.9 0.5 1.2 4.0 6.6 23.7 22.9

South Asia 9,937.5 T 6.3 1.2 0.8 (.) 0.8 0.3 1.2 2.3 2.6 .. 15.4

Sub-Saharan Africa 30,167.7 T 41.7 5.7 5.1 0.4 2.4 0.3 1.7 .. .. .. ..

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 5,299.4 T 13.1 (.) 0.3 .. .. (.) 4.4 .. .. .. ..

f

OECD 759.4 T .. .. (.) 1.0 1.6 .. .. .. .. .. ..

High-income OECD 0.0 T 0.0 .. 0.0 1.0 1.6 .. .. ..

High human development 2,633.0 T 1.6 .. (.) 1.0 1.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..

Medium human development 40,160.4 T 9.4 1.8 0.7 0.7 2.8 0.6 1.9 4.8 3.7 22.2 10.3

Low human development 21,150.9 T 42.0 9.7 9.0 0.7 1.5 0.4 0.6 6.4 5.6 22.0 12.2

High income .. T .. .. .. 1.0 1.6 .. .. ..

Middle income 42,242.2 T 13.7 0.7 1.3 0.9 3.1 0.4 2.2 4.5 5.5 20.3 14.3

Low income 44,123.0 T 18.2 4.1 3.2 0.4 1.4 0.3 1.0 3.7 3.1 27.1 13.7

g

106,372.9 T 16.3 0.3 0.2 1.0 1.9 .. 2.0 .. 5.1 .. ..

World

NOTES SOURCES

and Slovenia, and concessional lending from Column 1:

This table presents data for countries included OECD-DAC 2007b.

multilateral organizations. A negative value Column 2:

in Parts I and II of the DAC list of aid recipients Calculated on the basis of data on ODA

indicates that repayments of ODA loans exceed

(OECD-DAC 2007a). The denominator and population from OECD-DAC 2007b.

the amount of ODA received. Columns 3 and 4:

b.

conventionally used when comparing official Calculated on the basis of data

A negative value indicates that the capital flowing

development assistance and total debt service on ODA from OECD-DAC 2007b and GDP from World

out of the country exceeds that flowing in.

c.

to the size of the economy is GNI, not GDP (see Bank 2007b.

Other private flows combine non-debt-creating Columns 5 and 6:

Definitions of statistical terms). GDP is used here, Calculated on the basis of data on

portfolio equity investment flows, portfolio debt

however, to allow comparability throughout the foreign direct investment and GDP from World Bank

flows and bank and trade-related lending.

d.

table. With few exceptions the denominators 2007b and GDP from World Bank 2007b.

Data refer to 2004. Columns 7 and 8:

e.

produce similar results. Calculated on the basis of data on

Data refer to 2003.

a. f.

ODA receipts are total net ODA flows from DAC portfolio investment, bank- and trade-related lending

Mexico and Turkey were the only OECD

countries as well as Taiwan Province of China, and GDP data from World Bank 2007b.

member states to receive ODA from these sources Columns 9 and 10:

Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Republic Calculated on the basis of data

in 2005. Indicatori

g.

of Korea, Kuwait, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, on debt service and GDP data from World Bank

World total includes US$ 14,614 million not

Turkey, United Arab Emirates and other small 2007b.

allocated either to individual countries or to Columns 11 and 12:

donors, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania World Bank 2007b.

specific regions. di

sviluppo

umano

351

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

19

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Priorità nella spesa pubblica

Public

expenditure Public expenditure Military Total

a b

expenditure

on health on education debt service

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

c

HDI rank 2004 1991 2002–05 1990 2005 1990 2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 8.3 .. 8.1 0.0 0.0 .. ..

2 Norway 8.1 7.1 7.7 2.9 1.7 .. ..

3 Australia 6.5 4.9 4.7 2.0 1.8 .. ..

4 Canada 6.8 6.5 5.2 2.0 1.1 .. ..

5 Ireland 5.7 5.0 4.8 1.3 0.6 .. ..

6 Sweden 7.7 7.1 7.4 2.6 1.5 .. ..

7 Switzerland 6.7 5.3 6.0 1.8 1.0 .. ..

8 Japan 6.3 .. 3.6 0.9 1.0 .. ..

9 Netherlands 5.7 5.6 5.4 2.5 1.5 .. ..

10 France 8.2 5.5 5.9 3.4 2.5 .. ..

11 Finland 5.7 6.5 6.5 1.6 1.4 .. ..

12 United States 6.9 5.1 5.9 5.3 4.1 .. ..

13 Spain 5.7 4.1 4.3 1.8 1.1 .. ..

14 Denmark 7.1 6.9 8.5 2.0 1.8 .. ..

15 Austria 7.8 5.3 5.5 1.2 0.9 .. ..

16 United Kingdom 7.0 4.8 5.4 3.9 2.7 .. ..

17 Belgium 6.9 5.0 6.1 2.4 1.1 .. ..

d,e

18 Luxembourg 7.2 3.0 3.6 0.9 0.8 .. ..

19 New Zealand 6.5 6.1 6.5 1.9 1.0 .. ..

20 Italy 6.5 3.0 4.7 2.1 1.9 .. ..

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. 2.8 4.2 .. .. .. ..

f

22 Germany 8.2 .. 4.6 2.8 1.4 .. ..

23 Israel 6.1 6.5 6.9 12.3 9.7 .. ..

24 Greece 4.2 2.3 4.3 4.5 4.1 .. ..

e

25 Singapore 1.3 3.1 3.7 4.9 4.7 .. ..

26 Korea (Republic of) 2.9 3.8 4.6 3.7 2.6 .. ..

g

27 Slovenia 6.6 4.8 6.0 2.2 1.5 .. ..

28 Cyprus 2.6 3.7 6.3 5.0 1.4 .. ..

29 Portugal 7.0 4.6 5.7 2.7 2.3 .. ..

30 Brunei Darussalam 2.6 3.5 .. 6.4 3.9 .. ..

e

31 Barbados 4.5 7.8 6.9 0.8 0.8 8.2 3.1

32 Czech Republic 6.5 .. 4.4 .. 1.8 3.0 4.8

33 Kuwait 2.2 4.8 5.1 48.5 4.8 .. ..

34 Malta 7.0 4.4 4.5 0.9 0.7 .. ..

d

35 Qatar 1.8 3.5 1.6 .. .. .. ..

36 Hungary 5.7 6.1 5.5 2.8 1.5 12.8 21.5

37 Poland 4.3 5.2 5.4 2.8 1.9 1.6 11.2

38 Argentina 4.3 3.3 3.8 1.2 1.0 4.4 5.8

d

39 United Arab Emirates 2.0 2.0 1.3 6.2 2.0 .. ..

40 Chile 2.9 2.4 3.5 4.3 3.8 8.8 6.7

41 Bahrain 2.7 3.9 .. 5.1 3.6 .. ..

42 Slovakia 5.3 5.6 4.3 .. 1.7 .. 12.6

43 Lithuania 4.9 5.5 5.2 .. 1.2 .. 10.1

g

44 Estonia 4.0 .. 5.3 0.5 1.5 .. 12.1

45 Latvia 4.0 4.1 5.3 .. 1.7 .. 19.6

umano 46 Uruguay 3.6 2.5 2.6 3.1 1.3 10.6 13.3

h,i g

47 Croatia 6.2 5.5 4.7 7.6 1.6 .. 12.8

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 5.1 3.4 4.9 0.0 0.0 6.8 3.0

d,e

49 Bahamas 3.4 3.7 3.6 0.8 0.7 .. ..

d

50 Seychelles 4.6 6.5 5.4 4.0 1.8 5.8 7.9

di 51 Cuba 5.5 9.7 9.8 .. .. .. ..

Indicatori 52 Mexico 3.0 3.8 5.4 0.4 0.4 4.3 5.7

53 Bulgaria 4.6 5.4 4.2 3.5 2.4 .. 21.7

352 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 19

tabella

Public

expenditure Public expenditure Military Total

a b

expenditure

on health on education debt service

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

c

HDI rank 2004 1991 2002–05 1990 2005 1990 2005

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 3.3 2.7 9.3 .. .. 1.9 10.6

e

55 Tonga 5.0 .. 4.8 .. 1.0 1.7 1.9

e

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2.8 .. 2.7 .. 2.0 .. ..

57 Antigua and Barbuda 3.4 .. 3.8 .. .. .. ..

58 Oman 2.4 3.0 3.6 16.5 11.9 .. 4.1

d

59 Trinidad and Tobago 1.4 4.1 4.2 .. .. 8.9 2.6

60 Romania 3.4 3.5 3.4 4.6 2.0 (.) 7.0

61 Saudi Arabia 2.5 5.8 6.8 14.0 8.2 .. ..

d e

62 Panama 5.2 4.6 3.8 1.3 1.0 6.5 13.5

63 Malaysia 2.2 5.1 6.2 2.6 2.4 9.8 7.2

g

64 Belarus 4.6 5.7 6.0 1.5 1.2 .. 2.3

65 Mauritius 2.4 3.8 4.5 0.3 0.2 6.5 4.5

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.1 .. .. .. 1.9 .. 2.7

d

67 Russian Federation 3.7 3.6 3.6 12.3 4.1 .. 5.5

d

68 Albania 3.0 .. 2.9 5.9 1.4 .. 1.0

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 5.7 .. 3.5 .. 2.2 .. 4.1

70 Brazil 4.8 .. 4.4 2.4 1.6 1.8 7.9

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT d,e

71 Dominica 4.2 .. 5.0 .. .. 3.5 6.0

72 Saint Lucia 3.3 .. 5.8 .. .. 1.6 4.0

73 Kazakhstan 2.3 3.9 2.3 .. 1.1 .. 23.1

g

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2.0 4.6 .. 1.8 1.2 10.6 4.0

75 Colombia 6.7 2.4 4.8 1.8 3.7 9.7 8.3

76 Ukraine 3.7 6.2 6.4 .. 2.4 .. 7.1

d

77 Samoa 4.1 .. 4.5 .. .. 4.9 5.5

78 Thailand 2.3 3.1 4.2 2.6 1.1 6.2 11.0

79 Dominican Republic 1.9 .. 1.8 0.6 0.5 3.3 3.0

80 Belize 2.7 4.6 5.4 1.2 .. 4.4 20.7

i e

81 China 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.7 2.0 2.0 1.2

82 Grenada 5.0 4.9 5.2 .. .. 1.5 2.6

e g

83 Armenia 1.4 .. 3.2 2.2 2.7 .. 2.8

h,i

84 Turkey 5.6 2.4 3.7 3.5 2.8 4.9 11.6

85 Suriname 3.6 5.9 .. .. .. .. ..

i e

86 Jordan 4.7 8.0 4.9 6.9 5.3 15.6 4.8

87 Peru 1.9 2.8 2.4 0.1 1.4 1.8 7.0

88 Lebanon 3.2 .. 2.6 7.6 4.5 3.5 16.1

d,e

89 Ecuador 2.2 2.5 1.0 1.9 2.6 10.5 11.4

90 Philippines 1.4 3.0 2.7 1.4 0.9 8.1 10.0

e

91 Tunisia 2.8 6.0 7.3 2.0 1.6 11.6 7.2

e

92 Fiji 2.9 5.1 6.4 2.3 1.2 7.9 0.6

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3.9 5.9 8.2 .. .. 2.2 5.5

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 3.2 4.1 4.7 2.9 5.8 0.6 1.3

95 Paraguay 2.6 1.9 4.3 1.0 0.7 6.2 6.7

96 Georgia 1.5 .. 2.9 .. 3.5 .. 2.9

97 Guyana 4.4 2.2 8.5 0.9 .. 74.5 4.2

g

98 Azerbaijan 0.9 7.7 2.5 2.5 2.5 .. 1.9 Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 2.0 3.2 .. 2.1 2.6 4.8 1.9

100 Maldives 6.3 7.0 7.1 .. .. 4.1 4.4

101 Jamaica 2.8 4.5 5.3 0.6 0.6 14.4 10.1 di

e

102 Cape Verde 3.9 3.6 6.6 .. 0.7 1.7 3.4 sviluppo

103 El Salvador 3.5 1.8 2.8 2.0 0.6 4.3 3.8

104 Algeria 2.6 5.1 .. 1.5 2.9 14.2 5.8 umano

105 Viet Nam 1.5 1.8 .. .. .. 2.7 1.8

e

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 7.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 353

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

19

tabella Priorità nella spesa pubblica

Public

expenditure Public expenditure Military Total

a b

expenditure

on health on education debt service

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

c

HDI rank 2004 1991 2002–05 1990 2005 1990 2005

107 Indonesia 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.8 1.2 8.7 6.3

108 Syrian Arab Republic 2.2 3.9 .. 6.0 5.1 9.7 0.8

e

109 Turkmenistan 3.3 3.9 .. .. 2.9 .. 3.8

d g

110 Nicaragua 3.9 3.4 3.1 4.0 0.7 1.6 3.5

111 Moldova 4.2 5.3 4.3 .. 0.3 .. 8.6

112 Egypt 2.2 3.9 .. 4.7 2.8 7.1 2.8

e

113 Uzbekistan 2.4 9.4 .. .. 0.5 .. 5.6

114 Mongolia 4.0 11.5 5.3 4.3 1.6 .. 2.4

115 Honduras 4.0 3.8 .. .. 0.6 12.8 4.6

d g

116 Kyrgyzstan 2.3 6.0 4.4 1.6 3.1 .. 5.2

117 Bolivia 4.1 2.4 6.4 2.3 1.6 7.9 5.7

118 Guatemala 2.3 1.3 .. 1.5 0.3 3.0 1.5

d,e

119 Gabon 3.1 .. 3.9 .. 1.5 3.0 1.4

120 Vanuatu 3.1 4.6 9.6 .. .. 1.6 0.7

121 South Africa 3.5 5.9 5.4 3.8 1.5 .. 2.0

g e

122 Tajikistan 1.0 9.1 3.5 0.3 2.2 .. 3.4

123 Sao Tome and Principe 9.9 .. .. .. .. 4.9 13.8

124 Botswana 4.0 6.2 10.7 4.1 3.0 2.8 0.5

g

125 Namibia 4.7 7.9 6.9 5.6 3.2 .. ..

126 Morocco 1.7 5.0 6.7 5.0 4.5 6.9 5.3

d

127 Equatorial Guinea 1.2 .. 0.6 .. .. 3.9 0.1

128 India 0.9 3.7 3.8 3.2 2.8 2.6 3.0

d,e

129 Solomon Islands 5.6 3.8 3.3 .. .. 5.5 4.7

e

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 0.8 .. 2.3 .. 2.1 1.0 6.0

131 Cambodia 1.7 .. 1.9 3.1 1.8 2.7 0.5

e

132 Myanmar 0.3 .. 1.3 .. .. .. ..

e

133 Bhutan 3.0 .. 5.6 .. .. 1.7 0.8

134 Comoros 1.6 .. 3.9 .. .. 0.4 1.0

135 Ghana 2.8 .. 5.4 0.4 0.7 6.2 2.7

136 Pakistan 0.4 2.6 2.3 5.8 3.5 4.8 2.2

137 Mauritania 2.0 4.6 2.3 3.8 3.6 14.3 3.6

138 Lesotho 5.5 6.2 13.4 4.5 2.3 3.8 3.7

139 Congo 1.2 7.4 2.2 .. 1.4 19.0 2.3

140 Bangladesh 0.9 1.5 2.5 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.3

e

141 Swaziland 4.0 5.7 6.2 1.8 1.8 5.3 1.6

142 Nepal 1.5 2.0 3.4 0.9 2.1 1.9 1.6

143 Madagascar 1.8 2.5 3.2 1.2 1.1 7.2 1.5

d

144 Cameroon 1.5 3.2 1.8 1.5 1.3 4.6 4.7

145 Papua New Guinea 3.0 .. .. 2.1 0.6 17.2 7.9

146 Haiti 2.9 1.4 .. .. .. 1.3 1.4

e

147 Sudan 1.5 6.0 .. 3.5 2.3 0.4 1.4

148 Kenya 1.8 6.7 6.7 2.9 1.7 9.2 1.3

e

149 Djibouti 4.4 3.5 7.9 5.9 4.2 3.3 2.6

150 Timor-Leste 8.8 .. .. .. .. .. ..

d,e

151 Zimbabwe 3.5 7.7 4.6 4.4 2.3 5.4 6.7

152 Togo 1.1 .. 2.6 3.1 1.5 5.3 0.8

umano d,e

153 Yemen 1.9 .. 9.6 7.9 7.0 3.5 1.4

d

154 Uganda 2.5 1.5 5.2 3.1 2.3 3.4 2.0

d e

sviluppo 155 Gambia 1.8 3.8 2.0 1.2 0.5 11.9 6.3

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal 2.4 3.9 5.4 2.0 1.5 5.7 2.3

di e

157 Eritrea 1.8 .. 5.4 .. 24.1 .. 2.1

Indicatori 158 Nigeria 1.4 0.9 .. 0.9 0.7 11.7 9.0

d,e

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 1.7 2.8 2.2 2.0 1.1 4.2 1.1

354 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 19

tabella

Public

expenditure Public expenditure Military Total

a b

expenditure

on health on education debt service

(% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP) (% of GDP)

c

HDI rank 2004 1991 2002–05 1990 2005 1990 2005

g e

160 Guinea 0.7 2.0 2.0 2.4 2.0 6.0 4.9

161 Rwanda 4.3 .. 3.8 3.7 2.9 0.8 1.1

d,e

162 Angola 1.5 .. 2.6 2.7 5.7 3.2 6.8

d

163 Benin 2.5 .. 3.5 .. .. 2.1 1.6

e

164 Malawi 9.6 3.2 5.8 1.3 0.7 7.1 4.6

e

165 Zambia 3.4 2.8 2.0 3.7 2.3 6.1 3.3

d,e e

166 Côte d’Ivoire 0.9 .. 4.6 1.3 1.5 11.7 2.8

167 Burundi 0.8 3.5 5.1 3.4 6.2 3.7 4.9

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 1.1 .. .. .. 2.4 3.7 3.0

j

169 Ethiopia 2.7 2.4 6.1 8.5 2.6 2.0 0.8

170 Chad 1.5 1.6 2.1 .. 1.0 0.7 1.1

g

171 Central African Republic 1.5 2.2 .. 1.6 1.1 2.0 0.4

172 Mozambique 2.7 .. 3.7 5.9 0.9 3.2 1.4

173 Mali 3.2 .. 4.3 2.1 2.3 2.8 1.7

e

174 Niger 2.2 3.3 2.3 .. 1.2 4.0 1.1

e

175 Guinea-Bissau 1.3 .. 5.2 .. 4.0 3.5 10.8

176 Burkina Faso 3.3 2.6 4.7 2.7 1.3 1.1 0.9

d

177 Sierra Leone 1.9 .. 3.8 1.4 1.0 3.3 2.1

NOTES Sources

f. Data refer to the Federal Republic of Germany Column 1:

a. Because of limitations in the data, comparisons World Bank 2007b.

before reunification. Columns 2 and 3:

g.

across countries should be made with caution. UNESCO Institute for Statistics

Data refer to the closest available year between

For detailed notes on the data see SIPRI 2007c. 2007b.

1991 and 1992. Column 4:

b. h.

For aggregates, see Table 18. SIPRI 2007b.

Data refer to 2005. Column 5:

c. i.

Data refer to the most recent year available during SIPRI 2007c.

Data differ from the standard definition or refer to Columns 6 and 7:

the period specified. calculated on the basis of data on

only part of a country.

d. j.

National or UNESCO Institute for Statistics debt service and GDP data from World Bank 2007b.

Data refer to 2006.

estimate.

e. Data refer to an earlier year than that specified;

from 1999 onwards. Indicatori

di

sviluppo

umano

355

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

20

tabella …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

Disoccupazione nei paesi ocse MDG

Youth unemployment rate

Unemployment rate

Average Total Long-term unemployment

Unemployed Total annual (% of labour (% of total unemployment)

people Female Female

(% of labour (% of labour force aged

a Women Men

(thousands) force) force) (% of male rate) 15–24) (% of male rate)

HDI rank 2006 2006 1996/2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 5.2 3.0 2.9 110 8.4 81 5.3 9.2

2 Norway 83.8 3.5 3.9 94 8.6 101 11.1 16.8

3 Australia 527.0 4.9 6.6 104 10.4 90 15.2 20.1

4 Canada 1,106.0 6.3 7.7 94 11.6 80 8.3 9.1

5 Ireland 91.4 4.4 6.0 89 8.4 89 24.5 40.8

6 Sweden 331.9 7.0 6.9 103 21.3 102 12.2 16.1

7 Switzerland 168.7 4.0 3.7 138 7.7 94 42.6 35.0

8 Japan 2,730.0 4.1 4.5 91 8.0 81 20.8 40.9

9 Netherlands 365.0 3.9 3.9 126 7.6 117 43.6 46.8

10 France 2,729.0 9.4 9.9 121 23.9 115 43.3 44.8

11 Finland 204.0 7.7 10.1 109 18.8 95 21.8 28.0

12 United States 7,002.0 4.6 5.0 100 10.5 86 9.2 10.7

13 Spain 1,837.1 8.5 12.2 184 17.9 144 32.2 25.9

14 Denmark 114.2 3.9 5.0 136 7.6 100 20.2 20.7

15 Austria 195.5 4.8 4.3 118 9.1 105 25.1 29.5

16 United Kingdom 1,602.0 5.3 5.6 86 13.9 75 14.9 27.5

17 Belgium 381.8 8.2 8.3 126 18.9 106 56.5 54.7

b b b b b

18 Luxembourg 9.1 4.8 3.3 180 13.7 138 20.5 33.8

19 New Zealand 82.6 3.8 5.4 117 9.6 108 5.5 8.8

20 Italy 1,673.6 6.8 9.4 165 21.6 132 54.8 50.8

22 Germany 4,250.0 8.4 8.5 119 13.5 89 56.5 57.8

24 Greece 427.4 8.9 10.3 243 24.5 196 60.1 48.1

26 Korea (Republic of) 824.0 3.5 4.0 76 10.0 77 0.9 1.2

29 Portugal 427.8 7.7 5.9 138 16.2 126 53.3 50.3

32 Czech Republic 371.1 7.2 7.2 153 17.5 112 56.3 53.9

36 Hungary 316.8 7.5 7.1 108 19.1 107 45.1 47.1

37 Poland 2,344.3 13.8 15.7 116 29.8 112 52.0 49.0

42 Slovakia 353.1 13.4 15.8 120 26.6 103 72.3 73.9

52 Mexico 1,367.3 3.2 3.3 118 6.2 138 2.3 2.7

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

84 Turkey 2,445.0 9.9 8.6 106 18.7 109 44.2 32.6

OECD 34,366.6 T 6.0 6.7 112 12.5 98 32.0 32.4

NOTES SOURCES

Columns 1—3, 5, 7 and 8:

a. The age range may be 16–24 for some countries. OECD 2007.

Columns 4 and 6:

b. Data refer to 2005. calculated on the basis of

data on male and female unemployment rates

from OECD 2007.

umano

sviluppo

di

Indicatori

356 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

21 …per avere accesso alle risorse necessarie per uno standard di vita dignitoso…

tabella Disoccupazione e occupazione nel settore informale

nei paesi non ocse a b

Unemployment rate Employment by economic activity Employment in informal sector as a

c

% of non-agricultural employment

Unemployed Total

people Female Total Agriculture Industry Services

(% of labour Both

(thousands) force) (% of male rate) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) sexes Female Male

Survey

d d d d d d d year

1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank

High HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 201 5.6 68 3,386 (.) 15 85 .. .. .. ..

23 Israel 246 9.0 112 2,494 2 22 76 .. .. .. ..

25 Singapore 116 5.3 98 2,267 0 30 70 .. .. .. ..

27 Slovenia 58 5.8 111 946 9 37 53 .. .. .. ..

28 Cyprus 19 5.3 148 338 5 24 71 .. .. .. ..

e

30 Brunei Darussalam 7 .. .. 146 1 21 77 .. .. .. ..

31 Barbados 14 9.8 118 132 3 17 70 .. .. .. ..

f f f

33 Kuwait 15 1.1 173 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

34 Malta 12 7.5 142 149 2 29 68 .. .. .. ..

35 Qatar 13 3.9 548 438 3 41 56 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

38 Argentina 1,141 10.6 135 9,639 1 24 75 2003 40 31 46

39 United Arab Emirates 41 2.3 118 1,779 8 33 59 .. .. .. ..

h h h h

40 Chile 440 6.9 139 5,905 13 23 64 1996 36 44 31

41 Bahrain 16 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

43 Lithuania 133 8.3 101 1,474 14 29 57 .. .. .. ..

44 Estonia 52 7.9 81 607 5 34 61 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

45 Latvia 99 8.7 93 1,036 12 26 62 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

46 Uruguay 155 12.2 161 1,115 5 22 74 2000 30 25 34

47 Croatia 229 12.7 120 1,573 17 29 54 .. .. .. ..

48 Costa Rica 126 6.6 192 1,777 15 22 63 2000 20 17 22

49 Bahamas 18 10.2 122 161 4 18 78 .. .. .. ..

50 Seychelles 4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

51 Cuba 88 1.9 129 4,642 21 19 59 .. .. .. ..

53 Bulgaria 334 10.1 95 2,980 9 34 57 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. 28 4 19 74 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

58 Oman 53 .. .. 282 6 11 82 .. .. .. ..

59 Trinidad and Tobago 50 8.0 190 525 7 28 64 .. .. .. ..

60 Romania 705 7.2 83 9,147 32 30 38 .. .. .. ..

61 Saudi Arabia 327 5.2 274 5,913 5 21 74 .. .. .. ..

62 Panama 137 10.3 173 1,188 16 17 67 2004 33 29 35

63 Malaysia 370 3.6 100 9,987 15 30 53 .. .. .. ..

f f f g g g g

64 Belarus 68 1.5 325 4,701 21 35 40 .. .. .. ..

65 Mauritius 52 9.6 284 490 10 32 57 2004 8 6 9

67 Russian Federation 5,775 7.8 105 68,169 10 30 60 2004 12 11 12

i

68 Albania 157 14.4 141 931 58 14 28 .. .. .. ..

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 324 37.3 105 545 20 32 48 .. .. .. ..

70 Brazil 8,264 8.9 172 84,596 21 21 58 2003 37 31 42

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica 3 11.0 80 26 24 18 54 .. .. .. ..

72 Saint Lucia 13 16.4 164 59 11 18 53 .. .. .. ..

73 Kazakhstan 659 8.4 140 7,182 34 17 49 .. .. .. ..

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1,823 15.8 127 9,994 11 20 69 2004 46 45 47

i g g g g

75 Colombia 2,406 11.8 174 18,217 22 19 59 2004 58 59 55

i

76 Ukraine 1,601 7.2 91 20,680 19 24 56 2004 4 4 4

78 Thailand 496 1.4 80 36,302 43 20 37 2002 72 .. .. Indicatori

h h h h

79 Dominican Republic 716 17.9 254 3,315 16 21 63 1997 48 50 47

80 Belize 12 11.0 230 78 28 17 55 .. .. .. ..

81 China 8,390 4.2 .. 737,400 44 18 16 .. .. .. .. di

82 Grenada .. .. .. 35 14 24 59 .. .. .. .. sviluppo

83 Armenia 424 36.4 91 1,108 46 17 38 .. .. .. ..

85 Suriname 12 14.0 200 73 6 15 75 .. .. .. .. umano

86 Jordan .. .. .. 43 4 22 74 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

87 Peru 437 11.4 143 3,400 1 24 76 2004 56 55 57 357

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

21

tabella Disoccupazione e occupazione nel settore informale

nei paesi non ocse a b

Unemployment rate Employment by economic activity Employment in informal sector as a

c

% of non-agricultural employment

Unemployed Total

people Female Total Agriculture Industry Services

(% of labour Both

(thousands) force) (% of male rate) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) sexes Female Male

Survey

d d d d d d d year (%) (%) (%)

1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005

HDI rank

88 Lebanon 116 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

g g g g

89 Ecuador 334 7.9 186 3,892 8 21 70 2004 40 44 37

h h h h

90 Philippines 2,619 7.4 99 32,875 37 15 48 1995 72 73 71

h h h

91 Tunisia 486 14.2 132 .. .. .. .. 1994–95 50 39 53

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. .. 35 15 20 56 .. .. .. ..

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2,556 11.5 170 19,760 25 30 45 .. .. .. ..

h h

95 Paraguay 206 8.1 151 2,247 32 16 53 1995 66 .. ..

96 Georgia 279 13.8 85 1,745 54 9 36 .. .. .. ..

97 Guyana .. .. .. 240 28 23 48 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

98 Azerbaijan 369 8.5 125 3,850 39 12 49 .. .. .. ..

99 Sri Lanka 623 7.7 216 6,943 34 23 39 .. .. .. ..

100 Maldives 2 .. .. 86 14 19 50 .. .. .. ..

101 Jamaica 130 10.9 207 1,063 18 18 64 .. .. .. ..

h h h h

103 El Salvador 184 6.8 44 2,526 19 24 57 1997 57 69 46

h h h h

104 Algeria 1,475 15.3 103 7,798 21 26 53 1997 43 41 43

105 Viet Nam 926 2.1 131 42,316 58 17 25 .. .. .. ..

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 212 26.7 71 578 16 25 58 .. .. .. ..

h h h h

107 Indonesia 10,854 9.1 155 94,948 44 18 38 1998 78 77 78

108 Syrian Arab Republic 638 11.7 290 4,822 30 27 43 2003 22 7 24

g g g g

110 Nicaragua 135 12.2 165 1,953 31 18 40 2000 55 59 52

111 Moldova 104 7.3 69 1,319 41 16 43 2004 8 5 11

g g g g

112 Egypt 2,241 11.0 311 18,119 30 20 50 2003 45 59 42

113 Uzbekistan .. .. .. 8,885 39 19 35 .. .. .. ..

f f f

114 Mongolia 33 3.3 120 951 40 16 44 .. .. .. ..

h h h h

115 Honduras 108 4.1 197 2,544 39 21 40 1997 58 66 74

116 Kyrgyzstan 186 8.5 116 1,807 53 10 37 2003 43 39 45

g g g g h h h h

117 Bolivia 222 5.5 161 2,091 5 28 67 1997 64 74 55

118 Guatemala 172 3.4 196 4,769 39 20 38 .. .. .. ..

121 South Africa 4,385 26.6 100 11,622 10 25 65 2004 16 16 15

f f f

122 Tajikistan 51 2.7 121 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

124 Botswana 144 23.8 123 567 23 22 50 .. .. .. ..

125 Namibia 221 33.8 138 432 31 12 56 .. .. .. ..

i h h h h

126 Morocco 1,226 11.0 106 9,603 44 20 36 1995 45 47 44

g g g g,i g g g g

128 India 16,634 4.3 100 308,760 67 13 20 2000 56 57 55

g g g g

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 38 .. .. 2,165 85 4 11 .. .. .. ..

131 Cambodia 503 1.8 147 6,243 70 11 19 .. .. .. ..

f i

132 Myanmar 190 .. .. 18,359 63 12 25 .. .. .. ..

135 Ghana .. .. .. 8,300 55 14 31 .. .. .. ..

136 Pakistan 3,566 7.7 194 38,882 42 21 37 2003–04 70 66 70

138 Lesotho 216 39.3 153 353 57 15 23 .. .. .. ..

140 Bangladesh 2,002 4.3 117 44,322 52 14 35 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

142 Nepal 178 1.8 85 7,459 79 6 21 .. .. .. ..

143 Madagascar 383 4.5 160 8,099 78 7 15 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

144 Cameroon 468 7.5 82 5,806 61 9 23 .. .. .. ..

145 Papua New Guinea 69 2.8 30 2,345 72 4 23 .. .. .. ..

146 Haiti .. .. .. .. 51 11 39 .. .. .. ..

umano h h h h

148 Kenya 1,276 .. .. 1,674 19 20 62 1999 72 83 59

g g g g

149 Djibouti .. .. .. 77 2 8 80 .. .. .. ..

sviluppo 151 Zimbabwe 298 6.0 63 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

153 Yemen 469 11.5 66 3,622 54 11 35 .. .. .. ..

154 Uganda 346 3.2 156 9,257 69 8 22 .. .. .. ..

di

Indicatori

358 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 21

tabella

a b

Unemployment rate Employment by economic activity Employment in informal sector as a

c

% of non-agricultural employment

Unemployed Total

people Female Total Agriculture Industry Services

(% of labour Both

(thousands) force) (% of male rate) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) sexes Female Male

Survey

d d d d d d d year

1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 1996–2005 (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT g g g g

157 Eritrea .. .. .. 82 4 19 77 .. .. .. ..

g g g g

158 Nigeria .. .. .. 5,229 3 22 75 .. .. .. ..

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 913 5.1 132 16,915 82 3 15 2001 43 41 46

h h h h

160 Guinea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1991 72 87 66

g g g g

161 Rwanda 16 0.6 38 3,143 90 3 7 .. .. .. ..

e

162 Angola 19 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

h h h h

163 Benin .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1992 93 97 87

165 Zambia 508 12.0 92 3,530 70 7 23 .. .. .. ..

e e e

167 Burundi 1 14.0 88 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

g g g g

169 Ethiopia 1,654 5.0 312 20,843 93 3 5 2004 41 48 36

h h h h

170 Chad .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1993 74 95 60

g g g g

171 Central African Republic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2003 21 21 21

h h

172 Mozambique 192 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1999 74 .. ..

173 Mali 227 8.8 153 .. .. .. .. 2004 71 80 63

e h h

176 Burkina Faso 7 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2000 77 .. ..

NOTES SOURCES

c. Informal sector may not be of the same year as Columns 1–3:

Data are not strictly comparable across countries ILO 2007b.

data for employment and unemployment. As a Columns 4–7:

as they were compiled using different sources. ILO 2005.

result, they may not be strictly comparable. Columns 8–11:

d.

As a result data may differ from the standard ILO Bureau of Statistics 2007,

Data refer to the most recent year during the

definitions of unemployment and the informal unless otherwise specified.

period specified.

e.

sector. Data refer to work applicants.

a. f.

Data refer to the ILO definition of unemployment Data refer to the registered unemployed.

g.

unless otherwise specified. Data refer to a year or period other than that

b. Employment by economic activity may not sum specified, differ from the standard definition or

to 100 as a result of rounding or the omission refer to only part of a country.

h.

of employment in economic activity that is not Data are from Charmes and Rani 2007.

i.

adequately defined. Services include persons engaged in extra-

territorial organizations and bodies and/or persons

not classifiable by economic activity. Indicatori

di

sviluppo

umano

359

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

22

tabella …preservandole per le generazioni future…

Energia e ambiente Forest area Average

Population

Electricity consumption annual

without % of total

Electrification Total Total change

GDP per unit of energy use

per capita rate electricity change

land area

(kilowatt- (2000 PPP US$ per (thousand (thousand

(%) (millions) (%) (%)

hours) (% change) kg of oil equivalent) (% change) sq km) sq km)

a

HDI rank 2004 1990–2004 2000–05 2005 2004 1990–2004 2005 2005 1990–2005 1990–2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 29,430 66.4 100 .. 2.5 -12.1 0.5 0.5 0.2 5.6

2 Norway 26,657 6.5 100 .. 5.9 15.9 30.7 93.9 2.6 0.2

3 Australia 11,849 30.4 100 .. 4.8 21.3 21.3 1,636.8 -42.3 -0.2

4 Canada 18,408 5.9 100 .. 3.4 12.5 33.6 3,101.3 .. ..

5 Ireland 6,751 62.7 100 .. 9.5 81.9 9.7 6.7 2.3 3.4

6 Sweden 16,670 -1.9 100 .. 4.5 13.0 66.9 275.3 1.6 (.)

b b

7 Switzerland 8,669 10.3 100 .. 8.3 0.9 30.9 12.2 0.7 0.4

8 Japan 8,459 21.8 100 .. 6.4 -1.4 68.2 248.7 -0.8 (.)

9 Netherlands 7,196 32.7 100 .. 5.8 11.7 10.8 3.7 0.2 0.4

c c

10 France 8,231 24.6 100 .. 5.9 8.0 28.3 155.5 10.2 0.5

11 Finland 17,374 33.2 100 .. 3.8 -1.1 73.9 225.0 3.1 0.1

12 United States 14,240 11.9 100 .. 4.6 25.3 33.1 3,030.9 44.4 0.1

13 Spain 6,412 63.3 100 .. 6.9 -4.9 35.9 179.2 44.4 2.2

14 Denmark 6,967 7.4 100 .. 7.9 14.7 11.8 5.0 0.6 0.8

15 Austria 8,256 27.7 100 .. 7.3 2.9 46.7 38.6 0.9 0.2

16 United Kingdom 6,756 15.9 100 .. 7.3 22.2 11.8 28.5 2.3 0.6

17 Belgium 8,986 33.4 100 .. 5.2 10.3 22.0 6.7 -0.1 -0.1

18 Luxembourg 16,630 21.1 100 .. 6.1 77.5 33.5 0.9 (.) 0.1

19 New Zealand 10,238 6.7 100 .. 5.1 25.0 31.0 83.1 5.9 0.5

d d

20 Italy 6,029 36.1 100 .. 8.2 -2.5 33.9 99.8 16.0 1.3

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 6,401 34.4 .. .. 11.5 6.4 .. .. .. ..

22 Germany 7,442 10.4 100 .. 6.2 31.6 31.7 110.8 3.4 0.2

23 Israel 6,924 62.8 97 0.2 7.3 4.7 8.3 1.7 0.2 0.7

24 Greece 5,630 60.1 100 .. 7.4 11.1 29.1 37.5 4.5 0.9

25 Singapore 8,685 67.7 100 0.0 4.4 30.6 3.4 (.) 0.0 0.0

26 Korea (Republic of) 7,710 178.3 100 .. 4.2 -6.3 63.5 62.7 -1.1 -0.1

27 Slovenia 7,262 .. .. .. 5.4 10.6 62.8 12.6 0.8 0.4

28 Cyprus 5,718 97.2 .. .. 5.9 8.5 18.9 1.7 0.1 0.5

29 Portugal 4,925 69.9 100 .. 7.1 -9.8 41.3 37.8 6.8 1.5

30 Brunei Darussalam 8,842 80.9 99 0.0 .. .. 52.8 2.8 -0.4 -0.7

31 Barbados 3,304 85.0 .. .. .. .. 4.0 (.) .. ..

32 Czech Republic 6,720 .. .. .. 4.0 30.8 34.3 26.5 0.2 (.)

33 Kuwait 15,423 75.0 100 0.0 1.9 63.1 0.3 0.1 (.) 6.7

34 Malta 5,542 53.4 .. .. 7.5 47.9 1.1 .. .. ..

35 Qatar 19,840 101.8 71 0.2 .. .. (.) .. .. ..

36 Hungary 4,070 6.7 .. .. 5.9 40.6 21.5 19.8 1.8 0.6

37 Poland 3,793 6.9 .. .. 5.1 74.8 30.0 91.9 3.1 0.2

38 Argentina 2,714 70.6 95 1.8 7.4 15.8 12.1 330.2 -22.4 -0.4

39 United Arab Emirates 12,000 41.5 92 0.4 2.2 15.7 3.7 3.1 0.7 1.8

40 Chile 3,347 138.7 99 0.2 6.1 11.9 21.5 161.2 8.6 0.4

41 Bahrain 11,932 52.3 99 0.0 1.8 21.5 0.6 .. .. ..

42 Slovakia 5,335 .. .. .. 3.9 45.3 40.1 19.3 0.1 (.)

43 Lithuania 3,505 .. .. .. 4.5 60.5 33.5 21.0 1.5 0.5

44 Estonia 6,168 .. .. .. 3.5 113.2 53.9 22.8 1.2 0.4

45 Latvia 2,923 .. .. .. 5.6 122.6 47.4 29.4 1.7 0.4

umano 46 Uruguay 2,408 52.4 95 0.2 10.4 5.3 8.6 15.1 6.0 4.4

47 Croatia 3,818 .. .. .. 5.6 12.0 38.2 21.4 0.2 0.1

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 1,876 54.4 99 0.1 10.0 2.9 46.8 23.9 -1.7 -0.4

e

49 Bahamas 6,964 87.0 .. .. .. .. 51.5 5.2 .. ..

e

50 Seychelles 2,716 88.2 .. .. .. .. 88.9 0.4 0.0 0.0

di 51 Cuba 1,380 0.6 96 0.5 .. .. 24.7 27.1 6.6 2.1

Indicatori 52 Mexico 2,130 46.5 .. .. 5.5 8.5 33.7 642.4 -47.8 -0.5

53 Bulgaria 4,582 -10.3 .. .. 3.0 44.7 32.8 36.3 3.0 0.6

360 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 22

tabella

Forest area Average

Population

Electricity consumption annual

without % of total

Electrification Total Total change

GDP per unit of energy use

per capita rate electricity change

land area

(kilowatt- (2000 PPP US$ per (thousand (thousand

(%) (millions) (%) (%)

hours) (% change) kg of oil equivalent) (% change) sq km) sq km)

a

HDI rank 2004 1990–2004 2000–05 2005 2004 1990–2004 2005 2005 1990–2005 1990–2005

e

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 3,333 115.3 .. .. .. .. 14.7 0.1 0.0 0.0

e

55 Tonga 327 30.8 .. .. .. .. 5.0 (.) 0.0 0.0

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 3,147 -22.2 97 0.2 .. .. 0.1 2.2 0.0 0.0

e

57 Antigua and Barbuda 1,346 -10.7 .. .. .. .. 21.4 0.1 .. ..

58 Oman 5,079 83.2 96 0.1 3.0 -29.9 (.) (.) 0.0 0.0

59 Trinidad and Tobago 4,921 67.1 99 0.0 1.3 -5.3 44.1 2.3 -0.1 -0.3

60 Romania 2,548 -19.9 .. .. 4.5 80.9 27.7 63.7 (.) 0.0

61 Saudi Arabia 6,902 57.9 97 0.8 2.0 -28.2 1.3 27.3 0.0 0.0

62 Panama 1,807 51.0 85 0.5 8.4 13.5 57.7 42.9 -0.8 -0.1

63 Malaysia 3,196 129.6 98 0.6 4.1 -5.1 63.6 208.9 -14.9 -0.4

64 Belarus 3,508 .. .. .. 2.4 89.6 38.0 78.9 5.2 0.5

65 Mauritius 1,775 147.2 94 0.1 .. .. 18.2 0.4 (.) -0.3

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,690 .. .. .. 5.3 .. 43.1 21.9 -0.3 -0.1

67 Russian Federation 6,425 .. .. .. 2.0 28.3 47.9 8,087.9 -1.6 0.0

68 Albania 1,847 82.3 .. .. 5.9 55.2 29.0 7.9 0.1 (.)

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 3,863 .. .. .. 4.6 13.7 35.8 9.1 0.0 0.0

70 Brazil 2,340 39.5 97 6.5 6.8 -6.7 57.2 4,777.0 -423.3 -0.5

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica 1,129 170.7 .. .. .. .. 61.3 0.5 (.) -0.5

72 Saint Lucia 1,879 136.6 .. .. .. .. 27.9 0.2 0.0 0.0

73 Kazakhstan 4,320 .. .. .. 1.9 86.7 1.2 33.4 -0.9 -0.2

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 3,770 23.6 99 0.4 2.6 0.5 54.1 477.1 -43.1 -0.6

e

75 Colombia 1,074 3.1 86 6.3 10.9 29.6 58.5 607.3 -7.1 -0.1

76 Ukraine 3,727 .. .. .. 2.0 11.7 16.5 95.8 3.0 0.2

e

77 Samoa 619 103.0 .. .. .. .. 60.4 1.7 0.4 2.1

e

78 Thailand 2,020 141.1 99 0.6 4.9 -14.0 28.4 145.2 -14.5 -0.6

79 Dominican Republic 1,536 197.7 93 0.7 7.6 7.0 28.4 13.8 .. ..

e

80 Belize 686 13.8 .. .. .. .. 72.5 16.5 .. ..

81 China 1,684 212.4 99 8.5 4.4 108.6 21.2 1,972.9 401.5 1.7

82 Grenada 1,963 225.0 .. .. .. .. 12.2 (.) .. ..

83 Armenia 1,744 .. .. .. 5.6 122.8 10.0 2.8 -0.6 -1.2

84 Turkey 2,122 109.5 .. .. 6.2 6.4 13.2 101.8 5.0 0.3

85 Suriname 3,437 -9.9 .. .. .. .. 94.7 147.8 0.0 0.0

86 Jordan 1,738 53.4 100 0.0 3.6 4.3 0.9 0.8 0.0 0.0

87 Peru 927 44.6 72 7.7 10.9 30.0 53.7 687.4 -14.1 -0.1

f

88 Lebanon 2,691 374.6 100 0.0 3.5 29.9 13.3 1.4 0.2 0.8

89 Ecuador 1,092 77.3 90 1.3 4.8 -17.7 39.2 108.5 -29.6 -1.4

90 Philippines 677 68.8 81 16.2 7.9 -12.7 24.0 71.6 -34.1 -2.2

91 Tunisia 1,313 93.7 99 0.1 8.2 22.2 6.8 10.6 4.1 4.3

e

92 Fiji 926 44.9 .. .. .. .. 54.7 10.0 0.2 0.1

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1,030 114.1 .. .. .. .. 27.4 0.1 (.) 1.5

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2,460 126.7 97 1.8 3.1 -13.6 6.8 110.8 0.0 0.0

95 Paraguay 1,146 99.3 86 0.9 6.4 -2.0 46.5 184.8 -26.8 -0.8

96 Georgia 1,577 .. .. .. 4.1 236.3 39.7 27.6 .. ..

f

97 Guyana 1,090 155.3 .. .. .. .. 76.7 151.0 .. ..

98 Azerbaijan 2,796 .. .. .. 2.5 .. 11.3 9.4 .. .. Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 420 127.0 66 6.7 8.3 13.8 29.9 19.3 -4.2 -1.2

100 Maldives 539 385.6 .. .. .. .. 3.0 (.) 0.0 0.0

101 Jamaica 2,697 160.8 87 0.3 2.5 -18.2 31.3 3.4 -0.1 -0.1 di

102 Cape Verde 529 330.1 .. .. .. .. 20.7 0.8 0.3 3.0 sviluppo

103 El Salvador 732 62.7 80 1.4 7.0 -3.1 14.4 3.0 -0.8 -1.4

104 Algeria 889 40.7 98 0.6 6.0 4.5 1.0 22.8 4.9 1.8 umano

105 Viet Nam 560 324.2 84 13.2 4.2 26.5 39.7 129.3 35.7 2.5

f

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 513 .. .. .. .. .. 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 361

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

22

tabella Energia e ambiente Forest area Average

Population

Electricity consumption annual

without % of total

Electrification Total Total change

GDP per unit of energy use

per capita rate electricity change

land area

(kilowatt- (2000 PPP US$ per (thousand (thousand

(%) (millions) (%) (%)

hours) (% change) kg of oil equivalent) (% change) sq km) sq km)

a

HDI rank 2004 1990–2004 2000–05 2005 2004 1990–2004 2005 2005 1990–2005 1990–2005

e

107 Indonesia 476 75.0 54 101.2 4.1 -0.1 48.8 885.0 -280.7 -1.6

108 Syrian Arab Republic 1,784 88.4 90 1.9 3.4 19.9 2.5 4.6 0.9 1.6

g

109 Turkmenistan 2,060 .. .. .. 1.3 -21.3 8.8 41.3 0.0 0.0

110 Nicaragua 525 37.1 69 1.7 5.2 -2.3 42.7 51.9 -13.5 -1.4

111 Moldova 1,554 .. .. .. 2.0 40.8 10.0 3.3 0.1 0.2

e

112 Egypt 1,465 93.0 98 1.5 4.9 -2.2 0.1 0.7 0.2 3.5

113 Uzbekistan 1,944 .. .. .. 0.8 11.1 8.0 33.0 2.5 0.5

114 Mongolia 1,260 -25.2 65 1.0 .. .. 6.5 102.5 -12.4 -0.7

115 Honduras 730 79.4 62 2.7 4.8 -3.9 41.5 46.5 -27.4 -2.5

116 Kyrgyzstan 2,320 .. .. .. 3.3 92.3 4.5 8.7 0.3 0.3

117 Bolivia 493 42.1 64 3.3 4.5 -10.6 54.2 587.4 -40.6 -0.4

118 Guatemala 532 100.0 79 2.7 6.4 -3.6 36.3 39.4 -8.1 -1.1

119 Gabon 1,128 5.4 48 0.7 4.9 3.1 84.5 217.8 -1.5 (.)

e

120 Vanuatu 206 18.4 .. .. .. .. 36.1 4.4 0.0 0.0

h h

121 South Africa 4,818 20.8 70 14.0 3.7 -4.5 7.6 92.0 0.0 0.0

122 Tajikistan 2,638 .. .. .. 2.1 139.6 2.9 4.1 (.) (.)

e

123 Sao Tome and Principe 99 -23.8 .. .. .. .. 28.4 0.3 0.0 0.0

i i

124 Botswana .. .. 39 1.1 8.6 40.0 21.1 119.4 -17.8 -0.9

i i

125 Namibia .. .. 34 1.4 10.2 -16.5 9.3 76.6 -11.0 -0.8

126 Morocco 652 84.7 85 4.5 10.3 -13.9 9.8 43.6 0.8 0.1

e

127 Equatorial Guinea 52 0 .. .. .. .. 58.2 16.3 -2.3 -0.8

128 India 618 77.6 56 487.2 5.5 37.1 22.8 677.0 37.6 0.4

e

129 Solomon Islands 107 13.8 .. .. .. .. 77.6 21.7 -6.0 -1.4

e

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 126 80.0 .. .. .. .. 69.9 161.4 -11.7 -0.5

e

131 Cambodia 10 -44.4 20 10.9 .. .. 59.2 104.5 -25.0 -1.3

132 Myanmar 129 111.5 11 45.1 .. .. 49.0 322.2 -70.0 -1.2

e

133 Bhutan 229 126.7 .. .. .. .. 68.0 32.0 1.6 0.4

e

134 Comoros 31 3.3 .. .. .. .. 2.9 0.1 -0.1 -3.9

135 Ghana 289 -22.3 49 11.3 5.4 18.3 24.2 55.2 -19.3 -1.7

136 Pakistan 564 61.6 54 71.1 4.2 7.7 2.5 19.0 -6.3 -1.6

e

137 Mauritania 112 60.0 .. .. .. .. 0.3 2.7 -1.5 -2.4

i i

138 Lesotho .. .. 11 1.9 .. .. 0.3 0.1 (.) 4.0

139 Congo 229 -2.1 20 3.2 3.3 45.4 65.8 224.7 -2.6 -0.1

140 Bangladesh 154 111.0 32 96.2 10.5 7.2 6.7 8.7 -0.1 -0.1

i i

141 Swaziland .. .. .. .. .. .. 31.5 5.4 0.7 1.0

142 Nepal 86 104.8 33 18.1 4.0 18.4 25.4 36.4 -11.8 -1.6

143 Madagascar 56 5.7 15 15.2 .. .. 22.1 128.4 -8.5 -0.4

144 Cameroon 256 8.9 47 8.7 4.5 -4.4 45.6 212.5 -33.0 -0.9

e

145 Papua New Guinea 620 28.1 .. .. .. .. 65.0 294.4 -20.9 -0.4

146 Haiti 61 -17.6 36 5.5 6.2 -39.9 3.8 1.1 -0.1 -0.6

147 Sudan 116 123.1 30 25.4 3.7 33.2 28.4 675.5 -88.4 -0.8

148 Kenya 169 26.1 14 29.4 2.1 -3.8 6.2 35.2 -1.9 -0.3

e

149 Djibouti 260 -46.8 .. .. .. .. 0.2 0.1 .. ..

e

150 Timor-Leste 294 .. .. .. .. .. 53.7 8.0 -1.7 -1.2

151 Zimbabwe 924 -10.1 34 8.7 2.6 -13.4 45.3 175.4 -46.9 -1.4

152 Togo 102 1.0 17 5.1 3.1 -26.9 7.1 3.9 -3.0 -2.9

umano 153 Yemen 208 34.2 36 13.2 2.8 -6.0 1.0 5.5 0.0 0.0

e

154 Uganda 63 61.5 9 24.6 .. .. 18.4 36.3 -13.0 -1.8

e

sviluppo 155 Gambia 98 30.7 .. .. .. .. 41.7 4.7 0.3 0.4

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal 206 70.2 33 7.8 6.5 28.2 45.0 86.7 -6.8 -0.5

di 157 Eritrea 67 .. 20 3.5 .. .. 15.4 15.5 -0.7 -0.3

Indicatori 158 Nigeria 157 -1.9 46 71.1 1.4 22.7 12.2 110.9 -61.5 -2.4

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 69 4.5 11 34.2 1.3 -12.5 39.9 352.6 -61.8 -1.0

362 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 22

tabella

Forest area Average

Population

Electricity consumption annual

without % of total

Electrification Total Total change

GDP per unit of energy use

per capita rate electricity change

land area

(kilowatt- (2000 PPP US$ per (thousand (thousand

(%) (millions) (%) (%)

hours) (% change) kg of oil equivalent) (% change) sq km) sq km)

a

HDI rank 2004 1990–2004 2000–05 2005 2004 1990–2004 2005 2005 1990–2005 1990–2005

e

160 Guinea 87 3.6 .. .. .. .. 27.4 67.2 -6.8 -0.6

e

161 Rwanda 31 24.0 .. .. .. .. 19.5 4.8 1.6 3.4

162 Angola 220 161.9 15 13.5 3.3 -12.4 47.4 591.0 -18.7 -0.2

163 Benin 81 72.3 22 6.5 3.3 25.8 21.3 23.5 -9.7 -1.9

e

164 Malawi 100 14.9 7 11.8 .. .. 36.2 34.0 -4.9 -0.8

165 Zambia 721 -7.8 19 9.5 1.5 0.4 57.1 424.5 -66.7 -0.9

166 Côte d’Ivoire 224 7.7 50 9.1 3.7 -29.1 32.7 104.1 1.8 0.1

e

167 Burundi 22 -4.3 .. .. .. .. 5.9 1.5 -1.4 -3.2

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 92 -42.1 6 53.8 2.2 -55.8 58.9 1,336.1 -69.2 -0.3

169 Ethiopia 36 .. 15 60.8 2.8 5.8 11.9 130.0 -21.1 -0.9

e

170 Chad 11 -31.3 .. .. .. .. 9.5 119.2 -11.9 -0.6

e

171 Central African Republic 28 -12.5 .. .. .. .. 36.5 227.6 -4.5 -0.1

172 Mozambique 545 856.1 6 18.6 2.6 105.8 24.6 192.6 -7.5 -0.2

e

173 Mali 41 36.7 .. .. .. .. 10.3 125.7 -15.0 -0.7

e

174 Niger 40 -13.0 .. .. .. .. 1.0 12.7 -6.8 -2.3

e

175 Guinea-Bissau 44 4.8 .. .. .. .. 73.7 20.7 -1.4 -0.4

e

176 Burkina Faso 31 55.0 7 12.4 .. .. 29.0 67.9 -3.6 -0.3

177 Sierra Leone 24 -54.7 .. .. .. .. 38.5 27.5 -2.9 -0.6

j j

Developing countries 1,221 .. 68 1,569.0 4.6 .. 27.9 21,147.8 -1,381.7 -0.4

Least developed countries 119 .. .. .. .. .. 27.5 5,541.6 -583.6 -0.6

Arab States 1,841 .. .. .. 3.4 .. 7.2 877.7 -88.0 -0.6

East Asia and the Pacific 1,599 .. .. .. .. .. 28.6 4,579.3 -75.5 0.1

j j

Latin America and the Caribbean 2,043 .. 90 45.0 6.2 .. 45.9 9,159.0 -686.3 -0.5

South Asia 628 .. .. .. 5.1 .. 14.2 911.8 12.5 0.1

j j

Sub-Saharan Africa 478 .. 26 547.0 .. .. 26.8 5,516.4 -549.6 -0.6

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 4,539 .. .. .. 2.6 .. 38.3 8,856.5 22.7 (.)

OECD 8,795 .. 100 .. 5.3 .. 30.9 10,382.4 67.9 0.1

High-income OECD 10,360 .. 100 .. 5.3 .. 31.2 9,480.8 105.6 0.1

High human development 7,518 .. 99 .. 5.0 .. 36.2 24,327.1 -366.8 -0.1

Medium human development 1,146 .. 72 .. 4.5 .. 23.3 10,799.6 -462.4 -0.2

Low human development 134 .. 25 .. .. .. 29.8 4,076.5 -379.5 -0.5

High income 10,210 .. 100 .. 5.2 .. 29.2 9,548.4 107.1 0.1

Middle income 2,039 .. 90 .. 4.2 .. 33.8 23,132.3 -683.1 -0.2

Low income 449 .. 45 .. .. .. 23.9 6,745.6 -676.2 -0.6

j j j j j j j

World 2,701 .. 76 1,577.0 4.8 .. 30.3 39,520.3 -1,252.7 -0.2

NOTES SOURCES

h. Data refer to the South African Customs Union, Column 1:

a. Data refer to the most recent year available during UN 2007d.

which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Column 2:

the period specified. calculated based on data from UN 2007b.

Swaziland. Column 3-4:

b. i.

Includes Liechtenstein. IEA 2002 and IEA 2006.

Included in data for South Africa. Column 5:

c. j.

Includes Monaco. World Bank 2007b, based on data

Data are aggregates provided by original

d. Includes San Marino. from IEA.

data source. Columns 6:

e. Data are estimates produced by the UN calculated based on data from World

Statistics Division. Bank 2007b.

Column 7-8:

f. Estimate produced by the Food and Agriculture FAO 2006.

Columns 9–10:

Organization based on information provided by the calculated based on data from

country. FAO 2006.

g. Data refer to a year or period other than

that specified. Indicatori

di

sviluppo

umano

363

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

23

tabella …preservandole per le generazioni future…

Fonti energetiche a

Share of TPES b

Fossil fuels Renewable energy Other

Total primary Hydro, solar, wind Biomass and

a c d e

energy supply Coal Oil Natural Gas and geothermal waste Nuclear

(Mt of oil equivalent) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 2.2 3.6 3.0 2.7 32.6 24.6 0.0 0.0 64.5 72.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

2 Norway 21.5 32.1 4.0 2.4 39.8 44.1 9.2 16.1 48.5 36.6 4.8 4.1 0.0 0.0

3 Australia 87.5 122.0 40.0 44.5 37.1 31.1 16.9 18.9 1.5 1.2 4.5 4.3 0.0 0.0

4 Canada 209.4 272.0 11.6 10.3 36.9 35.8 26.1 29.6 12.2 11.5 3.9 4.6 9.3 8.8

5 Ireland 10.4 15.3 33.3 17.6 47.0 56.0 18.1 22.7 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.6 0.0 0.0

6 Sweden 47.6 52.2 6.2 5.0 30.8 28.5 1.2 1.6 13.1 12.7 11.6 17.2 37.4 36.2

7 Switzerland 25.0 27.2 1.4 0.6 53.8 47.1 6.5 10.2 10.5 10.5 3.7 7.1 24.7 22.5

8 Japan 444.5 530.5 17.4 21.1 57.4 47.4 9.9 13.3 2.3 2.0 1.1 1.2 11.9 15.0

9 Netherlands 66.8 81.8 13.4 10.0 36.5 40.2 46.1 43.1 (.) 0.3 1.4 3.2 1.4 1.3

10 France 227.8 276.0 8.9 5.2 38.3 33.1 11.4 14.9 2.1 1.7 5.1 4.3 35.9 42.6

11 Finland 29.2 35.0 18.2 14.1 35.1 30.6 7.5 10.3 3.2 3.9 15.6 19.6 17.2 17.3

12 United States 1,927.5 2,340.3 23.8 23.7 40.0 40.7 22.8 21.8 2.0 1.5 3.2 3.2 8.3 9.0

13 Spain 91.1 145.2 21.2 14.1 51.0 49.1 5.5 20.5 2.4 2.5 4.5 3.5 15.5 10.3

14 Denmark 17.9 19.6 34.0 18.9 45.7 41.8 10.2 22.4 0.3 3.0 6.4 13.2 0.0 0.0

15 Austria 25.1 34.4 16.3 11.8 42.4 42.2 20.7 24.0 10.9 9.7 9.8 11.6 0.0 0.0

16 United Kingdom 212.2 233.9 29.7 16.1 38.9 36.2 22.2 36.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 1.7 8.1 9.1

17 Belgium 49.2 56.7 21.7 9.0 38.1 40.2 16.6 24.9 0.1 0.2 1.5 2.8 22.6 21.9

18 Luxembourg 3.6 4.8 31.7 1.7 45.9 66.2 12.0 24.7 0.2 0.3 0.7 1.2 0.0 0.0

19 New Zealand 13.8 16.9 8.2 11.8 28.8 40.3 28.3 18.9 30.7 23.8 4.0 5.1 0.0 0.0

20 Italy 148.0 185.2 9.9 8.9 57.3 44.2 26.4 38.1 3.8 4.3 0.6 2.3 0.0 0.0

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 10.7 18.1 51.5 36.8 49.4 47.7 0.0 12.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0

22 Germany 356.2 344.7 36.1 23.7 35.5 35.8 15.4 23.4 0.4 1.3 1.3 3.5 11.2 12.3

23 Israel 12.1 19.5 19.8 39.2 77.3 51.2 0.2 6.6 3.0 3.7 (.) (.) 0.0 0.0

24 Greece 22.2 31.0 36.4 28.9 57.7 57.1 0.6 7.6 1.0 2.1 4.0 3.3 0.0 0.0

25 Singapore 13.4 30.1 0.2 (.) 99.8 80.3 0.0 19.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

26 Korea (Republic of) 93.4 213.8 27.4 23.1 53.6 45.0 2.9 12.8 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.0 14.8 17.9

27 Slovenia 5.6 7.3 25.4 20.2 31.7 35.8 13.6 12.7 4.5 4.1 4.8 6.7 21.5 21.0

28 Cyprus 1.6 2.6 3.7 1.5 95.9 96.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.0

29 Portugal 17.7 27.2 15.5 12.3 66.0 58.5 0.0 13.8 4.5 2.4 14.0 10.8 0.0 0.0

30 Brunei Darussalam 1.8 2.6 0.0 0.0 6.8 29.7 92.2 69.6 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.7 0.0 0.0

31 Barbados .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

32 Czech Republic 49.0 45.2 64.2 44.7 18.3 22.1 10.7 17.0 0.2 0.5 0.0 3.9 6.7 14.3

33 Kuwait 8.5 28.1 0.0 0.0 40.1 66.5 59.8 33.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

34 Malta 0.8 0.9 23.8 0.0 76.2 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

35 Qatar 6.3 15.8 0.0 0.0 12.1 15.7 87.8 84.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 (.) 0.0 0.0

36 Hungary 28.6 27.8 21.4 11.1 29.8 26.0 31.2 43.6 0.4 0.4 1.3 4.0 12.5 13.0

37 Poland 99.9 93.0 75.5 58.7 13.3 23.8 9.0 13.2 0.1 0.2 2.2 5.1 0.0 0.0

38 Argentina 46.1 63.7 2.1 1.4 45.7 36.7 40.8 50.4 3.4 4.6 3.7 3.5 4.1 2.8

39 United Arab Emirates 22.5 46.9 0.0 0.0 39.9 27.9 60.1 72.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 (.) 0.0 0.0

40 Chile 14.1 29.6 18.4 13.9 45.8 39.2 10.6 23.8 6.2 7.0 19.0 15.5 0.0 0.0

41 Bahrain 4.8 8.1 0.0 0.0 26.5 23.2 73.5 76.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

42 Slovakia 21.3 18.8 36.7 22.5 21.1 18.4 23.9 31.2 0.8 2.2 0.8 2.4 14.7 24.8

43 Lithuania 16.2 8.6 4.9 2.3 42.2 29.1 28.9 28.8 0.7 2.4 1.8 8.3 27.8 31.9

44 Estonia 9.6 5.1 59.9 59.3 31.7 15.5 12.8 15.7 0.0 0.1 2.0 12.1 0.0 0.0

45 Latvia 7.8 4.7 6.3 1.3 45.3 29.7 30.6 28.8 5.4 6.1 8.5 30.2 0.0 0.0

umano 46 Uruguay 2.3 2.9 (.) 0.1 58.6 59.4 0.0 3.1 26.8 19.9 24.2 15.4 0.0 0.0

47 Croatia 9.1 8.9 9.0 7.5 53.4 50.7 24.2 26.7 3.6 6.1 3.4 4.0 0.0 0.0

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 2.0 3.8 0.1 0.5 48.3 51.4 0.0 0.0 14.4 41.1 36.6 7.0 0.0 0.0

49 Bahamas .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

50 Seychelles .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

di 51 Cuba 16.8 10.2 0.8 0.2 64.1 73.4 0.2 6.0 (.) 0.1 34.9 20.3 0.0 0.0

Indicatori 52 Mexico 124.3 176.5 2.8 4.9 67.0 58.8 18.6 25.0 5.2 4.9 5.9 4.7 0.6 1.6

53 Bulgaria 28.8 20.1 32.1 34.6 33.7 24.6 18.7 14.0 0.6 2.0 0.6 3.7 13.3 24.3

364 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 23

tabella

a

Share of TPES b

Fossil fuels Renewable energy Other

Total primary Hydro, solar, wind Biomass and

a c d e

energy supply Coal Oil Natural Gas and geothermal waste Nuclear

(Mt of oil equivalent) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

55 Tonga .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 11.5 19.0 0.0 0.0 63.8 72.2 35.1 27.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.8 0.0 0.0

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

58 Oman 4.6 14.0 0.0 0.0 46.6 33.3 53.4 66.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

59 Trinidad and Tobago 6.0 12.7 0.0 0.0 21.4 13.6 77.8 86.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.0

60 Romania 62.4 38.3 20.7 22.7 29.2 24.6 46.2 36.4 1.6 4.7 1.0 8.5 0.0 3.8

61 Saudi Arabia 61.3 140.3 0.0 0.0 64.7 63.6 35.3 36.4 0.0 0.0 (.) (.) 0.0 0.0

62 Panama 1.5 2.6 1.3 0.0 57.1 71.7 0.0 0.0 12.8 12.3 28.3 16.1 0.0 0.0

63 Malaysia 23.3 61.3 4.4 9.6 55.8 43.3 29.2 41.8 1.5 0.8 9.1 4.5 0.0 0.0

64 Belarus 42.2 26.6 5.6 2.4 62.2 27.9 29.7 63.7 (.) (.) 0.5 4.8 0.0 0.0

65 Mauritius .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 7.0 5.0 59.4 55.3 29.0 26.6 5.5 7.4 3.7 9.5 2.3 3.7 0.0 0.0

67 Russian Federation 878.3 646.7 20.7 16.0 31.0 20.6 41.8 54.1 1.6 2.4 1.4 1.1 3.6 6.1

68 Albania 2.7 2.4 23.7 1.0 45.2 68.1 7.6 0.6 9.2 19.3 13.6 9.6 0.0 0.0

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 2.7 2.7 57.6 48.7 40.6 33.2 0.0 2.3 1.6 5.1 0.0 5.6 0.0 0.0

70 Brazil 134.0 209.5 7.2 6.5 43.9 42.2 2.4 8.0 13.3 13.9 31.1 26.5 0.4 1.2

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

72 Saint Lucia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

73 Kazakhstan 73.7 52.4 54.2 52.6 28.2 14.5 14.5 33.5 0.9 1.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 43.9 60.9 1.1 0.1 43.2 50.4 47.2 38.1 7.2 10.6 1.2 0.9 0.0 0.0

75 Colombia 24.7 28.6 12.4 9.4 42.0 43.3 13.6 21.4 9.6 12.0 22.3 14.4 0.0 0.0

76 Ukraine 251.7 143.2 32.0 26.0 24.1 10.3 36.5 47.1 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.2 7.9 16.1

77 Samoa .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

78 Thailand 43.9 100.0 8.7 11.2 45.2 45.5 11.6 25.9 1.0 0.5 33.4 16.5 0.0 0.0

79 Dominican Republic 4.1 7.4 0.3 4.0 74.8 75.1 0.0 0.1 0.7 2.2 24.2 18.6 0.0 0.0

80 Belize .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

81 China 863.2 1,717.2 61.2 63.3 12.8 18.5 1.5 2.3 1.3 2.0 23.2 13.0 0.0 0.8

82 Grenada .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

83 Armenia 7.9 2.6 3.1 0.0 48.9 16.6 45.2 52.3 1.7 6.0 (.) (.) 0.0 27.7

84 Turkey 53.0 85.2 31.9 26.4 44.6 35.1 5.4 26.7 4.6 5.6 13.6 6.3 0.0 0.0

85 Suriname .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

86 Jordan 3.5 7.1 0.0 0.0 95.3 78.5 2.9 19.5 1.7 1.0 0.1 (.) 0.0 0.0

87 Peru 10.0 13.8 1.5 6.7 58.5 53.5 4.1 10.6 9.0 12.8 26.9 16.4 0.0 0.0

88 Lebanon 2.3 5.6 0.0 2.4 93.7 92.9 0.0 0.0 1.9 1.8 4.4 2.3 0.0 0.0

89 Ecuador 6.1 10.4 0.0 0.0 75.9 83.5 3.7 4.4 7.0 5.7 13.5 5.1 0.0 0.0

90 Philippines 26.2 44.7 5.0 13.6 45.9 35.4 0.0 5.9 20.0 20.7 29.2 24.4 0.0 0.0

91 Tunisia 5.5 8.5 1.4 0.0 57.5 50.0 22.3 36.6 0.1 0.2 18.7 13.3 0.0 0.0

92 Fiji .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 68.8 162.5 0.9 0.7 71.9 47.5 25.4 50.5 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0

95 Paraguay 3.1 4.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

96 Georgia 12.3 3.2 4.8 0.5 47.1 25.3 36.9 33.5 5.3 17.0 3.7 20.1 0.0 0.0

97 Guyana .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

98 Azerbaijan 26.0 13.8 0.3 0.0 45.2 38.6 54.7 58.7 0.2 1.9 (.) (.) 0.0 0.0 Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 5.5 9.4 0.1 0.7 24.0 43.2 0.0 0.0 4.9 3.2 71.0 52.9 0.0 0.0

100 Maldives .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

101 Jamaica 2.9 3.8 1.1 1.0 82.4 86.5 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 16.2 12.2 0.0 0.0 di

102 Cape Verde .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. sviluppo

103 El Salvador 2.5 4.6 0.0 (.) 32.0 44.4 0.0 0.0 19.8 22.6 48.1 32.4 0.0 0.0

104 Algeria 23.9 34.8 2.6 2.0 40.6 31.7 56.7 66.0 (.) 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 umano

105 Viet Nam 24.3 51.3 9.1 15.8 11.3 24.3 (.) 9.6 1.9 3.6 77.7 46.7 0.0 0.0

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 365

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

23

tabella Fonti energetiche a

Share of TPES b

Fossil fuels Renewable energy Other

Total primary Hydro, solar, wind Biomass and

a c d e

energy supply Coal Oil Natural Gas and geothermal waste Nuclear

(Mt of oil equivalent) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

107 Indonesia 103.2 179.5 3.8 14.2 33.2 36.6 17.9 17.1 1.5 3.7 43.6 28.5 0.0 0.0

108 Syrian Arab Republic 11.7 17.9 0.0 (.) 86.3 65.3 11.7 33.0 2.0 1.7 (.) (.) 0.0 0.0

109 Turkmenistan 19.6 16.3 1.5 0.0 38.0 26.5 62.4 75.0 0.3 (.) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

110 Nicaragua 2.1 3.3 0.0 0.0 29.2 41.4 0.0 0.0 17.3 8.1 53.2 50.5 0.0 0.0

111 Moldova 10.0 3.6 20.0 2.1 49.3 19.0 32.8 69.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 2.1 0.0 0.0

112 Egypt 31.9 61.3 2.4 1.5 70.5 49.2 21.1 45.3 2.7 1.9 3.3 2.3 0.0 0.0

113 Uzbekistan 46.4 47.0 7.3 2.2 21.8 12.1 70.0 84.6 1.2 1.1 (.) (.) 0.0 0.0

114 Mongolia 3.4 2.6 73.6 75.0 24.5 22.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.7 0.0 0.0

115 Honduras 2.4 3.9 (.) 2.9 31.1 51.0 0.0 0.0 8.1 4.0 62.0 42.0 0.0 0.0

116 Kyrgyzstan 7.6 2.8 33.2 19.7 40.5 22.5 19.9 22.1 11.3 43.8 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0

117 Bolivia 2.8 5.3 0.0 0.0 46.5 56.2 22.6 25.8 3.7 4.0 27.2 14.0 0.0 0.0

118 Guatemala 4.5 8.0 0.0 3.1 28.8 40.5 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.5 67.9 53.2 0.0 0.0

119 Gabon 1.2 1.7 0.0 0.0 28.2 31.0 7.2 6.1 4.9 4.1 59.7 58.8 0.0 0.0

120 Vanuatu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

121 South Africa 91.2 127.6 72.9 72.0 11.6 12.2 1.6 2.8 0.1 0.2 11.4 10.5 2.4 2.3

122 Tajikistan 5.6 3.5 11.2 1.3 36.8 42.6 24.8 14.0 25.4 41.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

123 Sao Tome and Principe .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

124 Botswana 1.3 1.9 39.4 31.5 26.9 36.5 0.0 0.0 (.) (.) 33.1 24.1 0.0 0.0

125 Namibia .. 1.4 .. 0.2 .. 66.8 .. 0.0 .. 10.3 .. 13.5 .. 0.0

126 Morocco 6.7 13.8 16.8 32.3 76.1 60.2 0.6 2.8 1.6 1.0 4.7 3.3 0.0 0.0

127 Equatorial Guinea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

128 India 319.9 537.3 33.2 38.7 19.6 23.9 3.1 5.4 1.9 1.7 41.7 29.4 0.5 0.8

129 Solomon Islands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

131 Cambodia .. 4.8 .. 0.0 .. 26.6 .. 0.0 .. 0.1 .. 73.2 .. 0.0

132 Myanmar 10.7 14.7 0.6 0.6 6.9 13.7 7.1 14.4 1.0 1.8 84.4 69.6 0.0 0.0

133 Bhutan .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

134 Comoros .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

135 Ghana 5.3 8.9 0.0 0.0 18.9 28.7 0.0 0.0 9.2 5.1 73.1 66.0 0.0 0.0

136 Pakistan 43.4 76.3 4.8 5.3 25.2 21.9 23.2 33.0 3.4 3.5 43.2 35.5 0.2 0.8

137 Mauritania .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

138 Lesotho .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

139 Congo 1.1 1.2 0.0 0.0 26.5 38.2 0.0 0.0 4.0 2.5 69.4 56.3 0.0 0.0

140 Bangladesh 12.8 24.2 2.2 1.4 14.7 19.1 29.0 44.7 0.6 0.5 53.5 34.3 0.0 0.0

141 Swaziland .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

142 Nepal 5.8 9.2 0.8 2.0 4.5 9.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 2.3 93.4 86.6 0.0 0.0

143 Madagascar .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

144 Cameroon 5.0 7.0 0.0 0.0 19.5 16.6 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.8 75.9 78.6 0.0 0.0

145 Papua New Guinea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

146 Haiti 1.6 2.5 0.5 0.0 20.5 23.2 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.9 76.5 75.8 0.0 0.0

147 Sudan 10.6 18.4 0.0 0.0 17.5 19.9 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.6 81.7 79.5 0.0 0.0

148 Kenya 12.5 17.2 0.7 0.4 16.8 19.1 0.0 0.0 4.0 5.9 78.4 74.6 0.0 0.0

149 Djibouti .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

150 Timor-Leste .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

151 Zimbabwe 9.4 9.7 36.6 23.1 8.7 7.1 0.0 0.0 4.0 5.2 50.4 61.9 0.0 0.0

152 Togo 1.4 2.0 0.0 0.0 15.6 18.2 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.3 82.6 79.4 0.0 0.0

umano 153 Yemen 2.6 6.7 0.0 0.0 97.0 98.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 1.2 0.0 0.0

154 Uganda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

sviluppo 155 Gambia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal 2.2 3.0 0.0 3.1 39.2 55.3 0.2 0.4 0.0 2.0 60.6 39.2 0.0 0.0

di 157 Eritrea .. 0.8 .. 0.0 .. 35.2 .. 0.0 .. (.) .. 64.8 .. 0.0

Indicatori 158 Nigeria 70.9 103.8 0.1 (.) 15.0 13.9 4.6 7.5 0.5 0.7 79.8 78.0 0.0 0.0

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 9.8 20.4 (.) 0.2 7.6 6.3 0.0 0.6 1.4 0.7 91.0 92.1 0.0 0.0

366 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 23

tabella

a

Share of TPES b

Fossil fuels Renewable energy Other

Total primary Hydro, solar, wind Biomass and

a c d e

energy supply Coal Oil Natural Gas and geothermal waste Nuclear

(Mt of oil equivalent) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005 1990 2005

160 Guinea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

161 Rwanda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

162 Angola 6.3 9.9 0.0 0.0 23.2 28.5 7.0 6.2 1.0 1.5 68.8 63.8 0.0 0.0

163 Benin 1.7 2.6 0.0 0.0 5.8 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 (.) 93.2 64.7 0.0 0.0

164 Malawi .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

165 Zambia 5.5 7.1 4.0 1.3 12.6 9.6 0.0 0.0 12.5 10.7 73.4 78.7 0.0 0.0

166 Côte d’Ivoire 4.4 7.8 0.0 0.0 24.8 23.9 0.0 17.8 2.6 1.6 72.1 58.3 0.0 0.0

167 Burundi .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 11.9 17.0 1.8 1.5 10.1 3.2 0.0 0.0 4.1 3.7 84.0 92.5 0.0 0.0

169 Ethiopia 15.2 21.6 0.0 0.0 6.6 8.2 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.1 92.8 90.6 0.0 0.0

170 Chad .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

171 Central African Republic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

172 Mozambique 7.2 10.2 0.5 0.0 4.6 5.2 0.0 0.2 0.3 11.2 94.4 85.4 0.0 0.0

173 Mali .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

174 Niger .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

175 Guinea-Bissau .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

176 Burkina Faso .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

177 Sierra Leone .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Developing countries .. T .. T 30.3 32.5 30.5 31.0 9.4 14.1 2.7 2.9 26.3 18.0 0.8 1.4

Least developed countries .. T .. T .. .. .. 17.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Arab States 237.4 T 477.1 T 1.1 1.3 59.5 54.2 33.9 40.2 0.7 0.4 4.8 3.8 0.0 0.0

East Asia and the Pacific .. T .. T .. .. .. 25.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Latin America and the Caribbean .. T .. T 4.5 4.8 51.9 48.7 16.8 21.7 7.9 9.0 17.7 14.3 0.7 1.1

South Asia 456.2 T 818.9 T 23.9 26.1 27.7 28.3 9.0 17.9 1.9 1.7 37.1 25.3 0.4 0.6

Sub-Saharan Africa .. T .. T .. .. .. 13.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 1,751.5 T 1,266.3 T 27.6 22.6 29.8 20.5 36.1 46.0 1.4 2.2 1.2 2.1 4.0 7.0

OECD 4,525.5 T 5,547.6 T 23.5 20.4 42.0 40.5 18.6 21.8 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.5 9.9 11.0

High-income OECD 4,149.4 T 5,101.1 T 22.2 19.9 42.3 40.6 19.0 21.7 2.9 2.6 3.0 3.4 10.6 11.6

High human development 5,950.8 T 6,981.2 T 21.7 18.3 40.9 39.3 22.8 26.0 2.8 2.9 3.4 3.9 8.3 9.5

Medium human development .. T 3,816.7 T 36.8 40.6 24.7 25.1 12.9 13.8 2.0 2.5 22.7 16.8 1.0 1.2

Low human development .. T .. T .. .. .. 13.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

High income 4,300.4 T 5,423.2 T 21.7 19.0 42.9 41.5 19.5 22.7 2.8 2.5 2.9 3.2 10.2 11.0

Middle income 3,556.4 T 4,594.4 T 31.6 34.3 31.0 28.3 21.7 21.7 2.3 3.1 11.4 10.1 2.1 2.4

Low income .. T .. T .. 23.3 .. 20.6 .. 11.6 .. 2.3 .. 41.8 .. 0.5

f f g g g g g g g g g g g

World 8,757.7 T 11,433.9 T 25.3 25.3 36.8 35.0 19.1 20.7 2.5 2.6 10.3 10.0 6.0 6.3

NOTES SOURCES

d. Crude, natural gas liquids (NGLs), feedstocks and Columns 1-2:

a. Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up IEA 2007.

petroleum products. Columns 3-14:

e.

of ‘indigenous production + imports - exports calculated based on data on primary

Biomass, also referred to as traditional fuel, is

- international marine bunkers ± stock changes’. energy supply from IEA 2007.

comprised of animal and plant materials (wood,

TPES is a measure of commercial energy vegetal waste, ethanol, animal materials/wastes

consumption. In some instances, the sum of the and sulphite lyes). Waste is comprised of

shares by energy source may not sum up to 100% municipal waste (wastes produced by the

because pumped storage generation has not been residential, commercial and public service sectors

deducted from hydroelectricity generation. that are collected by local authorities for disposal

b. In 2005, 12.6% of the world’s energy needs were in a central location for the production of heat

supplied by renewable sources. Hydro-electric and/or power) and industrial waste.

f.

power constitutes 17% of this total, solar/wind/ Data is a world aggregate from IEA 2007.

g.

other 1%, geothermal 3% and biomass and waste Data calculated based on world aggregates from Indicatori

79%. Shares for individual countries are different. IEA 2007.

c. Coal and coal products. di

sviluppo

umano

367

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

24

tabella …preservandole per le generazioni future…

Emissioni e depositi di anidride carbonica

a

Carbon dioxide emissions Carbon intensity Carbon intensity Carbon

of energy dioxide Carbon

of growth emissions stocks

CO emissions per CO emissions

2 2

Annual Share of from forest in forest

unit of energy use per unit of GDP

b Per capita

Total change world total c d

biomass biomass

(kt of CO per (kt of CO per million

2 2

(Mt CO ) (%) (%) (t CO ) kt of oil equivalent) 2000 PPP US$) (Mt CO / year) (Mt Carbon)

2 2 2

HDI rank 1990 2004 1990–2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990–2005 2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 2.0 2.2 0.7 (.) (.) 7.9 7.6 0.93 0.64 0.32 0.24 -0.1 1.5

2 Norway 33.2 87.5 11.7 0.1 0.3 7.8 19.1 1.54 3.17 0.31 0.53 -15.6 344.0

3 Australia 278.5 326.6 1.2 1.2 1.1 16.3 16.2 3.18 2.82 0.81 0.58 .. 8,339.0

4 Canada 415.8 639.0 3.8 1.8 2.2 15.0 20.0 1.99 2.38 0.66 0.69 .. ..

5 Ireland 30.6 42.3 2.7 0.1 0.1 8.8 10.5 2.94 2.78 0.55 0.31 -1.0 19.8

6 Sweden 49.5 53.0 0.5 0.2 0.2 5.8 5.9 1.04 0.98 0.26 0.21 -30.2 1,170.0

7 Switzerland 42.7 40.4 -0.4 0.2 0.1 6.2 5.4 1.71 1.49 0.21 0.17 -6.1 154.0

8 Japan 1,070.7 1,257.2 1.2 4.7 4.3 8.7 9.9 2.40 2.36 0.37 0.36 -118.5 1,892.0

9 Netherlands 141.0 142.0 (.) 0.6 0.5 9.4 8.7 2.11 1.73 0.41 0.30 -1.2 25.0

10 France 363.8 373.5 0.2 1.6 1.3 6.4 6.0 1.60 1.36 0.29 0.23 -44.2 1,165.0

11 Finland 51.2 65.8 2.0 0.2 0.2 10.3 12.6 1.76 1.73 0.46 0.45 -22.5 815.7

12 United States 4,818.3 6,045.8 1.8 21.2 20.9 19.3 20.6 2.50 2.60 0.68 0.56 -499.5 18,964.0

13 Spain 212.1 330.3 4.0 0.9 1.1 5.5 7.6 2.33 2.32 0.31 0.33 -28.3 392.0

14 Denmark 49.8 52.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 9.7 9.8 2.78 2.64 0.42 0.33 -1.0 26.0

15 Austria 57.6 69.8 1.5 0.3 0.2 7.4 8.6 2.30 2.10 0.32 0.29 .. ..

16 United Kingdom 579.4 586.9 0.1 2.6 2.0 10.0 9.8 2.73 2.51 0.47 0.34 -4.2 112.0

17 Belgium 100.6 100.7 (.) 0.4 0.3 10.1 9.7 2.05 1.74 0.45 0.34 -3.7 65.3

18 Luxembourg 9.9 11.3 1.0 (.) (.) 25.9 25.0 2.77 2.37 0.78 0.48 -0.5 9.0

19 New Zealand 22.6 31.6 2.8 0.1 0.1 6.7 7.7 1.65 1.79 0.39 0.35 .. ..

20 Italy 389.7 449.7 1.1 1.7 1.6 6.9 7.8 2.63 2.44 0.32 0.30 -51.9 636.0

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 26.2 37.4 3.1 0.1 0.1 4.6 5.5 2.46 2.18 0.23 0.19 .. ..

h h h h h

22 Germany 980.4 808.3 -1.3 4.3 2.8 12.3 9.8 2.75 2.32 0.58 0.38 -74.9 1,303.0

23 Israel 33.1 71.2 8.2 0.1 0.2 6.9 10.4 2.74 3.43 0.39 0.47 .. ..

24 Greece 72.4 96.6 2.4 0.3 0.3 7.1 8.8 3.26 3.17 0.49 0.43 -1.7 58.7

25 Singapore 45.1 52.2 1.1 0.2 0.2 14.9 12.3 3.37 2.04 0.99 0.48 .. ..

26 Korea (Republic of) 241.2 465.4 6.6 1.1 1.6 5.6 9.7 2.60 2.18 0.57 0.51 -32.2 258.0

i j i i i

27 Slovenia 12.3 16.2 2.6 0.1 0.1 6.2 8.1 2.46 2.26 0.51 0.43 -8.5 147.1

28 Cyprus 4.6 6.7 3.2 (.) (.) 6.8 9.2 3.02 2.58 0.52 0.45 -0.1 2.8

29 Portugal 42.3 58.9 2.8 0.2 0.2 4.3 5.6 2.39 2.22 0.30 0.31 -8.9 113.8

30 Brunei Darussalam 5.8 8.8 3.7 (.) (.) 23.0 24.0 3.20 3.27 .. .. 1.2 39.3

31 Barbados 1.1 1.3 1.3 (.) (.) 4.1 4.7 .. .. .. .. .. ..

i j i i i

32 Czech Republic 138.4 116.9 -1.3 0.6 0.4 13.4 11.4 3.20 2.57 1.03 0.66 -12.6 326.3

33 Kuwait 43.4 99.3 9.2 0.2 0.3 20.3 37.1 5.13 3.95 .. 1.81 .. ..

34 Malta 2.2 2.5 0.7 (.) (.) 6.3 6.1 2.88 2.70 0.53 0.36 0.0 0.1

35 Qatar 12.2 52.9 23.9 0.1 0.2 24.9 79.3 1.76 2.93 .. .. .. ..

36 Hungary 60.1 57.1 -0.4 0.3 0.2 5.8 5.6 2.10 2.17 0.50 0.37 -6.2 173.0

37 Poland 347.6 307.1 -0.8 1.5 1.1 9.1 8.0 3.48 3.35 1.24 0.68 -44.1 895.6

38 Argentina 109.7 141.7 2.1 0.5 0.5 3.4 3.7 2.38 2.22 0.38 0.31 121.6 2,411.0

39 United Arab Emirates 54.7 149.1 12.3 0.2 0.5 27.2 34.1 2.43 3.40 1.19 1.57 -0.7 16.6

40 Chile 35.6 62.4 5.4 0.2 0.2 2.7 3.9 2.53 2.23 0.47 0.38 -105.9 1,945.9

41 Bahrain 11.7 16.9 3.2 0.1 0.1 24.2 23.9 2.43 2.26 1.92 1.30 .. ..

i j i i i

42 Slovakia 44.3 36.3 -1.5 0.2 0.1 8.4 6.7 2.45 1.98 0.96 0.51 -9.8 202.9

i j i i i

43 Lithuania 21.4 13.3 -3.1 0.1 (.) 5.7 3.8 1.92 1.45 0.67 0.32 -6.3 128.9

i j i i i

44 Estonia 24.9 18.9 -2.0 0.1 0.1 16.1 14.0 3.96 3.66 2.46 1.12 .. 167.2

i j i i i

45 Latvia 12.7 7.1 -3.7 0.1 (.) 4.8 3.0 2.15 1.54 0.85 0.28 -13.9 230.9

umano 46 Uruguay 3.9 5.5 2.9 (.) (.) 1.2 1.6 1.74 1.91 0.18 0.19 .. ..

i j i i i

47 Croatia 17.4 23.5 2.9 0.1 0.1 3.9 5.3 2.59 2.66 0.52 0.48 -10.8 192.4

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 2.9 6.4 8.5 (.) (.) 1.0 1.5 1.44 1.73 0.15 0.17 3.4 192.8

49 Bahamas 1.9 2.0 0.2 (.) (.) 7.6 6.7 .. .. 0.46 .. .. ..

50 Seychelles 0.1 0.5 27.2 (.) (.) 1.6 6.7 .. .. 0.13 0.44 0.0 3.7

di 51 Cuba 32.0 25.8 -1.4 0.1 0.1 3.0 2.3 1.91 2.41 .. .. -34.7 347.0

Indicatori 52 Mexico 413.3 437.8 0.4 1.8 1.5 5.0 4.2 3.32 2.65 0.65 0.46 .. ..

53 Bulgaria 75.3 42.5 -3.1 0.3 0.1 8.4 5.5 2.61 2.25 1.29 0.72 -18.3 263.0

368 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 24

tabella

a

Carbon dioxide emissions Carbon intensity Carbon intensity Carbon

of energy dioxide Carbon

of growth emissions stocks

CO emissions per CO emissions

2 2

Annual Share of from forest in forest

unit of energy use per unit of GDP

b Per capita

Total change world total c d

biomass biomass

(kt of CO per (kt of CO per million

2 2

(Mt CO ) (%) (%) (t CO ) kt of oil equivalent) 2000 PPP US$) (Mt CO / year) (Mt Carbon)

2 2 2

HDI rank 1990 2004 1990–2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990–2005 2005

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.1 0.1 6.3 (.) (.) 1.5 3.2 .. .. 0.20 0.22 .. ..

55 Tonga 0.1 0.1 3.7 (.) (.) 0.8 1.1 .. .. 0.15 0.16 .. ..

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 37.8 59.9 4.2 0.2 0.2 9.1 9.3 3.27 3.29 .. .. 0.0 6.4

57 Antigua and Barbuda 0.3 0.4 2.7 (.) (.) 4.8 6.0 .. .. 0.54 0.46 .. ..

58 Oman 10.3 30.9 14.3 (.) 0.1 6.3 13.6 2.25 2.61 0.52 0.88 .. ..

59 Trinidad and Tobago 16.9 32.5 6.6 0.1 0.1 13.9 24.9 2.80 2.88 1.98 2.05 0.2 23.6

60 Romania 155.1 90.4 -3.0 0.7 0.3 6.7 4.2 2.48 2.34 0.99 0.54 (.) 566.5

61 Saudi Arabia 254.8 308.2 1.5 1.1 1.1 15.9 13.6 3.78 2.19 1.18 1.02 0.0 17.5

62 Panama 3.1 5.7 5.8 (.) (.) 1.3 1.8 2.10 2.22 0.29 0.28 9.8 620.0

63 Malaysia 55.3 177.5 15.8 0.2 0.6 3.0 7.5 2.44 3.13 0.56 0.76 3.4 3,510.0

i j i i i

64 Belarus 94.6 64.9 -2.6 0.4 0.2 9.2 6.6 2.43 2.42 1.96 1.03 -20.0 539.0

65 Mauritius 1.5 3.2 8.5 (.) (.) 1.4 2.6 .. .. 0.21 0.24 (.) 3.9

i j i i

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.7 15.6 19.2 (.) 0.1 1.1 4.0 1.06 3.31 .. .. -10.9 175.5

i j i i i

67 Russian Federation 1,984.1 1,524.1 -1.9 8.8 5.3 13.4 10.6 2.56 2.38 1.61 1.17 71.8 32,210.0

68 Albania 7.3 3.7 -3.5 (.) (.) 2.2 1.2 2.73 1.55 0.73 0.26 -0.7 52.0

i j i i i

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 10.6 10.4 -0.2 (.) (.) 5.2 5.1 3.63 3.86 0.91 0.83 0.0 20.3

70 Brazil 209.5 331.6 4.2 0.9 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.56 1.62 0.22 0.24 1,111.4 49,335.0

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica 0.1 0.1 5.8 (.) (.) 0.8 1.5 .. .. 0.17 0.26 .. ..

72 Saint Lucia 0.2 0.4 9.1 (.) (.) 1.2 2.2 .. .. 0.24 0.38 .. ..

i j i i i

73 Kazakhstan 259.2 200.2 -1.9 1.1 0.7 15.7 13.3 3.25 3.65 3.30 2.07 0.2 136.7

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 117.4 172.5 3.4 0.5 0.6 6.0 6.6 2.67 3.07 1.03 1.20 .. ..

75 Colombia 58.0 53.6 -0.5 0.3 0.2 1.6 1.2 2.32 1.94 0.30 0.19 23.8 8,062.2

i j i i i

76 Ukraine 600.0 329.8 -3.8 2.6 1.1 11.5 7.0 2.86 2.35 1.59 1.18 -60.5 744.5

77 Samoa 0.1 0.2 1.5 (.) (.) 0.8 0.8 .. .. 0.19 0.16 .. ..

78 Thailand 95.7 267.9 12.8 0.4 0.9 1.7 4.2 2.18 2.76 0.38 0.56 17.8 716.0

79 Dominican Republic 9.6 19.6 7.5 (.) 0.1 1.3 2.2 2.31 2.56 0.31 0.33 0.0 82.0

80 Belize 0.3 0.8 11.0 (.) (.) 1.6 2.9 .. .. 0.39 0.44 0.0 59.0

81 China 2,398.9 5,007.1 7.8 10.6 17.3 2.1 3.8 2.77 3.11 1.30 0.70 -334.9 6,096.0

82 Grenada 0.1 0.2 5.6 (.) (.) 1.3 2.7 .. .. 0.23 0.29 .. ..

i j i i i

83 Armenia 3.7 3.6 -0.1 (.) (.) 1.0 1.2 0.86 1.71 0.65 0.31 0.4 18.1

84 Turkey 146.2 226.0 3.9 0.6 0.8 2.6 3.2 2.76 2.76 0.48 0.45 -18.0 816.8

85 Suriname 1.8 2.3 1.9 (.) (.) 4.5 5.2 .. .. 0.81 0.78 0.0 5,692.0

86 Jordan 10.2 16.5 4.4 (.) 0.1 3.1 2.9 2.91 2.52 0.84 0.66 0.0 2.3

87 Peru 21.0 31.5 3.5 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.1 2.11 2.38 0.25 0.22 .. ..

88 Lebanon 9.1 16.3 5.6 (.) 0.1 3.3 4.2 3.94 3.01 1.24 0.92 .. 1.8

89 Ecuador 16.7 29.3 5.4 0.1 0.1 1.6 2.2 2.73 2.90 0.50 0.60 .. ..

90 Philippines 43.9 80.5 5.9 0.2 0.3 0.7 1.0 1.68 1.82 0.19 0.22 111.2 970.7

91 Tunisia 13.3 22.9 5.2 0.1 0.1 1.6 2.3 2.40 2.63 0.35 0.32 -0.9 9.8

i

92 Fiji 0.8 1.1 2.3 (.) (.) 1.1 1.2 .. .. 0.22 0.24 .. ..

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.1 0.2 10.4 (.) (.) 0.8 1.7 .. .. 0.16 0.29 .. ..

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 218.3 433.3 7.0 1.0 1.5 4.0 6.4 3.17 2.97 0.85 0.93 -1.7 334.0

95 Paraguay 2.3 4.2 6.1 (.) (.) 0.5 0.7 0.73 1.04 0.12 0.18 .. ..

i j i i i

96 Georgia 15.1 3.9 -6.2 0.1 (.) 2.8 0.8 1.73 1.38 1.39 0.32 -4.6 210.0

97 Guyana 1.1 1.4 2.0 (.) (.) 1.5 1.9 .. .. 0.63 0.47 .. 1,722.0

i j i i i

98 Azerbaijan 49.8 31.3 -3.1 0.2 0.1 6.9 3.8 2.99 2.42 1.92 1.06 0.0 57.9 Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 3.8 11.5 14.8 (.) (.) 0.2 0.6 0.68 1.22 0.09 0.15 3.2 40.0

100 Maldives 0.2 0.7 26.5 (.) (.) 0.7 2.5 .. .. .. .. .. ..

101 Jamaica 8.0 10.6 2.4 (.) (.) 3.3 4.0 2.70 2.60 1.04 1.06 0.2 34.0 di

102 Cape Verde 0.1 0.3 15.2 (.) (.) 0.3 0.7 .. .. 0.08 0.11 -0.6 7.9 sviluppo

103 El Salvador 2.6 6.2 9.7 (.) (.) 0.5 0.9 1.03 1.37 0.14 0.20 .. ..

104 Algeria 77.0 193.9 10.8 0.3 0.7 3.0 5.5 3.23 5.89 0.56 0.99 -6.0 114.0 umano

105 Viet Nam 21.4 98.6 25.8 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.88 1.96 0.28 0.47 -72.5 1,174.0

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. 0.6 .. .. (.) .. 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 369

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

24

tabella Emissioni e depositi di anidride carbonica

a

Carbon dioxide emissions Carbon intensity Carbon intensity Carbon

of energy dioxide Carbon

of growth emissions stocks

CO emissions per CO emissions

2 2

Annual Share of from forest in forest

unit of energy use per unit of GDP

b Per capita

Total change world total c d

biomass biomass

(kt of CO per (kt of CO per million

2 2

(Mt CO ) (%) (%) (t CO ) kt of oil equivalent) 2000 PPP US$) (Mt CO / year) (Mt Carbon)

2 2 2

HDI rank 1990 2004 1990–2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990–2005 2005

107 Indonesia 213.8 378.0 5.5 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.7 2.19 2.17 0.54 0.53 2,271.5 5,897.0

108 Syrian Arab Republic 35.9 68.4 6.5 0.2 0.2 3.0 3.8 3.08 3.71 1.11 1.11 .. ..

i j i i i

109 Turkmenistan 28.0 41.7 4.1 0.1 0.1 7.0 8.8 2.48 2.68 1.54 .. -0.2 17.4

110 Nicaragua 2.6 4.0 3.7 (.) (.) 0.7 0.7 1.25 1.22 0.24 0.24 45.4 716.0

i j i i i

111 Moldova 20.9 7.7 -5.3 0.1 (.) 4.8 1.8 3.03 2.27 2.23 1.05 -0.7 13.2

112 Egypt 75.4 158.1 7.8 0.3 0.5 1.5 2.3 2.37 2.78 0.48 0.58 -0.6 7.1

i j i i i

113 Uzbekistan 118.1 137.8 1.4 0.5 0.5 5.5 5.3 2.62 2.55 3.55 3.07 -1.7 12.4

114 Mongolia 10.0 8.5 -1.0 (.) (.) 4.7 3.1 .. .. 2.71 1.90 16.9 573.9

115 Honduras 2.6 7.6 13.8 (.) (.) 0.5 1.1 1.07 1.97 0.19 0.36 .. ..

i j i i i

116 Kyrgyzstan 11.0 5.7 -4.0 (.) (.) 2.4 1.1 2.18 2.06 1.26 0.65 -0.8 12.6

117 Bolivia 5.5 7.0 1.9 (.) (.) 0.9 0.8 1.98 1.40 0.40 0.31 89.4 5,296.0

118 Guatemala 5.1 12.2 10.0 (.) (.) 0.6 1.0 1.14 1.61 0.17 0.25 25.0 498.0

119 Gabon 6.0 1.4 -5.5 (.) (.) 6.4 1.0 4.82 0.81 0.96 0.16 5.9 3,643.0

120 Vanuatu 0.1 0.1 2.4 (.) (.) 0.5 0.4 .. .. 0.16 0.15 .. ..

121 South Africa 331.8 436.8 2.3 1.5 1.5 9.1 9.8 3.64 3.33 1.03 0.99 0.0 823.9

i j i i i

122 Tajikistan 20.6 5.0 -6.3 0.1 (.) 3.7 0.8 2.26 1.50 2.38 0.68 0.1 2.8

123 Sao Tome and Principe 0.1 0.1 2.8 (.) (.) 0.6 0.5 .. .. 0.32 0.31 0.0 4.6

124 Botswana 2.2 4.3 7.0 (.) (.) 1.7 2.4 1.71 2.30 0.27 0.23 5.1 141.5

125 Namibia (.) 2.5 .. (.) (.) 0.0 1.2 0.02 1.85 (.) 0.19 8.1 230.9

126 Morocco 23.5 41.1 5.4 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.4 3.49 3.59 0.29 0.34 -9.5 240.0

127 Equatorial Guinea 0.1 5.4 .. (.) (.) 0.3 10.5 .. .. 0.28 1.57 3.9 115.0

128 India 681.7 1,342.1 6.9 3.0 4.6 0.8 1.2 1.89 2.34 0.48 0.44 -40.8 2,343.0

129 Solomon Islands 0.2 0.2 0.6 (.) (.) 0.5 0.3 .. .. 0.23 0.21 .. ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 0.2 1.3 32.4 (.) (.) 0.1 0.2 .. .. 0.05 0.13 26.4 1,487.0

131 Cambodia 0.5 0.5 1.3 (.) (.) (.) (.) .. .. .. 0.02 80.6 1,266.0

132 Myanmar 4.3 9.8 9.2 (.) (.) 0.1 0.2 0.40 0.69 .. .. 156.6 3,168.0

133 Bhutan 0.1 0.4 15.9 (.) (.) 0.1 0.2 .. .. .. .. -7.3 345.0

134 Comoros 0.1 0.1 2.4 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.08 0.09 0.2 0.8

135 Ghana 3.8 7.2 6.5 (.) (.) 0.3 0.3 0.71 0.86 0.15 0.16 40.9 496.4

136 Pakistan 68.0 125.6 6.0 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.57 1.69 0.39 0.41 22.2 259.0

137 Mauritania 2.6 2.6 -0.2 (.) (.) 1.3 0.8 .. .. 0.70 0.44 0.9 6.6

138 Lesotho .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

139 Congo 1.2 3.5 14.4 (.) (.) 0.5 1.0 1.11 3.33 0.38 0.86 14.2 5,181.0

140 Bangladesh 15.4 37.1 10.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.20 1.63 0.12 0.15 1.2 31.0

141 Swaziland 0.4 1.0 8.9 (.) (.) 0.5 0.8 .. .. 0.13 0.20 0.2 23.4

142 Nepal 0.6 3.0 27.3 (.) (.) (.) 0.1 0.11 0.34 0.03 0.08 -26.9 485.0

143 Madagascar 0.9 2.7 13.6 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.08 0.19 50.8 3,130.0

144 Cameroon 1.6 3.8 9.9 (.) (.) 0.1 0.3 0.32 0.55 0.07 0.12 72.1 1,902.0

145 Papua New Guinea 2.4 2.4 0.1 (.) (.) 0.7 0.4 .. .. 0.31 0.19 .. ..

146 Haiti 1.0 1.8 5.5 (.) (.) 0.1 0.2 0.63 0.80 0.07 0.14 0.2 8.3

147 Sudan 5.4 10.4 6.6 (.) (.) 0.2 0.3 0.51 0.59 0.19 0.17 48.9 1,530.7

148 Kenya 5.8 10.6 5.8 (.) (.) 0.3 0.3 0.47 0.63 0.22 0.30 5.5 334.7

149 Djibouti 0.4 0.4 0.3 (.) (.) 1.0 0.5 .. .. 0.22 0.25 0.0 0.4

150 Timor-Leste .. 0.2 .. .. (.) .. 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. ..

151 Zimbabwe 16.6 10.6 -2.6 0.1 (.) 1.6 0.8 1.77 1.13 0.58 0.42 34.2 535.0

152 Togo 0.8 2.3 14.8 (.) (.) 0.2 0.4 0.52 0.86 0.13 0.29 .. ..

umano i j i i,k i

153 Yemen 10.1 21.1 8.3 (.) 0.1 0.9 1.0 3.25 3.31 1.15 1.25 0.0 5.1

154 Uganda 0.8 1.8 8.9 (.) (.) (.) 0.1 .. .. 0.06 0.05 12.1 138.2

sviluppo 155 Gambia 0.2 0.3 3.6 (.) (.) 0.2 0.2 .. .. 0.12 0.12 -0.5 33.2

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal 3.1 5.0 4.2 (.) (.) 0.4 0.4 1.40 1.81 0.28 0.28 6.8 371.0

di 157 Eritrea .. 0.8 .. .. (.) .. 0.2 .. .. .. 0.17 .. ..

Indicatori 158 Nigeria 45.3 114.0 10.8 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.64 1.15 0.59 0.92 181.6 1,401.5

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 2.3 4.3 6.2 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 0.24 0.23 0.17 0.18 167.3 2,254.0

370 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 24

tabella

a

Carbon dioxide emissions Carbon intensity Carbon intensity Carbon

of energy dioxide Carbon

of growth emissions stocks

CO emissions per CO emissions

2 2

Annual Share of from forest in forest

unit of energy use per unit of GDP

b Per capita

Total change world total c d

biomass biomass

(kt of CO per (kt of CO per million

2 2

(Mt CO ) (%) (%) (t CO ) kt of oil equivalent) 2000 PPP US$) (Mt CO / year) (Mt Carbon)

2 2 2

HDI rank 1990 2004 1990–2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990 2004 1990–2005 2005

160 Guinea 1.0 1.3 2.3 (.) (.) 0.2 0.1 .. .. 0.09 0.07 15.9 636.0

161 Rwanda 0.5 0.6 0.6 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.07 0.06 -2.1 44.1

162 Angola 4.6 7.9 5.0 (.) (.) 0.5 0.7 0.74 0.83 0.25 0.29 37.6 4,829.3

163 Benin 0.7 2.4 16.7 (.) (.) 0.1 0.3 0.43 0.96 0.16 0.29 .. ..

164 Malawi 0.6 1.0 5.3 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.13 0.14 5.6 161.0

165 Zambia 2.4 2.3 -0.5 (.) (.) 0.3 0.2 0.45 0.33 0.31 0.23 44.4 1,156.1

166 Côte d’Ivoire 5.4 5.2 -0.3 (.) (.) 0.5 0.3 1.22 0.74 0.26 0.20 -9.0 1,864.0

167 Burundi 0.2 0.2 0.9 (.) (.) (.) (.) .. .. 0.04 0.05 .. ..

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 4.0 2.1 -3.4 (.) (.) 0.1 (.) 0.33 0.13 0.07 0.06 293.1 23,173.0

169 Ethiopia 3.0 8.0 12.1 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 0.20 0.38 0.07 0.13 13.4 252.0

170 Chad 0.1 0.1 -0.9 (.) (.) (.) 0.0 .. .. 0.03 0.01 5.6 236.0

171 Central African Republic 0.2 0.3 2.0 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.05 0.06 13.7 2,801.0

172 Mozambique 1.0 2.2 8.4 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 0.14 0.25 0.12 0.11 5.7 606.3

173 Mali 0.4 0.6 2.4 (.) (.) (.) (.) .. .. 0.07 0.05 7.1 241.9

174 Niger 1.0 1.2 1.1 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.16 0.13 1.7 12.5

175 Guinea-Bissau 0.2 0.3 2.1 (.) (.) 0.2 0.2 .. .. 0.21 0.24 0.5 61.0

176 Burkina Faso 1.0 1.1 0.7 (.) (.) 0.1 0.1 .. .. 0.13 0.08 19.1 298.0

177 Sierra Leone 0.3 1.0 14.1 (.) (.) 0.1 0.2 .. .. 0.10 0.27 .. ..

Developing countries 6,831.1 T 12,303.3 T 5.7 30.1 42.5 1.7 2.4 2.34 2.59 0.64 0.56 5,091.5 190,359.7

Least developed countries 74.1 T 146.3 T 7.0 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.2 .. .. 0.14 0.17 1,097.8 50,811.2

Arab States 733.6 T 1,348.4 T 6.0 3.2 4.7 3.4 4.5 3.02 2.94 0.75 0.86 44.4 2,393.3

East Asia and the Pacific 3,413.5 T 6,682.0 T 6.8 15.0 23.1 2.1 3.5 .. .. 0.90 0.63 2,293.8 27,222.9

Latin America and the Caribbean 1,087.7 T 1,422.6 T 2.2 4.8 4.9 2.5 2.6 2.25 2.19 0.40 0.36 1,667.0 97,557.2

South Asia 990.7 T 1,954.6 T 7.0 4.4 6.7 0.8 1.3 1.94 2.34 0.49 0.46 -49.3 3,843.5

Sub-Saharan Africa 454.8 T 663.1 T 3.3 2.0 2.3 1.0 1.0 .. .. 0.55 0.57 1,153.6 58,523.2

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 4,182.0 T 3,168.0 T -2.0 18.4 10.9 10.3 7.9 2.71 2.51 1.49 0.97 -165.9 37,592.0

OECD 11,205.2 T 13,318.6 T 1.3 49.4 46.0 10.8 11.5 2.47 2.42 0.54 0.45 -999.7 59,956.6

High-income OECD 10,055.4 T 12,137.5 T 1.5 44.3 41.9 12.0 13.2 2.42 2.39 0.52 0.45 -979.6 45,488.9

High human development 14,495.5 T 16,615.8 T 1.0 63.9 57.3 9.8 10.1 2.45 2.40 0.60 0.48 89.8 152,467.3

Medium human development 5,944.4 T 10,215.2 T 5.1 26.2 35.2 1.8 2.5 2.39 2.76 0.83 0.61 3,026.5 86,534.2

Low human development 77.6 T 161.7 T 7.7 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.3 .. .. 0.24 0.36 858.0 41,254.0

High income 10,572.1 T 12,975.1 T 1.6 46.6 44.8 12.1 13.3 2.44 2.40 0.53 0.46 -937.4 54,215.3

Middle income 8,971.5 T 12,162.9 T 2.5 39.5 42.0 3.4 4.0 2.57 2.76 0.95 0.65 3,693.1 170,735.6

Low income 1,323.4 T 2,083.9 T 4.1 5.8 7.2 0.8 0.9 .. .. 0.47 0.43 1,275.1 56,686.1

b b

World 22,702.5 T 28,982.7 T 2.0 100.0 100.0 4.3 4.5 2.64 2.63 0.68 0.55 4,038.1 282,650.1

NOTES SOURCES

while a negative number suggests carbon Columns 1, 2 and 4–7:

a. Refers to carbon dioxide emissions stemming calculated based on data

sequestration. It is assumed that all negative

from consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous from CDIAC 2007.

carbon stock changes are released as emissions. Column 3:

d.

fossil fuels as well as from gas flaring and the calculated on the basis of data in columns

Refers only to living biomass - above and below

production of cement. Original values were 1 and 2.

ground. Carbon in deadwood, soil and litter is not Columns 8–11:

reported in terms of metric carbon tonnes, in calculated based on data from CDIAC

included.

e.

order to convert these values to metric tonnes 2007 and World Bank 2007b.

Includes Monaco. Column 12:

f.

of carbon dioxide a conversion factor of 3.664 calculated based on data from FAO

Includes American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico,

(relative molecular weights 44/12) has been 2007b; aggregates calculated for HDRO by FAO.

Turks and Caicos and the US Virgin Islands. Column 13:

g.

applied. FAO 2007b; aggregates calculated for

Includes San Marino.

b. h.

The world total includes carbon dioxide emissions HDRO by FAO.

Data refers to the sum of the emissions from

not included in national totals, such as those from the former Federal Republic of Germany and the Indicatori

bunker fuels, oxidation of non-fuel hydrocarbon former German Democratic Republic in 1990.

i.

products (e.g., asphalt) and emissions by In cases where data for 1990 are not available,

countries not shown in the main indicator tables. data for the closest year between 1991 and 1992

These emissions amount to approximately 5% have been used. di

j.

of the world total. Thus the shares listed for Refers to the 1992-2004 period. sviluppo

individual countries in this table do not sum to

100%.

c. Refers to net emissions or sequestration due umano

to changes in carbon stock of forest biomass.

A positive number suggests carbon emissions 371

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

25

tabella …preservandole per le generazioni future…

Stato dei principali trattati ambientali internazionali

Kyoto Protocol Montreal

Vienna

to the Protocol on Stockholm

Convention

Framework Convention

Framework Substances

for the

Convention Convention Convention

Cartagena on Persistent

Convention that deplete Convention

Protection

Protocol on on Climate on Biological of the Law

Organic

on Climate the Ozone to Combat

of the Ozone

Biosafety Change Change Layer Layer Pollutants Desertification

Diversity of the Sea

HDI rank 2000 1992 1997 1992 1988 1989 2001 1982 1994

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 2001

1 Iceland 1993 2002 1994 1989 1989 2002 1985 1997

2 Norway 2001 1993 2002 1993 1986 1988 2002 1996 1996

1998

3 Australia .. 1992 1993 1987 1989 2004 1994 2000

2001

4 Canada 1992 2002 1992 1986 1988 2001 2003 1995

2001

5 Ireland 2003 1994 2002 1996 1988 1988 1996 1997

6 Sweden 2002 1993 2002 1993 1986 1988 2002 1996 1995

1984

7 Switzerland 2002 1993 2003 1994 1987 1988 2003 1996

8 Japan 2003 1993 2002 1993 1988 1988 2002 1996 1998

9 Netherlands 2002 1993 2002 1994 1988 1988 2002 1996 1995

10 France 2003 1994 2002 1994 1987 1988 2004 1996 1997

11 Finland 2004 1994 2002 1994 1986 1988 2002 1996 1995

1998 1993 2001

12 United States .. 1992 1986 1988 .. 2000

13 Spain 2002 1993 2002 1993 1988 1988 2004 1997 1996

14 Denmark 2002 1993 2002 1993 1988 1988 2003 2004 1995

15 Austria 2002 1994 2002 1994 1987 1989 2002 1995 1997

16 United Kingdom 2003 1993 2002 1994 1987 1988 2005 1997 1996

17 Belgium 2004 1996 2002 1996 1988 1988 2006 1998 1997

18 Luxembourg 2002 1994 2002 1994 1988 1988 2003 2000 1997

19 New Zealand 2005 1993 2002 1993 1987 1988 2004 1996 2000

2001

20 Italy 2004 1994 2002 1994 1988 1988 1995 1997

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

22 Germany 2003 1993 2002 1993 1988 1988 2002 1994 1996

2001

23 Israel .. 1996 2004 1995 1992 1992 .. 1996

24 Greece 2004 1994 2002 1994 1988 1988 2006 1995 1997

25 Singapore .. 1997 2006 1995 1989 1989 2005 1994 1999

2000

26 Korea (Republic of) 1993 2002 1994 1992 1992 .. 1996 1999

27 Slovenia 2002 1995 2002 1996 1992 1992 2004 1995 2001

28 Cyprus 2003 1997 1999 1996 1992 1992 2005 1988 2000

29 Portugal 2004 1993 2002 1993 1988 1988 2004 1997 1996

2002

30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. .. .. 1990 1993 1996 2002

31 Barbados 2002 1994 2000 1993 1992 1992 2004 1993 1997

32 Czech Republic 2001 1993 2001 1993 1993 1993 2002 1996 2000

33 Kuwait .. 1994 2005 2002 1992 1992 2006 1986 1997

2001

34 Malta 2007 1994 2001 2000 1988 1988 1993 1998

35 Qatar 2007 1996 2005 1996 1996 1996 2004 2002 1999

2001

36 Hungary 2004 1994 2002 1994 1988 1989 2002 1999

2001

37 Poland 2003 1994 2002 1996 1990 1990 1998 2001

2000

38 Argentina 1994 2001 1994 1990 1990 2005 1995 1997

1982

39 United Arab Emirates .. 1995 2005 2000 1989 1989 2002 1998

2000

40 Chile 1994 2002 1994 1990 1990 2005 1997 1997

41 Bahrain .. 1994 2006 1996 1990 1990 2006 1985 1997

42 Slovakia 2003 1994 2002 1994 1993 1993 2002 1996 2002

43 Lithuania 2003 1995 2003 1996 1995 1995 2006 2003 2003

44 Estonia 2004 1994 2002 1994 1996 1996 .. 2005 ..

45 Latvia 2004 1995 2002 1995 1995 1995 2004 2004 2002

umano 2001

46 Uruguay 1994 2001 1993 1989 1991 2004 1992 1999

1999

47 Croatia 2002 1996 1996 1992 1992 2007 1995 2000

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 2007 1994 2002 1994 1991 1991 2007 1992 1998

49 Bahamas 2004 1994 1999 1993 1993 1993 2005 1983 2000

2002

50 Seychelles 2004 1992 2002 1992 1993 1993 1991 1997

di 2001

51 Cuba 2002 1994 2002 1994 1992 1992 1984 1997

Indicatori 52 Mexico 2002 1993 2000 1993 1987 1988 2003 1983 1995

53 Bulgaria 2000 1995 2002 1996 1990 1990 2004 1996 2001

372 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 25

tabella

Kyoto Protocol Montreal

Vienna

to the Protocol on Stockholm

Convention

Framework Convention

Framework Substances

for the

Convention Convention Convention

Cartagena on Persistent

Convention that deplete Convention

Protection

Protocol on on Climate on Biological of the Law

Organic

on Climate the Ozone to Combat

of the Ozone

Biosafety Change Change Layer Layer Pollutants Desertification

Diversity of the Sea

HDI rank 2000 1992 1997 1992 1988 1989 2001 1982 1994

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2001 1993 .. 1993 1992 1992 2004 1993 1997

2002

55 Tonga 2003 1998 .. 1998 1998 1998 1995 1998

1984

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2005 1999 2006 2001 1990 1990 2005 1996

57 Antigua and Barbuda 2003 1993 1998 1993 1992 1992 2003 1989 1997

58 Oman 2003 1995 2005 1995 1999 1999 2005 1989 1996

59 Trinidad and Tobago 2000 1994 1999 1996 1989 1989 2002 1986 2000

60 Romania 2003 1994 2001 1994 1993 1993 2004 1996 1998

2002

61 Saudi Arabia .. 1994 2005 2001 1993 1993 1996 1997

62 Panama 2002 1995 1999 1995 1989 1989 2003 1996 1996

2002

63 Malaysia 2003 1994 2002 1994 1989 1989 1996 1997

64 Belarus 2002 2000 2005 1993 1986 1988 2004 2006 2001

65 Mauritius 2002 1992 2001 1992 1992 1992 2004 1994 1996

2001

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 2000 2007 2002 1993 1993 1994 2002

2002

67 Russian Federation .. 1994 2004 1995 1986 1988 1997 2003

68 Albania 2005 1994 2005 1994 1999 1999 2004 2003 2000

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 2005 1998 2004 1997 1994 1994 2004 1994 2002

70 Brazil 2003 1994 2002 1994 1990 1990 2004 1988 1997

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica 2004 1993 2005 1994 1993 1993 2003 1991 1997

72 Saint Lucia 2005 1993 2003 1993 1993 1993 2002 1985 1997

1999 2001

73 Kazakhstan .. 1995 1994 1998 1998 .. 1997

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2002 1994 2005 1994 1988 1989 2005 .. 1998

2001 1982

75 Colombia 2003 1995 2001 1994 1990 1993 1999

2001

76 Ukraine 2002 1997 2004 1995 1986 1988 1999 2002

77 Samoa 2002 1994 2000 1994 1992 1992 2002 1995 1998

1982

78 Thailand 2005 1994 2002 2003 1989 1989 2005 2001

1982

79 Dominican Republic 2006 1998 2002 1996 1993 1993 2007 1997

2002

80 Belize 2004 1994 2003 1993 1997 1998 1983 1998

81 China 2005 1993 2002 1993 1989 1991 2004 1996 1997

82 Grenada 2004 1994 2002 1994 1993 1993 .. 1991 1997

83 Armenia 2004 1993 2003 1993 1999 1999 2003 2002 1997

2001

84 Turkey 2003 2004 .. 1997 1991 1991 .. 1998

2002

85 Suriname .. 1997 2006 1996 1997 1997 1998 2000

86 Jordan 2003 1993 2003 1993 1989 1989 2004 1995 1996

87 Peru 2004 1993 2002 1993 1989 1993 2005 .. 1995

88 Lebanon .. 1994 2006 1994 1993 1993 2003 1995 1996

89 Ecuador 2003 1993 2000 1993 1990 1990 2004 .. 1995

90 Philippines 2006 1994 2003 1993 1991 1991 2004 1984 2000

91 Tunisia 2003 1993 2003 1993 1989 1989 2004 1985 1995

92 Fiji 2001 1993 1998 1993 1989 1989 2001 1982 1998

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2003 1996 2004 1996 1996 1996 2005 1993 1998

1982

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2003 1996 2005 1996 1990 1990 2006 1997

95 Paraguay 2004 1994 1999 1994 1992 1992 2004 1986 1997

96 Georgia .. 1994 1999 1994 1996 1996 2006 1996 1999

97 Guyana .. 1994 2003 1994 1993 1993 .. 1993 1997

98 Azerbaijan 2005 1995 2000 2000 1996 1996 2004 .. 1998 Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 2004 1993 2002 1994 1989 1989 2005 1994 1998

100 Maldives 2002 1992 1998 1992 1988 1989 2006 2000 2002

2001

101 Jamaica 1995 1999 1995 1993 1993 2007 1983 1997 di

102 Cape Verde 2005 1995 2006 1995 2001 2001 2006 1987 1995 sviluppo

2001 1984

103 El Salvador 2003 1995 1998 1994 1992 1992 1997

104 Algeria 2004 1993 2005 1995 1992 1992 2006 1996 1996 umano

105 Viet Nam 2004 1994 2002 1994 1994 1994 2002 1994 1998

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 373

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

25

tabella Stato dei principali trattati ambientali internazionali

Kyoto Protocol Montreal

Vienna

to the Protocol on Stockholm

Convention

Framework Convention

Framework Substances

for the

Convention Convention Convention

Cartagena on Persistent

Convention that deplete Convention

Protection

Protocol on on Climate on Biological of the Law

Organic

on Climate the Ozone to Combat

of the Ozone

Biosafety Change Change Layer Layer Pollutants Desertification

Diversity of the Sea

HDI rank 2000 1992 1997 1992 1988 1989 2001 1982 1994

2001

107 Indonesia 2004 1994 2004 1994 1992 1992 1986 1998

108 Syrian Arab Republic 2004 1996 2006 1996 1989 1989 2005 .. 1997

109 Turkmenistan .. 1995 1999 1996 1993 1993 .. .. 1996

110 Nicaragua 2002 1995 1999 1995 1993 1993 2005 2000 1998

111 Moldova 2003 1995 2003 1995 1996 1996 2004 2007 1999

112 Egypt 2003 1994 2005 1994 1988 1988 2003 1983 1995

113 Uzbekistan .. 1993 1999 1995 1993 1993 .. .. 1995

114 Mongolia 2003 1993 1999 1993 1996 1996 2004 1996 1996

2000

115 Honduras 1995 2000 1995 1993 1993 2005 1993 1997

116 Kyrgyzstan 2005 2000 2003 1996 2000 2000 2006 .. 1997

117 Bolivia 2002 1994 1999 1994 1994 1994 2003 1995 1996

2002

118 Guatemala 2004 1995 1999 1995 1987 1989 1997 1998

119 Gabon 2007 1998 2006 1997 1994 1994 2007 1998 1996

120 Vanuatu .. 1993 2001 1993 1994 1994 2005 1999 1999

121 South Africa 2003 1997 2002 1995 1990 1990 2002 1997 1997

122 Tajikistan 2004 1998 .. 1997 1996 1998 2007 .. 1997

123 Sao Tome and Principe .. 1999 .. 1999 2001 2001 2006 1987 1998

124 Botswana 2002 1994 2003 1995 1991 1991 2002 1990 1996

125 Namibia 2005 1995 2003 1997 1993 1993 2005 1983 1997

2000

126 Morocco 1995 2002 1995 1995 1995 2004 2007 1996

127 Equatorial Guinea .. 2000 2000 1994 1988 2006 .. 1997 1997

128 India 2003 1993 2002 1994 1991 1992 2006 1995 1996

129 Solomon Islands 2004 1994 2003 1995 1993 1993 2004 1997 1999

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2004 1995 2003 1996 1998 1998 2006 1998 1996

1983

131 Cambodia 2003 1995 2002 1995 2001 2001 2006 1997

2001

132 Myanmar 1994 2003 1994 1993 1993 2004 1996 1997

1982

133 Bhutan 2002 1995 2002 1995 2004 2004 .. 2003

134 Comoros .. 1994 .. 1994 1994 1994 2007 1994 1998

135 Ghana 2003 1995 2003 1994 1989 1989 2003 1983 1996

2001 2001

136 Pakistan 1994 2005 1994 1992 1992 1997 1997

137 Mauritania 2005 1994 2005 1996 1994 1994 2005 1996 1996

138 Lesotho 2001 1995 2000 1995 1994 1994 2002 2007 1995

1982

139 Congo 2006 1996 2007 1996 1994 1994 2007 1999

140 Bangladesh 2004 1994 2001 1994 1990 1990 2007 2001 1996

1984

141 Swaziland 2006 1996 2006 1994 1992 1992 2006 1996

2001

142 Nepal 1994 2005 1993 1994 1994 2007 1998 1996

143 Madagascar 2003 1999 2003 1996 1996 1996 2005 2001 1997

2001

144 Cameroon 2003 1994 2002 1994 1989 1989 1985 1997

145 Papua New Guinea 2005 1993 2002 1993 1992 1992 2003 1997 2000

2000 2001

146 Haiti 1996 2005 1996 2000 2000 1996 1996

147 Sudan 2005 1993 2004 1995 1993 1993 2006 1985 1995

148 Kenya 2002 1994 2005 1994 1988 1988 2004 1989 1997

149 Djibouti 2002 1995 2002 1994 1999 1999 2004 1991 1997

150 Timor-Leste .. 2006 .. 2006 .. .. .. .. 2003

2001

151 Zimbabwe 2005 1992 .. 1994 1992 1992 1993 1997

152 Togo 2004 1995 2004 1995 1991 1991 2004 1985 1995

umano 153 Yemen 2005 1996 2004 1996 1996 1996 2004 1987 1997

154 Uganda 2001 1993 2002 1993 1988 1988 2004 1990 1997

sviluppo 155 Gambia 2004 1994 2001 1994 1990 1990 2006 1984 1996

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal 2003 1994 2001 1994 1993 1993 2003 1984 1995

di 157 Eritrea 2005 1995 2005 1996 2005 2005 2005 .. 1996

Indicatori 158 Nigeria 2003 1994 2004 1994 1988 1988 2004 1986 1997

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 2003 1996 2002 1996 1993 1993 2004 1985 1997

374 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 25

tabella

Kyoto Protocol Montreal

Vienna

to the Protocol on Stockholm

Convention

Framework Convention

Framework Substances

for the

Convention Convention Convention

Cartagena on Persistent

Convention that deplete Convention

Protection

Protocol on on Climate on Biological of the Law

Organic

on Climate the Ozone to Combat

of the Ozone

Biosafety Change Change Layer Layer Pollutants Desertification

Diversity of the Sea

HDI rank 2000 1992 1997 1992 1988 1989 2001 1982 1994

2000 2001

160 Guinea 1993 2000 1993 1992 1992 1985 1997

1982

161 Rwanda 2004 1998 2004 1996 2001 2001 2002 1998

162 Angola .. 2000 2007 1998 2000 2000 2006 1990 1997

163 Benin 2005 1994 2002 1994 1993 1993 2004 1997 1996

2000 2002 1984

164 Malawi 1994 2001 1994 1991 1991 1996

165 Zambia 2004 1993 2006 1993 1990 1990 2006 1983 1996

166 Côte d’Ivoire .. 1994 2007 1994 1993 1993 2004 1984 1997

1982

167 Burundi .. 1997 2001 1997 1997 1997 2005 1997

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2005 1995 2005 1994 1994 1994 2005 1989 1997

1982

169 Ethiopia 2003 1994 2005 1994 1994 1994 2003 1997

1982

170 Chad 2006 1994 .. 1994 1989 1994 2004 1996

2000 2002 1984

171 Central African Republic 1995 .. 1995 1993 1993 1996

172 Mozambique 2002 1995 2005 1995 1994 1994 2005 1997 1997

173 Mali 2002 1994 2002 1995 1994 1994 2003 1985 1995

1982

174 Niger 2004 1995 2004 1995 1992 1992 2006 1996

2002

175 Guinea-Bissau .. 1995 2005 1995 2002 2002 1986 1995

176 Burkina Faso 2003 1993 2005 1993 1989 1989 2004 2005 1996

177 Sierra Leone .. 1995 2006 1994 2001 2001 2003 1994 1997

a

Others 1983

Afghanistan .. 2002 .. 2002 2004 2004 .. 1995

Andorra .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2002

2001

Cook Islands 1993 2001 1993 2003 2003 2004 1995 1998

Iraq .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1985 ..

Kiribati 2004 1995 2000 1994 1993 1993 2004 2003 1998

1982

Korea (Democratic People’s Rep. of) 2003 1994 2005 1994 1995 1995 2002 2003

1982

Liberia 2002 2002 2002 2000 1996 1996 2002 1998

1984

Liechtenstein .. 1994 2004 1997 1989 1989 2004 1999

Marshall Islands 2003 1992 2003 1992 1993 1993 2003 1991 1998

Micronesia (Federated States of) .. 1993 1999 1994 1994 1995 2005 1991 1996

2000

Monaco 1992 2006 1992 1993 1993 2004 1996 1999

2006

Montenegro 2006 2006 2007 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007

Nauru 2001 1993 2001 1993 2001 2001 2002 1996 1998

Niue 2002 1996 1999 1996 2003 2003 2005 2006 1998

2002

Palau 2003 1999 1999 1999 2001 2001 1996 1999

San Marino .. 1994 .. 1994 .. .. .. .. 1999

b 2002

Serbia 2006 2001 .. 2002 2001 2001 2001 ..

Somalia .. .. .. .. 2001 2001 .. 1989 2002

Tuvalu .. 1993 1998 2002 1993 1993 2004 2002 1998

c

Total states parties 140 190 173 189 190 190 145 154 191

18 0 4 1 0 0 35 23 0

Treaties signed, not yet ratified Source

NOTES b. Following separation of Serbia and Montenegro All columns:

Data are as of 1 July 2007. Data refer to year of UN 2007a

into two independent states in June 2006, all

ratification, accession approval or succession treaty actions (ratification, signature etc.) continue

unless otherwise specified. All these stages have in force for the Republic of Serbia.

Bold c.

the same legal effects. signifies signature Refers to ratification, acceptance, approval,

not yet followed by ratification. accession or succession.

a. Countries or areas, in addition to the countries or Indicatori

areas included in the main indicator tables, that

have signed at least one of the nine environmental

treaties listed in this table. di

sviluppo

umano

375

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

26

tabella …garantendo la sicurezza personale…

Rifugiati e armamenti b

Conventional arms transfers

Refugees (1990 prices)

Internally Exports Total armed forces

By country By country

displaced Imports

a c d

Share

people US$ Index

of asylum of origin (US$ millions) millions Thousands

(thousands) (thousands) (thousands) (%) (1985=100)

e e e

HDI rank 2006 2006 2006 1996 2006 2006 2002–2006 2007 2007

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland .. (.) (.) .. .. .. .. 0 ..

2 Norway .. 43 .. 183 501 2 (.) 23 62

3 Australia .. 69 (.) 582 768 4 (.) 52 74

4 Canada .. 152 (.) 389 100 227 1 63 76

5 Ireland .. 8 .. 0 11 .. .. 10 73

6 Sweden .. 80 (.) 104 122 472 2 28 43

7 Switzerland .. 49 (.) 187 72 144 1 4 ..

8 Japan .. 2 (.) 813 400 0 (.) 240 99

9 Netherlands .. 101 (.) 181 171 1,481 3 53 50

10 France .. 146 (.) 28 121 1,557 8 255 55

11 Finland .. 12 (.) 605 84 31 (.) 29 79

12 United States .. 844 1 540 417 7,888 30 1,506 70

13 Spain .. 5 2 435 378 803 1 147 46

14 Denmark .. 37 (.) 70 133 3 (.) 22 74

15 Austria .. 25 (.) 10 0 61 (.) 40 73

16 United Kingdom .. 302 0 735 462 1,071 4 191 57

17 Belgium .. 17 (.) 4 4 50 (.) 40 44

18 Luxembourg .. 2 .. 4 0 .. .. 1 129

19 New Zealand .. 5 (.) 7 8 0 (.) 9 73

20 Italy .. 27 (.) 293 697 860 2 191 50

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. 2 (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

22 Germany .. 605 (.) 213 529 3,850 9 246 51

f

23 Israel 150–420 1 1 88 994 224 2 168 118

24 Greece .. 2 (.) 377 1,452 23 (.) 147 73

25 Singapore .. .. (.) 153 54 0 (.) 73 133

26 Korea (Republic of) .. (.) 1 1,759 1,292 89 (.) 687 115

27 Slovenia .. (.) 2 14 2 .. .. 7 ..

g

28 Cyprus 210 1 (.) 169 26 0 (.) 10 100

29 Portugal .. (.) (.) 7 431 .. .. 44 60

30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. .. 17 3 .. .. 7 171

31 Barbados .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. 1 61

32 Czech Republic .. 2 2 24 65 56 (.) 25 12

33 Kuwait .. (.) 1 1,161 107 0 (.) 16 133

34 Malta .. 2 (.) 1 0 0 (.) 2 250

35 Qatar .. (.) (.) 201 0 0 (.) 12 200

36 Hungary .. 8 3 138 337 0 (.) 32 30

37 Poland .. 7 14 99 224 169 (.) 142 45

38 Argentina .. 3 1 57 53 0 (.) 72 67

39 United Arab Emirates .. (.) (.) 474 2,439 7 (.) 51 119

40 Chile .. 1 1 180 1,125 0 (.) 76 75

41 Bahrain .. .. (.) 181 60 0 (.) 11 393

42 Slovakia .. (.) 1 30 0 0 (.) 15 ..

43 Lithuania .. 1 1 15 33 0 (.) 12 ..

44 Estonia .. (.) 1 1 8 0 (.) 4 ..

45 Latvia .. (.) 1 0 4 .. .. 5 ..

umano 46 Uruguay .. (.) (.) 4 7 0 (.) 25 78

47 Croatia 4–7 2 94 14 0 0 (.) 21 ..

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica .. 12 (.) .. .. .. .. 0 ..

49 Bahamas .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. 1 172

50 Seychelles .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. (.) 17

di 51 Cuba .. 1 34 .. .. .. .. 49 30

Indicatori g

52 Mexico 10–12 3 3 79 68 .. .. 238 184

53 Bulgaria .. 5 3 123 20 0 (.) 51 34

376 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 26

tabella

b

Conventional arms transfers

Refugees (1990 prices)

Internally Exports Total armed forces

By country By country

displaced Imports

a c d

Share

people US$ Index

of asylum of origin (US$ millions) millions Thousands

(thousands) (thousands) (thousands) (%) (1985=100)

e e e

HDI rank 2006 2006 2006 1996 2006 2006 2002–2006 2007 2007

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

55 Tonga .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. .. ..

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya .. 3 2 0 5 24 (.) 76 ..

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. (.) 170

58 Oman .. (.) (.) 284 406 0 (.) 42 144

59 Trinidad and Tobago .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. 3 143

60 Romania .. 2 7 41 131 0 (.) 70 37

61 Saudi Arabia .. 241 1 1,725 148 0 (.) 225 360

62 Panama .. 2 (.) 0 0 .. .. 0 0

63 Malaysia .. 37 1 38 654 0 (.) 109 99

64 Belarus .. 1 9 0 254 0 (.) 73 ..

65 Mauritius .. .. (.) 30 0 .. .. 0 0

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 180 10 200 52 0 0 (.) 12 ..

67 Russian Federation 82–190 1 159 0 4 6,733 29 1,027 19

68 Albania .. (.) 14 0 0 .. .. 11 27

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 1 1 8 0 0 .. .. 11 ..

70 Brazil .. 3 1 531 323 1 (.) 288 104

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

72 Saint Lucia .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

73 Kazakhstan .. 4 7 170 53 0 (.) 66 ..

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) .. 1 4 35 498 6 (.) 82 167

h

75 Colombia 1853–3833 (.) 73 57 33 .. .. 209 316

76 Ukraine .. 2 64 .. .. 133 1 188 ..

77 Samoa .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

78 Thailand .. 133 3 611 47 0 (.) 307 130

79 Dominican Republic .. .. (.) 4 0 .. .. 25 113

80 Belize .. (.) (.) 0 0 .. .. 1 167

81 China .. 301 141 1,274 3,261 564 2 2,255 58

82 Grenada .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

g

83 Armenia 8 114 15 104 0 .. .. 44 ..

84 Turkey 954–1201 3 227 1,510 454 45 (.) 515 82

85 Suriname .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. 2 100

86 Jordan .. 500 2 76 117 13 (.) 101 144

g

87 Peru 60 1 7 138 365 0 (.) 80 63

88 Lebanon 216–800 20 12 20 0 0 (.) 72 414

89 Ecuador .. 12 1 29 0 .. .. 57 134

90 Philippines 120 (.) 1 32 43 .. .. 106 92

91 Tunisia .. (.) 3 56 16 .. .. 35 100

92 Fiji .. .. 2 0 0 .. .. 4 148

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) .. 968 102 630 891 9 (.) 545 89

95 Paraguay .. (.) (.) 2 0 .. .. 10 69

96 Georgia 222–241 1 6 0 0 0 (.) 11 ..

97 Guyana .. .. 1 0 0 .. .. 1 15

i

98 Azerbaijan 579–687 3 126 0 0 .. .. 67 .. Indicatori

g

99 Sri Lanka 600 (.) 117 152 20 .. .. 151 699

100 Maldives .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. .. ..

101 Jamaica .. .. 1 0 25 .. .. 3 143 di

102 Cape Verde .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. 1 13 sviluppo

103 El Salvador .. (.) 6 3 0 .. .. 16 38

g j

104 Algeria 1,000 94 8 87 173 .. .. 138 81 umano

105 Viet Nam .. 2 374 207 179 .. .. 455 44

g,k

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 25–57 .. 334 9 0 .. .. .. .. 377

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

26

tabella Rifugiati e armamenti b

Conventional arms transfers

Refugees (1990 prices)

Internally Exports Total armed forces

By country By country

displaced Imports

a c d

Share

people US$ Index

of asylum of origin (US$ millions) millions Thousands

(thousands) (thousands) (thousands) (%) (1985=100)

e e e

HDI rank 2006 2006 2006 1996 2006 2006 2002–2006 2007 2007

107 Indonesia 150–250 (.) 35 435 54 8 (.) 302 109

g

108 Syrian Arab Republic 305 702 12 21 9 3 (.) 308 77

109 Turkmenistan 0 1 1 0 0 .. .. 26 ..

110 Nicaragua .. (.) 2 .. .. 0 (.) 14 22

111 Moldova .. (.) 12 0 0 0 (.) 7 ..

112 Egypt .. 88 8 986 526 0 (.) 469 105

g

113 Uzbekistan 3 1 9 0 0 0 1 55 ..

114 Mongolia .. (.) 1 .. .. .. .. 9 27

115 Honduras .. (.) 1 .. .. .. .. 12 72

116 Kyrgyzstan .. (.) 2 0 1 0 (.) 13 ..

117 Bolivia .. 1 (.) 0 26 .. .. 46 167

g

118 Guatemala 242 (.) 7 0 0 .. .. 16 50

119 Gabon .. 8 (.) 0 63 .. .. 5 208

120 Vanuatu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

121 South Africa .. 35 1 38 862 115 (.) 62 58

122 Tajikistan .. 1 1 0 13 .. .. 8 ..

123 Sao Tome and Principe .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

124 Botswana .. 3 (.) 29 0 .. .. 9 225

125 Namibia .. 5 1 0 0 .. .. 9 ..

126 Morocco .. 1 5 86 49 .. .. 201 135

127 Equatorial Guinea .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. 1 45

128 India 600 158 18 996 1,672 11 (.) 1,316 104

129 Solomon Islands .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic .. .. 26 0 0 .. .. 29 54

131 Cambodia .. (.) 18 33 0 0 (.) 124 354

l

132 Myanmar 500 .. 203 120 7 .. .. 375 202

133 Bhutan .. .. 108 0 0 .. .. .. ..

134 Comoros .. .. (.) .. .. .. .. .. ..

135 Ghana .. 45 10 7 0 .. .. 14 93

m n

136 Pakistan .. 1,044 26 529 309 0 (.) 619 ..

137 Mauritania .. 1 33 2 0 .. .. 16 188

138 Lesotho .. .. (.) 0 0 .. .. 2 100

g

139 Congo 8 56 21 0 0 .. .. 10 115

140 Bangladesh 500 26 8 5 208 .. .. 127 139

141 Swaziland .. 1 (.) 0 0 .. .. .. ..

142 Nepal 100–200 128 3 0 0 .. .. 69 276

143 Madagascar .. .. (.) 19 0 .. .. 14 66

144 Cameroon .. 35 10 4 0 .. .. 14 192

145 Papua New Guinea .. 10 (.) 0 0 .. .. 3 94

146 Haiti .. .. 21 .. .. .. .. .. ..

147 Sudan 5,355 202 686 29 48 .. .. 105 186

148 Kenya 431 273 5 0 0 .. .. 24 175

149 Djibouti .. 9 (.) 0 0 .. .. 11 367

150 Timor-Leste 100 .. (.) .. .. .. .. 1 ..

g,o

151 Zimbabwe 570 4 13 0 20 .. .. 29 71

152 Togo 2 6 27 0 0 .. .. 9 250

umano 153 Yemen .. 96 1 0 0 .. .. 67 105

154 Uganda 1200–1700 272 22 0 0 .. .. 45 225

sviluppo 155 Gambia .. 14 1 0 0 .. .. 1 200

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT g

156 Senegal 64 21 15 0 0 .. .. 14 139

di 157 Eritrea 40–45 5 187 15 70 0 (.) 202 ..

Indicatori 158 Nigeria .. 9 13 16 72 .. .. 85 90

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) .. 485 2 0 0 .. .. 27 67

378 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 26

tabella

b

Conventional arms transfers

Refugees (1990 prices)

Internally Exports Total armed forces

By country By country

displaced Imports

a c d

Share

people US$ Index

of asylum of origin (US$ millions) millions Thousands

(thousands) (thousands) (thousands) (%) (1985=100)

e e e

HDI rank 2006 2006 2006 1996 2006 2006 2002–2006 2007 2007

g

160 Guinea 19 31 7 0 0 .. .. 12 121

161 Rwanda .. 49 93 1 0 .. .. 33 635

g

162 Angola 62 13 207 9 0 0 (.) 107 216

163 Benin .. 11 (.) 0 0 .. .. 5 111

164 Malawi .. 4 (.) .. .. 0 (.) 5 94

165 Zambia .. 120 (.) 5 15 .. .. 15 93

166 Côte d’Ivoire 750 39 26 0 0 .. .. 17 129

167 Burundi 100 13 397 0 0 .. .. 35 673

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 1,100 208 402 46 13 .. .. 51 106

169 Ethiopia 100–280 97 83 0 0 .. .. 153 71

170 Chad 113 287 36 0 2 .. .. 17 139

171 Central African Republic 212 12 72 0 9 .. .. 3 130

172 Mozambique .. 3 (.) 0 0 .. .. 11 70

173 Mali .. 11 1 0 0 .. .. 7 143

174 Niger .. (.) 1 0 0 .. .. 5 227

175 Guinea-Bissau .. 8 1 .. .. .. .. 9 105

176 Burkina Faso .. 1 (.) 0 0 .. .. 11 275

177 Sierra Leone .. 27 43 0 0 .. .. 11 355

Developing countries .. 7,084 .. .. .. .. .. 13,950 T 90

Least developed countries .. 2,177 .. .. .. .. .. 1,781 T 152

Arab States .. 2,001 .. .. .. .. .. 2,167 T 80

East Asia and the Pacific .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5,952 T 80

Latin America and the Caribbean .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,327 T 99

South Asia .. 2,326 .. .. .. .. .. 2,877 T 113

Sub-Saharan Africa .. 2,227 .. .. .. .. .. 1,102 T 130

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS .. 168 .. .. .. .. .. 2,050 T ..

OECD .. 2,556 .. .. .. .. .. 4,995 T 69

High-income OECD .. 2,533 .. .. .. .. .. 4,028 69

High human development .. 2,885 .. .. .. 25,830 .. 7,101 52

Medium human development .. 5,389 .. .. .. .. .. 10,143 91

Low human development .. 1,453 .. .. .. .. .. 835 146

High income .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4,611 74

Middle income .. 3,267 .. .. .. .. .. 9,440 ..

Low income .. 3,741 .. .. .. .. .. 5,413 110

p p p p p p

World 23,700 T 9,894 T 9,894 T 22,115 T 26,130 T 26,742 T .. 19,801 T 73

NOTES SOURCES

e. m.

Data refer to the end of 2006 unless Conflict-induced displacement has taken place in Column 1:

a. Estimates maintained by the IDMC based on IDMC 2007.

otherwise specified. Balochistan and Waziristan, but no estimates are Columns 2 and 3:

f.

various sources. Estimates are associated with UNHCR 2007.

Higher figure includes estimate of Bedoin available due to lack of access. Columns 4 – 6:

n.

high levels of uncertainty. SIPRI 2007a.

internally displaced people. Figures are only for Afghans living in camps and Column 7:

b. g.

Data are as of 10 May 2007. Figures are trend calculated on the basis of data on arms

Data refer to a year or period other than assisted by UNHCR.

o.

indicator values, which are an indicator only of transfers from SIPRI 2007a.

that specified. Not including people previously displaced by Column 8:

h.

the volume of international arms transfers, not IISS 2007.

land acquisitions or political violence. Also not

Lower estimate is cumulative since 1994. Higher Column 9:

of the actual financial value of such transfers. calculated on the basis of data on armed

figure is cumulative since 1985. including people recently displaced due to losing

i.

Published reports of arms transfers provide partial forces from IISS 2007.

Figures do not include an estimated 30,000 ethnic their businesses or other forms livelihood.

p.

information, as not all transfers are fully reported. Armenians displaced to Nagorno Karabakh. Data are aggregates provided by original

j.

The estimates presented are conservative and According to the Government of Algeria, there data source.

may understate actual transfers of conventional are an estimated 165,000 Saharawi refugees in

weapons. Tindouf camps.

c. k.

The country of origin for many refugees is Lower estimate includes only internally displaced Indicatori

unavailable or unreported. These data may people evicted mainly by dwelling demolitions

therefore be underestimates. since 2000. Higher figure is cumulative

d. Calculated using the 2002-06 totals for all since 1967.

l.

countries and non-state actors with exports of Estimate excludes certain parts of the country or di

major conventional weapons as defined in sviluppo

some groups of internally displaced people.

SIPRI 2007a. umano

379

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

27

tabella …garantendo la sicurezza personale…

Criminalità e giustizia Prison population Year in which countries

a

Intentional homicides Female have partially or

(per 100,000

Total completely abolished

(per 100,000 people) people) (% of total)

c d d e b

the death penalty

2000 04 2007 2007 2007

HDI rank

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 1.0 119 40 6 1928

2 Norway 0.8 3,048 66 5 1979

3 Australia 1.3 25,353 126 7 1985

f f

4 Canada 1.9 34,096 107 5 1998

5 Ireland 0.9 3,080 72 4 1990

6 Sweden 2.4 7,450 82 5 1972

7 Switzerland 2.9 6,111 83 5 1992 g

8 Japan 0.5 79,055 62 6 ..

9 Netherlands 1.0 21,013 128 9 1982

f f

10 France 1.6 52,009 85 4 1981

11 Finland 2.8 3,954 75 6 1972 g

12 United States 5.6 2,186,230 738 9 ..

13 Spain 1.2 64,215 145 8 1995

14 Denmark 0.8 4,198 77 5 1978

15 Austria 0.8 8,766 105 5 1968

f f f

16 United Kingdom 2.1 88,458 124 6 1998

17 Belgium 1.5 9,597 91 4 1996

18 Luxembourg 0.9 768 167 5 1979

19 New Zealand 1.3 7,620 186 6 1989

f f

20 Italy 1.2 61,721 104 5 1994

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 0.6 11,580 168 20 ..

22 Germany 1.0 78,581 95 5 1987 h

23 Israel 2.6 13,909 209 2 1954

24 Greece 0.8 9,984 90 6 2004

f f g

25 Singapore 0.5 15,038 350 11 .. g

26 Korea (Republic of) 2.2 45,882 97 5 ..

27 Slovenia 1.5 1,301 65 4 1989

f f

28 Cyprus 1.7 580 76 3 2002

29 Portugal 1.8 12,870 121 7 1976 i

30 Brunei Darussalam 1.4 529 140 8 1957 g

31 Barbados 7.5 997 367 5 ..

32 Czech Republic 2.2 18,950 185 5 1990 g

33 Kuwait 1.0 3,500 130 15 ..

34 Malta 1.8 352 86 4 2000 g

35 Qatar 0.8 465 55 1 ..

36 Hungary 2.1 15,720 156 6 1990

37 Poland 1.6 87,901 230 3 1997 h

38 Argentina 9.5 54,472 140 5 1984 g

39 United Arab Emirates 0.6 8,927 288 11 .. h

40 Chile 1.7 39,916 240 7 2001 g

41 Bahrain 1.0 701 95 .. ..

42 Slovakia 2.3 8,493 158 5 1990

43 Lithuania 9.4 8,124 240 3 1998

44 Estonia 6.8 4,463 333 4 1998 h

45 Latvia 8.6 6,676 292 6 1999

umano 46 Uruguay 5.6 6,947 193 6 1907

47 Croatia 1.8 3,594 81 5 1990

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 6.2 7,782 181 7 1877

f g

49 Bahamas 15.9 1,500 462 2 ..

50 Seychelles 7.4 193 239 8 1993

di g

51 Cuba .. 55,000 487 .. ..

Indicatori 52 Mexico 13.0 214,450 196 5 2005

53 Bulgaria 3.1 11,436 148 3 1998

380 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 27

tabella

Prison population Year in which countries

a

Intentional homicides Female have partially or

(per 100,000

Total completely abolished

(per 100,000 people) people) (% of total)

c d d e b

the death penalty

2000 04 2007 2007 2007

HDI rank f g

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis 4.8 214 547 1 ..

f i

55 Tonga 2.0 128 114 6 1982 g

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya .. 11,790 207 3 .. g

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. 176 225 3 .. g

58 Oman 0.6 2,020 81 5 .. g

59 Trinidad and Tobago .. 3,851 296 3 ..

60 Romania 2.4 35,429 164 5 1989 g

61 Saudi Arabia 0.9 28,612 132 6 ..

62 Panama 9.6 11,649 364 7 1922 g

63 Malaysia 2.4 35,644 141 7 .. g

64 Belarus 8.3 41,583 426 8 ..

65 Mauritius 2.5 2,464 205 6 1995

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 1,526 59 3 2001 i

67 Russian Federation 19.9 869,814 611 7 1999

68 Albania 5.7 3,491 111 3 2007

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 2.3 2,026 99 2 1991 h

70 Brazil .. 361,402 191 6 1979

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT g

71 Dominica 2.8 289 419 (.) .. g

72 Saint Lucia .. 503 303 2 ..

f g

73 Kazakhstan 16.8 49,292 340 7 ..

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 33.2 19,853 74 6 1863

75 Colombia 62.7 62,216 134 6 1910

76 Ukraine 7.4 165,716 356 6 1999

77 Samoa .. 223 123 9 2004 g

78 Thailand 8.5 164,443 256 17 ..

79 Dominican Republic .. 12,725 143 3 1966 g

80 Belize .. 1,359 487 2 ..

f f f g

81 China 2.1 1,548,498 118 5 .. i

82 Grenada .. 237 265 1 1978

83 Armenia 2.5 2,879 89 3 2003

84 Turkey 3.8 65,458 91 3 2004 i

85 Suriname 10.3 1,600 356 6 1982

f g

86 Jordan 0.9 5,589 104 2 .. h

87 Peru 5.5 35,642 126 7 1979

f g

88 Lebanon 5.7 5,971 168 4 ..

89 Ecuador 18.3 12,251 93 11 1906

90 Philippines 4.3 89,639 108 8 2006 i

91 Tunisia 1.2 26,000 263 .. 1991

f h

92 Fiji 1.7 1,113 131 2 1979 g

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. 367 312 3 .. g

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2.9 147,926 214 4 ..

95 Paraguay 12.6 5,063 86 5 1992

96 Georgia 6.2 11,731 276 2 1997

f g

97 Guyana 13.8 1,524 199 4 ..

98 Azerbaijan 2.4 18,259 219 2 1998 Indicatori

i

99 Sri Lanka 6.7 23,613 114 4 1976

f f i

100 Maldives 1.3 1,125 343 22 1952 g

101 Jamaica 34.4 4,913 182 5 .. di

102 Cape Verde .. 755 178 5 1981 sviluppo

h

103 El Salvador 31.5 12,176 174 6 1983 i

104 Algeria 1.4 42,000 127 1 1993 g umano

105 Viet Nam .. 88,414 105 12 .. g

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 4.0 .. .. .. .. 381

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

27

tabella Criminalità e giustizia Prison population Year in which countries

a

Intentional homicides Female have partially or

(per 100,000

Total completely abolished

(per 100,000 people) people) (% of total)

c d d e b

the death penalty

2000 04 2007 2007 2007

HDI rank g

107 Indonesia 1.1 99,946 45 5 .. g

108 Syrian Arab Republic 1.1 10,599 58 7 ..

109 Turkmenistan .. 22,000 489 .. 1999

f

110 Nicaragua 12.8 5,610 98 7 1979

f f

111 Moldova 6.7 8,876 247 5 1995

f g

112 Egypt 0.4 61,845 87 4 .. g

113 Uzbekistan .. 48,000 184 .. .. g

114 Mongolia 12.8 6,998 269 4 ..

115 Honduras .. 11,589 161 3 1956 i

116 Kyrgyzstan 8.0 15,744 292 5 1998 h

117 Bolivia 2.8 7,710 83 7 1997 g

118 Guatemala 25.5 7,227 57 5 ..

j j

119 Gabon .. 2,750 212 .. ..

f i

120 Vanuatu 0.7 138 65 4 1980

121 South Africa 47.5 157,402 335 2 1997

f g

122 Tajikistan 7.6 10,804 164 4 ..

f

123 Sao Tome and Principe 6.2 155 82 2 1990

f g

124 Botswana 0.5 6,259 348 5 ..

125 Namibia 6.3 4,814 267 2 1990 i

126 Morocco 0.5 54,542 175 2 1993 g

127 Equatorial Guinea .. .. .. .. ..

f g

128 India 3.7 332,112 30 4 .. h

129 Solomon Islands .. 297 62 1 1966 g

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic .. 4,020 69 11 ..

131 Cambodia .. 8,160 58 6 1989

132 Myanmar 0.2 60,000 120 18 ..

133 Bhutan .. .. .. .. 2004 g

134 Comoros .. 200 30 .. .. i

135 Ghana .. 12,736 55 2 1957 g

136 Pakistan 0.0 89,370 57 2 ..

k i

137 Mauritania .. 815 26 3 1987

f g

138 Lesotho 50.7 2,924 156 3 .. i

139 Congo .. 918 38 .. 1982 g

140 Bangladesh .. 71,200 50 3 .. i

141 Swaziland 13.6 2,734 249 3 1968

142 Nepal 3.4 7,135 26 8 1997

f i

143 Madagascar 0.5 20,294 107 3 1958 g

144 Cameroon .. 20,000 125 .. .. i

145 Papua New Guinea 9.1 4,056 69 5 1950

146 Haiti .. 3,670 43 7 1987

f g

147 Sudan 0.3 12,000 36 2 .. i

148 Kenya .. 47,036 130 4 1987

149 Djibouti .. 384 61 .. 1995

150 Timor-Leste .. 320 41 (.) 1999 g

151 Zimbabwe 8.4 18,033 139 3 .. i

152 Togo .. 3,200 65 2 1960

umano f f l g

153 Yemen 4.0 14,000 83 .. .. g

154 Uganda 7.4 26,126 95 3 .. i

sviluppo 155 Gambia .. 450 32 1 1981

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal .. 5,360 54 4 2004

di g

157 Eritrea .. .. .. .. ..

Indicatori f g

158 Nigeria 1.5 40,444 30 2 ..

f g

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 7.5 43,911 113 3 ..

382 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 27

tabella

Prison population Year in which countries

a

Intentional homicides Female have partially or

(per 100,000

Total completely abolished

(per 100,000 people) people) (% of total)

c d d e b

the death penalty

2000 04 2007 2007 2007

HDI rank g

160 Guinea .. 3,070 37 2 ..

f f f,j g

161 Rwanda 8.0 67,000 691 3 ..

162 Angola .. 6,008 44 3 1992 i

163 Benin .. 5,834 75 4 1987 i

164 Malawi .. 9,656 74 1 1992 g

165 Zambia 8.1 14,347 120 3 ..

f f

166 Côte d’Ivoire 4.1 9,274 49 2 2000 g

167 Burundi .. 7,969 106 3 .. g

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) .. 30,000 57 3 .. g

169 Ethiopia .. 65,000 92 .. .. g

170 Chad .. 3,416 35 2 .. i

171 Central African Republic .. 4,168 110 .. 1981

172 Mozambique .. 10,000 51 6 1990 i

173 Mali .. 4,407 33 2 1980 i

174 Niger .. 5,709 46 3 1976

175 Guinea-Bissau .. .. .. .. 1993 i

176 Burkina Faso .. 2,800 23 1 1988 g

177 Sierra Leone .. 1,740 32 .. ..

NOTES SOURCES

g. Country retaining the death penalty. Column 1:

a. h.

Because of differences in the legal definition of UNODC 2007.

Death penalty abolished for ordinary Columns 2–4:

offences, data are not strictly comparable across ICPS 2007.

crimes only. Column 5:

i.

countries. Amnesty International 2007.

Death penalty abolished in practice if not in law.

b. Data are as of 4 April 2007 and refer to the year No execution since the year reported.

j.

of abolition for all crimes Data are downloaded directly from http://www.

(unless otherwise specified). kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/icps/worldbrief/highest_to_

c. Data were collected during one of the lowest_rates.php.

k.

years specified. In 2005, six of the 435 prisoners in Nouakchott

d. Data are as of January 2007. main prison were women.

e. l.

Data are as of May 2007 unless otherwise In 2005 Parliamentary Committee on Human

specified. Rights reported that 2.7% of prisoners in Sana’a

f. Data refer to years or periods other than those central prisons were women.

specified in the column heading, differ from the

standard definition or refer to only part of

a country. Indicatori

di

sviluppo

umano

383

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

28

tabella …e raggiungendo l’uguaglianza tra donne e uomini…

Indice di sviluppo di genere Combined gross

enrolment ratio for Estimated earned

primary, secondary and

a b c

Adult literacy rate income

Life expectancy at birth tertiary education

(years) (% aged 15 and older) (%) (PPP US$)

Indice di sviluppo HDI rank

di genere (GDI) 2005 1995 2005 2005 2005

– minus GDI

d

rank

Rank Value Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male

HDI rank

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT e e f f f f

1 Iceland 1 0.962 83.1 79.9 .. .. 101 90 28,637 40,000 0

e e f f f f

2 Norway 3 0.957 82.2 77.3 .. .. 103 95 30,749 40,000 -1

e e f f

3 Australia 2 0.960 83.3 78.5 .. .. 114 112 26,311 37,414 1

e e f,g f,g f,h f,h

4 Canada 4 0.956 82.6 77.9 .. .. 101 98 25,448 40,000 0

e e f f f f

5 Ireland 15 0.940 80.9 76.0 .. .. 102 98 21,076 40,000 -10

e e f f

6 Sweden 5 0.955 82.7 78.3 .. .. 100 91 29,044 36,059 1

e e f f

7 Switzerland 9 0.946 83.7 78.5 .. .. 83 88 25,056 40,000 -2

e e f f

8 Japan 13 0.942 85.7 78.7 .. .. 85 87 17,802 40,000 -5

e e

9 Netherlands 6 0.951 81.4 76.9 .. .. 98 99 25,625 39,845 3

e e

10 France 7 0.950 83.7 76.6 .. .. 99 94 23,945 37,169 3

e e f f

11 Finland 8 0.947 82.0 75.6 .. .. 105 98 26,795 37,739 3

e e f,h f,h

12 United States 16 0.937 80.4 75.2 .. .. 98 89 25,005 40,000 -4

e e f f h h

13 Spain 12 0.944 83.8 77.2 .. .. 101 95 18,335 36,324 1

e e f f

14 Denmark 11 0.944 80.1 75.5 .. .. 107 99 28,766 39,288 3

e e f f

15 Austria 19 0.934 82.2 76.5 .. .. 93 91 18,397 40,000 -4

e e f f

16 United Kingdom 10 0.944 81.2 76.7 .. .. 96 90 26,242 40,000 6

e e f f

17 Belgium 14 0.940 81.8 75.8 .. .. 97 94 22,182 40,000 3

e e i i f f

18 Luxembourg 23 0.924 81.4 75.4 .. .. 85 84 20,446 40,000 -5

e e f f

19 New Zealand 18 0.935 81.8 77.7 .. .. 115 102 20,666 29,479 1

h h

20 Italy 17 0.936 83.2 77.2 98.0 98.8 93 88 18,501 39,163 3

j j f f

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 22 0.926 84.9 79.1 97.3 97.3 73 79 22,433 40,000 -1

e e

22 Germany 20 0.931 81.8 76.2 .. .. 87 88 21,823 37,461 2

j j h h

23 Israel 21 0.927 82.3 78.1 97.7 97.7 92 87 20,497 31,345 2

f f

24 Greece 24 0.922 80.9 76.7 94.2 97.8 101 97 16,738 30,184 0

25 Singapore .. .. 81.4 77.5 88.6 96.6 .. .. 20,044 39,150 ..

e e f f

26 Korea (Republic of) 26 0.910 81.5 74.3 .. .. 89 102 12,531 31,476 -1

f,k f,k h h

27 Slovenia 25 0.914 81.1 73.6 99.6 99.7 99 90 17,022 27,779 1

l l

28 Cyprus 27 0.899 81.5 76.6 95.1 98.6 78 77 16,805 27,808 0

k k

29 Portugal 28 0.895 80.9 74.5 92.0 95.8 93 87 15,294 25,881 0

h,m h,m

30 Brunei Darussalam 31 0.886 79.3 74.6 90.2 95.2 79 76 15,658 37,506 -2

f,j f,j g g h,m h,m

31 Barbados 30 0.887 79.3 73.6 99.7 99.7 94 84 12,868 20,309 0

e e

32 Czech Republic 29 0.887 79.1 72.7 .. .. 84 82 13,992 27,440 2

h h

33 Kuwait 32 0.884 79.6 75.7 91.0 94.4 79 71 12,623 36,403 0

34 Malta 33 0.873 81.1 76.8 89.2 86.4 81 81 12,834 25,623 0

h,m h,m

35 Qatar 37 0.863 75.8 74.6 88.6 89.1 85 71 9,211 37,774 -3

e e

36 Hungary 34 0.872 77.0 68.8 .. .. 93 86 14,058 22,098 1

e e h h

37 Poland 35 0.867 79.4 71.0 .. .. 91 84 10,414 17,493 1

g g h h

38 Argentina 36 0.865 78.6 71.1 97.2 97.2 94 86 10,063 18,686 1

k k g g h h

39 United Arab Emirates 43 0.855 81.0 76.8 87.8 89.0 68 54 8,329 33,555 -5

h h

40 Chile 40 0.859 81.3 75.3 95.6 95.8 82 84 6,871 17,293 -1

41 Bahrain 42 0.857 77.0 73.9 83.6 88.6 90 82 10,496 29,796 -2

e e h h

42 Slovakia 39 0.860 78.2 70.3 .. .. 80 77 11,777 20,218 2

f f

43 Lithuania 38 0.861 78.0 66.9 99.6 99.6 97 87 12,000 17,349 4

f f h h

44 Estonia 41 0.858 76.8 65.5 99.8 99.8 99 86 12,112 19,430 2

f f

45 Latvia 44 0.853 77.3 66.5 99.7 99.8 97 83 10,951 16,842 0

umano g g h h

46 Uruguay 45 0.849 79.4 72.2 97.3 96.2 95 83 7,203 12,890 0

f f g g

47 Croatia 46 0.848 78.8 71.8 97.1 99.3 75 72 10,587 15,687 0

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 47 0.842 80.9 76.2 95.1 94.7 74 72 6,983 13,271 0

j j h,l h,l

49 Bahamas 48 0.841 75.0 69.6 95.0 95.0 71 71 14,656 20,803 0

h h

50 Seychelles .. .. .. .. 92.3 91.4 84 81 .. .. ..

di f f h,m h,m

51 Cuba 49 0.839 79.8 75.8 99.8 99.8 92 83 4,268 9,489 0

Indicatori 52 Mexico 51 0.820 78.0 73.1 90.2 93.2 76 75 6,039 15,680 -1

53 Bulgaria 50 0.823 76.4 69.2 97.7 98.7 81 82 7,176 11,010 1

384 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 28

tabella

Combined gross

enrolment ratio for Estimated earned

primary, secondary and

a b c

Adult literacy rate income

Life expectancy at birth tertiary education

(years) (% aged 15 and older) (%) (PPP US$)

Indice di sviluppo HDI rank

di genere (GDI) 2005 1995 2005 2005 2005

– minus GDI

d

rank

Rank Value Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male

HDI rank h,l h,l

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. .. .. 74 72 .. .. ..

h h

55 Tonga 53 0.814 73.8 71.8 99.0 98.8 81 79 5,243 10,981 -1

k k g g h,m h,m

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 62 0.797 76.3 71.1 74.8 92.8 97 91 4,054 13,460 -9

h,l h,l

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

h,l h,l

58 Oman 67 0.788 76.7 73.6 73.5 86.9 67 67 4,516 23,880 -13

k k h h

59 Trinidad and Tobago 56 0.808 71.2 67.2 97.8 98.9 66 64 9,307 20,053 -1

60 Romania 54 0.812 75.6 68.4 96.3 98.4 79 75 7,443 10,761 2

h h

61 Saudi Arabia 70 0.783 74.6 70.3 76.3 87.5 76 76 4,031 25,678 -13

62 Panama 55 0.810 77.8 72.7 91.2 92.5 83 76 5,537 9,636 3

g g

63 Malaysia 58 0.802 76.1 71.4 85.4 92.0 77 72 5,751 15,861 1

f f

64 Belarus 57 0.803 74.9 62.7 99.4 99.8 91 87 6,236 9,835 3

h h

65 Mauritius 63 0.796 75.8 69.1 80.5 88.2 75 76 7,407 18,098 -2

f f h,m h,m

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. .. 77.1 71.8 94.4 99.0 .. .. 2,864 4,341 ..

f f h h

67 Russian Federation 59 0.801 72.1 58.6 99.2 99.7 93 85 8,476 13,581 3

f f g g h h

68 Albania 61 0.797 79.5 73.1 98.3 99.2 68 69 3,728 6,930 2

h h

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 64 0.795 76.3 71.4 94.1 98.2 71 69 4,676 9,734 0

g g

70 Brazil 60 0.798 75.5 68.1 88.8 88.4 89 86 6,204 10,664 5

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT h,l h,l

71 Dominica .. .. .. .. .. .. 84 78 .. .. ..

h,l h,l

72 Saint Lucia .. .. 75.0 71.3 .. .. 78 72 4,501 8,805 ..

f f

73 Kazakhstan 65 0.792 71.5 60.5 99.3 99.8 97 91 6,141 9,723 1

g g h h

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 68 0.787 76.3 70.4 92.7 93.3 76 73 4,560 8,683 -1

75 Colombia 66 0.789 76.0 68.7 92.9 92.8 77 74 5,680 8,966 2

f f

76 Ukraine 69 0.785 73.6 62.0 99.2 99.7 87 86 4,970 9,067 0

k k h h

77 Samoa 72 0.776 74.2 67.8 98.3 98.9 76 72 3,338 8,797 -2

78 Thailand 71 0.779 74.5 65.0 90.5 94.9 72 71 6,695 10,732 0

g g h h

79 Dominican Republic 74 0.773 74.8 68.6 87.2 86.8 78 70 4,907 11,465 -2

j j h h

80 Belize 52 0.814 79.1 73.1 94.6 94.6 81 83 4,022 10,117 21

n n h h

81 China 73 0.776 74.3 71.0 86.5 95.1 69 70 5,220 8,213 1

h,l h,l

82 Grenada .. .. 69.8 66.5 .. .. 74 72 .. .. ..

f f h h

83 Armenia 75 0.772 74.9 68.2 99.2 99.7 74 68 3,893 6,150 0

84 Turkey 79 0.763 73.9 69.0 79.6 95.3 64 73 4,385 12,368 -3

h h

85 Suriname 78 0.767 73.0 66.4 87.2 92.0 82 72 4,426 11,029 -1

86 Jordan 80 0.760 73.8 70.3 87.0 95.2 79 77 2,566 8,270 -2

h h

87 Peru 76 0.769 73.3 68.2 82.5 93.7 87 85 4,269 7,791 3

j j h h

88 Lebanon 81 0.759 73.7 69.4 93.6 93.6 86 83 2,701 8,585 -1

h h

89 Ecuador .. .. 77.7 71.8 89.7 92.3 .. .. 3,102 5,572 ..

90 Philippines 77 0.768 73.3 68.9 93.6 91.6 83 79 3,883 6,375 4

h h

91 Tunisia 83 0.750 75.6 71.5 65.3 83.4 79 74 3,748 12,924 -1

j j h h

92 Fiji 82 0.757 70.6 66.1 95.9 95.9 76 74 3,928 8,103 1

h h

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 73.2 69.0 .. .. 70 68 4,449 8,722 ..

h h

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 84 0.750 71.8 68.7 76.8 88.0 73 73 4,475 11,363 0

k k g g

95 Paraguay 86 0.744 73.4 69.2 92.7 94.3 70 69 2,358 6,892 -1

96 Georgia .. .. 74.5 66.7 .. .. 77 75 1,731 5,188 ..

f,j f,j h h

97 Guyana 88 0.742 68.1 62.4 99.2 99.2 87 84 2,665 6,467 -2

f f h h

98 Azerbaijan 87 0.743 70.8 63.5 98.2 99.5 66 68 3,960 6,137 0 Indicatori

o o g g

99 Sri Lanka 89 0.735 75.6 67.9 89.1 92.3 64 63 2,647 6,479 -1

h,m h,m

100 Maldives 85 0.744 67.6 66.6 96.4 96.2 66 65 3,992 7,946 4

o o h h

101 Jamaica 90 0.732 74.9 69.6 85.9 74.1 82 74 3,107 5,503 0 di

k k h h

102 Cape Verde 93 0.723 73.8 67.5 75.5 87.8 66 67 3,087 8,756 -2 sviluppo

k k

103 El Salvador 92 0.726 74.3 68.2 79.2 82.1 70 70 3,043 7,543 0

h h

104 Algeria 95 0.720 73.0 70.4 60.1 79.6 74 73 3,546 10,515 -2

h h umano

105 Viet Nam 91 0.732 75.7 71.9 86.9 93.9 62 66 2,540 3,604 3

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. .. 74.4 71.3 88.0 96.7 84 81 .. .. .. 385

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

28

tabella Indice di sviluppo di genere Combined gross

enrolment ratio for Estimated earned

primary, secondary and

a b c

Adult literacy rate income

Life expectancy at birth tertiary education

(years) (% aged 15 and older) (%) (PPP US$)

Indice di sviluppo HDI rank

di genere (GDI) 2005 1995 2005 2005 2005

– minus GDI

d

rank

Rank Value Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male

HDI rank h h

107 Indonesia 94 0.721 71.6 67.8 86.8 94.0 67 70 2,410 5,280 1

h h

108 Syrian Arab Republic 96 0.710 75.5 71.8 73.6 87.8 63 67 1,907 5,684 0

f f h,m h,m

109 Turkmenistan .. .. 67.0 58.5 98.3 99.3 .. .. 6,108 9,596 ..

h h

110 Nicaragua 99 0.696 75.0 69.0 76.6 76.8 72 70 1,773 5,577 -2

f,k f,k h h

111 Moldova 97 0.704 72.0 64.7 98.6 99.6 73 67 1,634 2,608 1

112 Egypt .. .. 73.0 68.5 59.4 83.0 .. .. 1,635 7,024 ..

f,j f,j g g h h

113 Uzbekistan 98 0.699 70.0 63.6 99.6 99.6 72 75 1,547 2,585 1

h h

114 Mongolia 100 0.695 69.2 62.8 97.5 98.0 83 72 1,413 2,799 0

h h

115 Honduras 101 0.694 73.1 65.8 80.2 79.8 74 68 2,160 4,680 0

f f h h

116 Kyrgyzstan 102 0.692 69.6 61.7 98.1 99.3 80 76 1,414 2,455 0

g g h h

117 Bolivia 103 0.691 66.9 62.6 80.7 93.1 84 90 2,059 3,584 0

h h

118 Guatemala 104 0.675 73.2 66.2 63.3 75.4 64 70 2,267 6,990 0

k k g g h h

119 Gabon 105 0.670 56.9 55.6 79.7 88.5 68 72 5,049 8,876 0

h h

120 Vanuatu .. .. 71.3 67.5 .. .. 61 66 2,601 3,830 ..

g g h h

121 South Africa 107 0.667 52.0 49.5 80.9 84.1 77 77 6,927 15,446 -1

f f h h

122 Tajikistan 106 0.669 69.0 63.8 99.2 99.7 64 77 992 1,725 1

h h

123 Sao Tome and Principe 110 0.637 66.7 63.0 77.9 92.2 65 65 1,022 3,357 -2

124 Botswana 109 0.639 48.4 47.6 81.8 80.4 70 69 5,913 19,094 0

h h

125 Namibia 108 0.645 52.2 50.9 83.5 86.8 66 63 5,527 9,679 2

h h

126 Morocco 112 0.621 72.7 68.3 39.6 65.7 55 62 1,846 7,297 -1

g g h,l h,l

127 Equatorial Guinea 111 0.631 51.6 49.1 80.5 93.4 52 64 4,635 10,814 1

o o h h

128 India 113 0.600 65.3 62.3 47.8 73.4 60 68 1,620 5,194 0

h h

129 Solomon Islands .. .. 63.8 62.2 .. .. 46 50 1,345 2,672 ..

h h

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 115 0.593 64.5 61.9 60.9 77.0 56 67 1,385 2,692 -1

h h

131 Cambodia 114 0.594 60.6 55.2 64.1 84.7 56 64 2,332 3,149 1

132 Myanmar .. .. 64.2 57.6 86.4 93.9 51 48 .. .. ..

h,m h,m

133 Bhutan .. .. 66.5 63.1 .. .. .. .. 2,141 4,463 ..

j j h h

134 Comoros 116 0.554 66.3 62.0 63.9 63.9 42 50 1,337 2,643 0

h h

135 Ghana 117 0.549 59.5 58.7 49.8 66.4 48 53 2,056 2,893 0

h h

136 Pakistan 125 0.525 64.8 64.3 35.4 64.1 34 45 1,059 3,607 -7

h h

137 Mauritania 118 0.543 65.0 61.5 43.4 59.5 45 47 1,489 2,996 1

h h

138 Lesotho 119 0.541 42.9 42.1 90.3 73.7 67 65 2,340 4,480 1

k k h h

139 Congo 120 0.540 55.2 52.8 79.0 90.5 48 54 841 1,691 1

g g h h

140 Bangladesh 121 0.539 64.0 62.3 40.8 53.9 56 56 1,282 2,792 1

141 Swaziland 123 0.529 41.4 40.4 78.3 80.9 58 62 2,187 7,659 0

h h

142 Nepal 128 0.520 62.9 62.1 34.9 62.7 54 62 1,038 2,072 -4

h h

143 Madagascar 122 0.530 60.1 56.7 65.3 76.5 58 61 758 1,090 3

h h

144 Cameroon 126 0.524 50.2 49.4 59.8 77.0 57 68 1,519 3,086 0

g g h h

145 Papua New Guinea 124 0.529 60.1 54.3 50.9 63.4 38 43 2,140 2,960 3

j j h h

146 Haiti .. .. 61.3 57.7 56.5 56.5 .. .. 1,146 2,195 ..

o o h h

147 Sudan 131 0.502 58.9 56.0 51.8 71.1 35 39 832 3,317 -3

148 Kenya 127 0.521 53.1 51.1 70.2 77.7 59 62 1,126 1,354 2

j j h h

149 Djibouti 129 0.507 55.2 52.6 79.9 79.9 22 29 1,422 2,935 1

h h

150 Timor-Leste .. .. 60.5 58.9 .. .. 71 73 .. .. ..

k k g g h h

151 Zimbabwe 130 0.505 40.2 41.4 86.2 92.7 51 54 1,499 2,585 1

h h

152 Togo 134 0.494 59.6 56.0 38.5 68.7 46 64 907 2,119 -2

umano k k h h

153 Yemen 136 0.472 63.1 60.0 34.7 73.1 43 67 424 1,422 -3

h h

154 Uganda 132 0.501 50.2 49.1 57.7 76.8 62 64 1,199 1,708 2

j j g g h h

sviluppo 155 Gambia 133 0.496 59.9 57.7 49.9 49.9 49 51 1,327 2,525 2

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT h h

156 Senegal 135 0.492 64.4 60.4 29.2 51.1 37 42 1,256 2,346 1

di j j

157 Eritrea 137 0.469 59.0 54.0 71.5 71.5 29 41 689 1,544 0

Indicatori k k h h

158 Nigeria 139 0.456 47.1 46.0 60.1 78.2 51 61 652 1,592 -1

h h

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 138 0.464 52.0 50.0 62.2 77.5 49 52 627 863 1

386 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 28

tabella

Combined gross

enrolment ratio for Estimated earned

primary, secondary and

a b c

Adult literacy rate income

Life expectancy at birth tertiary education

(years) (% aged 15 and older) (%) (PPP US$)

Indice di sviluppo HDI rank

di genere (GDI) 2005 1995 2005 2005 2005

– minus GDI

d

rank

Rank Value Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male

HDI rank h h

160 Guinea 141 0.446 56.4 53.2 18.1 42.6 38 52 1,876 2,734 -1

h h

161 Rwanda 140 0.450 46.7 43.6 59.8 71.4 51 51 1,031 1,392 1

g g h h

162 Angola 142 0.439 43.3 40.1 54.2 82.9 24 28 1,787 2,898 0

h h

163 Benin 145 0.422 56.5 54.1 23.3 47.9 42 59 732 1,543 -2

h h

164 Malawi 143 0.432 46.7 46.0 54.0 74.9 62 64 565 771 1

h h

165 Zambia 144 0.425 40.6 40.3 59.8 76.3 58 63 725 1,319 1

g g h h

166 Côte d’Ivoire 146 0.413 48.3 46.5 38.6 60.8 32 47 795 2,472 0

h h

167 Burundi 147 0.409 49.8 47.1 52.2 67.3 34 42 611 791 0

g g h h

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 148 0.398 47.1 44.4 54.1 80.9 28 39 488 944 0

h h

169 Ethiopia 149 0.393 53.1 50.5 22.8 50.0 36 48 796 1,316 0

h h

170 Chad 152 0.370 51.8 49.0 12.8 40.8 28 47 1,126 1,735 -2

g g h h

171 Central African Republic 153 0.368 45.0 42.3 33.5 64.8 23 36 933 1,530 -2

h h

172 Mozambique 150 0.373 43.6 42.0 25.0 54.8 48 58 1,115 1,378 2

h h

173 Mali 151 0.371 55.3 50.8 15.9 32.7 31 42 833 1,234 2

h h

174 Niger 155 0.355 54.9 56.7 15.1 42.9 19 26 561 991 -1

j g g h h

175 Guinea-Bissau 156 0.355 47.5 44.2 60.0 60.0 29 45 558 1,103 -1

h h

176 Burkina Faso 154 0.364 52.9 49.8 16.6 31.4 25 33 966 1,458 2

g g h h

177 Sierra Leone 157 0.320 43.4 40.2 24.2 46.7 38 52 507 1,114 0

NOTES SOURCES

d. The HDI ranks used in this calculation are outdated census or survey information were used, Column 1:

a. Data refer to national literacy estimates from determined on the basis of the GDI values

recalculated for the 157 countries with a GDI and should be interpreted with caution.

k.

censuses or surveys conducted between 1995 in column 2.

value. A positive figure indicates that the GDI UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates based Column 2:

and 2005, unless otherwise specified. Due to calculated on the basis of data in columns

rank is higher than the HDI rank, a negative the on its Global age-specific literacy projections

differences in methodology and timeliness of 3–10; see Technical note 1 for details.

opposite. model. Columns 3 and 4:

e. l.

underlying data, comparisons across countries UN 2007e.

For the purposes of calculating the GDI, a value of Data from earlier years were adjusted to reflect Columns 5 and 6:

and over time should be made with caution. For UNESCO Institute for Statistics

99.0 % was applied. their values in 2005 prices.

f. m.

more details, see http://www.uis.unesco.org/. 2007a.

For the purpose of calculating the GDI, the female Heston, Alan, Robert Summers and Bettina Columns 7 and 8:

b. Data for some countries may refer to national or UNESCO Institute for Statistics

and male values appearing in this table were Aten. 2006. Data may differ from the standard

UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates. For 2007c.

scaled downward to reflect the maximum values definition. Columns 9 and 10:

n.

details, see http://www.uis.unesco.org/. calculated on the basis of

for adult literacy (99%), gross enrolment ratios For statistical purposes, the data for China do not

c. Because of the lack of gender-disaggregated data on GDP per capita (PPP US$) and population

(100%), and GDP per capita ($40,000). For more include Hong Kong and Macao, SARs of China.

o.

income data, female and male earned income are data from World Bank 2007b unless otherwise

details, see Technical note 1. Data refer to years or periods other than those

g.

crudely estimated on the basis of data on the ratio specified; data on wages from ILO 2007b; data on the

Data refer to an earlier year than that specified. specified in the column heading, differ from

h.

of the female nonagricultural wage to the male economically active population from ILO 2005.

No wage data are available. For the purposes of the standard definition or refer to only part of a Column 11:

nonagricultural wage, the female and male shares calculated on the basis of recalculated

calculating the estimated female and male earned country.

of the economically active population, the total HDI ranks and GDI ranks in column 1.

income, a value of 0.75 was used for the ratio

female and male population and GDP per capita in of the female nonagricultural wage to the male

PPP US$ (see Technical note 1). The wage ratios nonagricultural wage.

i.

used in this calculation are based on data for the Statec. 2006.

j.

most recent year available between 1996 and In the absence of recent data, estimates from

2005. UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2003, based on

GDI ranks for 157 countries and areas

1 Iceland 81 Lebanon

28 Portugal 55 Panama 108 Namibia 134 Togo

2 Australia 29 Czech Republic 82 Fiji 109 Botswana 135 Senegal

56 Trinidad and Tobago

3 Norway 30 Barbados 57 Belarus 83 Tunisia 110 Sao Tome and Principe 136 Yemen

4 Canada 31 Brunei Darussalam 58 Malaysia 84 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 111 Equatorial Guinea 137 Eritrea

5 Sweden 32 Kuwait 85 Maldives 138 Tanzania

59 Russian Federation 112 Morocco

6 Netherlands (United Republic of)

33 Malta 60 Brazil 86 Paraguay 113 India

7 France 34 Hungary 87 Azerbaijan 139 Nigeria

61 Albania 114 Cambodia

8 Finland 35 Poland 62 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 88 Guyana 115 Lao People’s Democratic 140 Rwanda

9 Switzerland Republic 141 Guinea

36 Argentina 63 Mauritius 89 Sri Lanka

10 United Kingdom 37 Qatar 90 Jamaica 116 Comoros 142 Angola

64 Macedonia (TFYR)

11 Denmark 117 Ghana 143 Malawi

38 Lithuania 91 Viet Nam

65 Kazakhstan

12 Spain 39 Slovakia 92 El Salvador 118 Mauritania 144 Zambia

66 Colombia

13 Japan 40 Chile 67 Oman 93 Cape Verde 119 Lesotho 145 Benin

14 Belgium 120 Congo 146 Côte d’Ivoire

41 Estonia 68 Venezuela (Bolivarian 94 Indonesia Indicatori

15 Ireland Republic of) 95 Algeria 121 Bangladesh 147 Burundi

42 Bahrain

16 United States 69 Ukraine 122 Madagascar 148 Congo (Democratic

43 United Arab Emirates 96 Syrian Arab Republic

17 Italy 44 Latvia 70 Saudi Arabia 97 Moldova 123 Swaziland Republic of the)

18 New Zealand 45 Uruguay 71 Thailand 98 Uzbekistan 124 Papua New Guinea 149 Ethiopia

72 Samoa 150 Mozambique

19 Austria 46 Croatia 99 Nicaragua 125 Pakistan di

20 Germany 73 China 100 Mongolia 126 Cameroon 151 Mali

47 Costa Rica sviluppo

74 Dominican Republic 152 Chad

21 Israel 48 Bahamas 101 Honduras 127 Kenya

22 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 75 Armenia 102 Kyrgyzstan 128 Nepal 153 Central African Republic

49 Cuba

23 Luxembourg 50 Bulgaria 76 Peru 103 Bolivia 129 Djibouti 154 Burkina Faso

77 Philippines 155 Niger

24 Greece 51 Mexico 104 Guatemala 130 Zimbabwe

25 Slovenia 78 Suriname 105 Gabon 131 Sudan 156 Guinea-Bissau

52 Belize umano

79 Turkey 157 Sierra Leone

26 Korea (Republic of) 53 Tonga 106 Tajikistan 132 Uganda

27 Cyprus 80 Jordan 133 Gambia

54 Romania 107 South Africa 387

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

29

tabella …e raggiungendo l’uguaglianza tra donne e uomini…

dell’empowerment

Misura di genere

MDG Female legislators, Female professional

Misura dell’empowerment di genere Seats in parliament senior officials and technical Ratio of estimated

(GEM) a b b

workers

held by women and managers female to male

c

Rank Value earned income

HDI rank (% of total) (% of total) (% of total)

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

1 Iceland 5 0.862 31.7 27 56 0.72

2 Norway 1 0.910 37.9 30 50 0.77

3 Australia 8 0.847 28.3 37 56 0.70

4 Canada 10 0.820 24.3 36 56 0.64

5 Ireland 19 0.699 14.2 31 52 0.53

6 Sweden 2 0.906 47.3 30 51 0.81

7 Switzerland 27 0.660 24.8 8 22 0.63

d d

8 Japan 54 0.557 11.1 10 46 0.45

9 Netherlands 6 0.859 36.0 26 50 0.64

10 France 18 0.718 13.9 37 47 0.64

11 Finland 3 0.887 42.0 30 55 0.71

12 United States 15 0.762 16.3 42 56 0.63

13 Spain 12 0.794 30.5 32 48 0.50

14 Denmark 4 0.875 36.9 25 53 0.73

15 Austria 13 0.788 31.0 27 49 0.46

16 United Kingdom 14 0.783 19.3 34 47 0.66

17 Belgium 7 0.850 35.7 32 49 0.55

18 Luxembourg .. .. 23.3 .. .. 0.51

19 New Zealand 11 0.811 32.2 36 53 0.70

20 Italy 21 0.693 16.1 32 46 0.47

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. 27 40 0.56

22 Germany 9 0.831 30.6 37 50 0.58

23 Israel 28 0.660 14.2 26 54 0.65

24 Greece 37 0.622 13.0 26 49 0.55

25 Singapore 16 0.761 24.5 26 44 0.51

26 Korea (Republic of) 64 0.510 13.4 8 39 0.40

27 Slovenia 41 0.611 10.8 33 57 0.61

28 Cyprus 48 0.580 14.3 15 45 0.60

29 Portugal 22 0.692 21.3 34 50 0.59

e

30 Brunei Darussalam .. .. .. 26 44 0.42

31 Barbados 30 0.649 17.6 43 52 0.63

32 Czech Republic 34 0.627 15.3 30 52 0.51

f

33 Kuwait .. .. 3.1 .. .. 0.35

34 Malta 63 0.514 9.2 20 38 0.50

35 Qatar 84 0.374 0.0 8 24 0.24

36 Hungary 50 0.569 10.4 35 62 0.64

37 Poland 39 0.614 19.1 33 61 0.60

38 Argentina 17 0.728 36.8 33 53 0.54

39 United Arab Emirates 29 0.652 22.5 8 25 0.25

d d

40 Chile 60 0.519 12.7 25 52 0.40

41 Bahrain .. .. 13.8 .. .. 0.35

42 Slovakia 33 0.630 19.3 31 58 0.58

43 Lithuania 25 0.669 24.8 43 67 0.69

44 Estonia 31 0.637 21.8 37 70 0.62

45 Latvia 38 0.619 19.0 42 65 0.65

umano 46 Uruguay 59 0.525 10.8 40 54 0.56

47 Croatia 40 0.612 21.7 24 50 0.67

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 24 0.680 38.6 25 40 0.53

49 Bahamas 20 0.696 22.2 46 60 0.70

50 Seychelles .. .. 23.5 .. .. ..

di d d

51 Cuba 26 0.661 36.0 34 62 0.45

Indicatori 52 Mexico 46 0.589 21.5 29 42 0.39

53 Bulgaria 42 0.606 22.1 34 60 0.65

388 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 29

tabella

MDG Female legislators, Female professional

Misura dell’empowerment di genere Seats in parliament senior officials and technical Ratio of estimated

(GEM) a b b

workers

held by women and managers female to male

c

Rank Value earned income

HDI rank (% of total) (% of total) (% of total)

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. 0.0 .. .. ..

55 Tonga .. .. 3.3 .. .. 0.48

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya .. .. 7.7 .. .. 0.30

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. 13.9 45 55 ..

58 Oman 80 0.391 7.8 9 33 0.19

59 Trinidad and Tobago 23 0.685 25.4 43 53 0.46

60 Romania 68 0.497 10.7 29 57 0.69

61 Saudi Arabia 92 0.254 0.0 31 6 0.16

62 Panama 49 0.574 16.7 43 51 0.57

63 Malaysia 65 0.504 13.1 23 40 0.36

64 Belarus .. .. 29.8 .. .. 0.63

65 Mauritius 51 0.562 17.1 25 43 0.41

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. .. 14.0 .. .. ..

67 Russian Federation 71 0.489 8.0 39 65 0.62

68 Albania .. .. 7.1 .. .. 0.54

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 35 0.625 28.3 29 52 0.48

70 Brazil 70 0.490 9.3 34 52 0.58

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

71 Dominica .. .. 12.9 48 55 ..

g

72 Saint Lucia 66 0.502 10.3 55 53 0.51

73 Kazakhstan 74 0.469 8.6 38 67 0.63

d d

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 56 0.542 18.6 27 61 0.53

d d

75 Colombia 69 0.496 9.7 38 50 0.63

76 Ukraine 75 0.462 8.7 38 64 0.55

77 Samoa .. .. 6.1 .. .. 0.38

78 Thailand 73 0.472 8.7 29 54 0.62

79 Dominican Republic 53 0.559 17.1 32 51 0.43

80 Belize 62 0.517 11.9 41 50 0.40

81 China 57 0.534 20.3 17 52 0.64

82 Grenada .. .. 28.6 .. .. ..

83 Armenia .. .. 9.2 .. .. 0.63

84 Turkey 90 0.298 4.4 7 32 0.35

85 Suriname .. .. 25.5 .. .. 0.40

86 Jordan .. .. 7.9 .. .. 0.31

87 Peru 32 0.636 29.2 34 46 0.55

88 Lebanon .. .. 4.7 .. .. 0.31

89 Ecuador 43 0.600 25.0 35 48 0.56

90 Philippines 45 0.590 22.1 58 61 0.61

91 Tunisia .. .. 19.3 .. .. 0.29

h

92 Fiji .. .. .. .. .. 0.48

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 18.2 .. .. 0.51

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 87 0.347 4.1 16 34 0.39

d

95 Paraguay 78 0.428 9.6 23 54 0.34

96 Georgia 79 0.414 9.4 26 62 0.33

97 Guyana .. .. 29.0 .. .. 0.41

98 Azerbaijan .. .. 11.3 .. .. 0.65 Indicatori

99 Sri Lanka 85 0.369 4.9 21 46 0.41

100 Maldives 76 0.437 12.0 15 40 0.50

101 Jamaica .. .. 13.6 .. .. 0.56 di

102 Cape Verde .. .. 15.3 .. .. 0.35 sviluppo

103 El Salvador 58 0.529 16.7 33 45 0.40

104 Algeria .. .. 6.2 .. 32 0.34 umano

105 Viet Nam 52 0.561 25.8 22 51 0.70

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories .. .. .. 11 35 .. 389

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

29

tabella dell’empowerment

Misura di genere

MDG Female legislators, Female professional

Misura dell’empowerment di genere Seats in parliament senior officials and technical Ratio of estimated

(GEM) a b b

workers

held by women and managers female to male

c

Rank Value earned income

HDI rank (% of total) (% of total) (% of total)

107 Indonesia .. .. 11.3 .. .. 0.46

d

108 Syrian Arab Republic .. .. 12.0 .. 40 0.34

109 Turkmenistan .. .. 16.0 .. .. 0.64

110 Nicaragua .. .. 18.5 .. .. 0.32

111 Moldova 55 0.547 21.8 39 66 0.63

112 Egypt 91 0.263 3.8 9 30 0.23

113 Uzbekistan .. .. 16.4 .. .. 0.60

114 Mongolia 77 0.429 6.6 50 54 0.50

d d

115 Honduras 47 0.589 23.4 41 52 0.46

116 Kyrgyzstan 89 0.302 0.0 25 57 0.58

117 Bolivia 67 0.500 14.6 36 40 0.57

118 Guatemala .. .. 8.2 .. .. 0.32

119 Gabon .. .. 13.7 .. .. 0.57

120 Vanuatu .. .. 3.8 .. .. 0.68

i

121 South Africa .. .. 32.8 .. .. 0.45

122 Tajikistan .. .. 19.6 .. .. 0.57

123 Sao Tome and Principe .. .. 7.3 .. .. 0.30

124 Botswana 61 0.518 11.1 33 51 0.31

125 Namibia 36 0.623 26.9 30 55 0.57

126 Morocco 88 0.325 6.4 12 35 0.25

127 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 18.0 .. .. 0.43

128 India .. .. 9.0 .. .. 0.31

129 Solomon Islands .. .. 0.0 .. .. 0.50

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic .. .. 25.2 .. .. 0.51

131 Cambodia 83 0.377 11.4 14 33 0.74

j

132 Myanmar .. .. .. .. .. ..

133 Bhutan .. .. 2.7 .. .. ..

134 Comoros .. .. 3.0 .. .. 0.51

135 Ghana .. .. 10.9 .. .. 0.71

136 Pakistan 82 0.377 20.4 2 26 0.29

137 Mauritania .. .. 17.6 .. .. 0.50

138 Lesotho .. .. 25.0 .. .. 0.52

139 Congo .. .. 10.1 .. .. 0.50

k

140 Bangladesh 81 0.379 15.1 23 12 0.46

141 Swaziland .. .. 16.8 .. .. 0.29

l

142 Nepal 86 0.351 17.3 8 19 0.50

143 Madagascar .. .. 8.4 .. .. 0.70

144 Cameroon .. .. 8.9 .. .. 0.49

145 Papua New Guinea .. .. 0.9 .. .. 0.72

146 Haiti .. .. 6.3 .. .. 0.52

147 Sudan .. .. 16.4 .. .. 0.25

148 Kenya .. .. 7.3 .. .. 0.83

149 Djibouti .. .. 10.8 .. .. 0.48

m

150 Timor-Leste .. .. 25.3 .. .. ..

151 Zimbabwe .. .. 22.2 .. .. 0.58

152 Togo .. .. 8.6 .. .. 0.43

umano 153 Yemen 93 0.129 0.7 4 15 0.30

154 Uganda .. .. 29.8 .. .. 0.70

sviluppo 155 Gambia .. .. 9.4 .. .. 0.53

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal .. .. 19.2 .. .. 0.54

di 157 Eritrea .. .. 22.0 .. .. 0.45

Indicatori 158 Nigeria .. .. .. .. .. 0.41

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 44 0.597 30.4 49 32 0.73

390 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 29

tabella

MDG Female legislators, Female professional

Misura dell’empowerment di genere Seats in parliament senior officials and technical Ratio of estimated

(GEM) a b b

workers

held by women and managers female to male

c

Rank Value earned income

HDI rank (% of total) (% of total) (% of total)

160 Guinea .. .. 19.3 .. .. 0.69

161 Rwanda .. .. 45.3 .. .. 0.74

162 Angola .. .. 15.0 .. .. 0.62

163 Benin .. .. 8.4 .. .. 0.47

164 Malawi .. .. 13.6 .. .. 0.73

165 Zambia .. .. 14.6 .. .. 0.55

166 Côte d’Ivoire .. .. 8.5 .. .. 0.32

167 Burundi .. .. 31.7 .. .. 0.77

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) .. .. 7.7 .. .. 0.52

169 Ethiopia 72 0.477 21.4 20 30 0.60

170 Chad .. .. 6.5 .. .. 0.65

171 Central African Republic .. .. 10.5 .. .. 0.61

172 Mozambique .. .. 34.8 .. .. 0.81

173 Mali .. .. 10.2 .. .. 0.68

174 Niger .. .. 12.4 .. .. 0.57

175 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 14.0 .. .. 0.51

176 Burkina Faso .. .. 11.7 .. .. 0.66

177 Sierra Leone .. .. 14.5 .. .. 0.45

NOTES SOURCES

d. j.

Data follow the ISCO-1968 classification. The parliament elected in 1990 has never been Column 1:

a. e.

Data are as of 31 May 2007, unless otherwise determined on the basis of GEM values

Brunei Darussalam does not currently have a convened nor authorized to sit, and many of its

specified. Where there are lower and upper in column 2.

parliament. members were detained or forced into exile. Column 2:

f. k.

houses, data refer to the weighted average of calculated on the basis of data in columns

No woman candidate was elected in the 2006 In 2004, the number of seats in parliament was

women’s shares of seats in both houses. 3–6; see Technical note 1 for details.

elections. One woman was appointed to the raised from 300 to 345, with the additional 45 Column 3:

b. Data refer to the most recent year available calculated on the basis of data on

16-member cabinet sworn in July 2006. A seats reserved for women. These reserved seats

between 1994 and 2005. Estimates for countries parliamentary seats from IPU 2007c.

new cabinet sworn in March 2007 included were filled in September and October 2005, being Columns 4 and 5:

that have implemented the International Standard calculated on the basis of

two women. As cabinet ministers also sit in allocated to political parties in proportion to their

Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) are not occupational data from ILO 2007b.

parliament, there are two women out of a total of share of the national vote received in the 2001 Column 6:

strictly comparable with those for countries using calculated on the basis of data in columns

65 members. election.

g. I.

the previous classification (ISCO-1968). 9 and 10 of Table 28.

No woman candidate was elected in the 2006 A transitional assembly was established in

c. Calculated on the basis of data in columns 9 and elections. However one woman was appointed January 2007. Elections for the constituent

10 in Table 27. Estimates are based on data Speaker of the House and therefore became a assembly will be held in 2007.

m.

for the most recent year available between 1996 member of the House. The purpose of the elections held on 30 August

h.

and 2005. Following the methodology Parliament has been dissolved or suspended for 2001 was to elect the members of the constituent

implemented in the calculation of the GDI, the an indefinite period. assembly of Timor-Leste. This body became the

i.

income component of the GEM has been scaled The figures on the distribution of seats do national parliament on 20 May 2002, the date on

downward for countries whose income exceeds not include the 36 special rotating delegates which the country became independent, without

the maximum goalpost GDP per capita value of appointed on an ad hoc basis. All percentages any new elections.

40,000 (PPP US$). For more details, see given are therefore calculated on the basis of the

Technical note 1. 54 permanent seats.

GEM ranks for 93 countries

1 Norway 33 Slovakia 49 Panama 64 Korea (Republic of)

18 France 81 Bangladesh

2 Sweden 34 Czech Republic 50 Hungary 65 Malaysia

19 Ireland 82 Pakistan

3 Finland 35 Macedonia (TFYR) 51 Mauritius 66 Saint Lucia

20 Bahamas 83 Cambodia

4 Denmark 36 Namibia 52 Viet Nam 67 Bolivia

21 Italy 84 Qatar

5 Iceland 37 Greece 53 Dominican Republic 68 Romania

22 Portugal 85 Sri Lanka

6 Netherlands 38 Latvia 54 Japan 69 Colombia

23 Trinidad and 86 Nepal

Tobago

7 Belgium 39 Poland 55 Moldova 70 Brazil 87 Iran (Islamic

Republic of)

24 Costa Rica

8 Australia 40 Croatia 56 Venezuela 71 Russian Federation

(Bolivarian 88 Morocco

25 Lithuania

9 Germany 41 Slovenia 72 Ethiopia Indicatori

Republic of) 89 Kyrgyzstan

26 Cuba

10 Canada 42 Bulgaria 73 Thailand

57 China 90 Turkey

27 Switzerland

11 New Zealand 43 Ecuador 74 Kazakhstan

58 El Salvador 91 Egypt

28 Israel

12 Spain 44 Tanzania (United 75 Ukraine

Republic of) 59 Uruguay 92 Saudi Arabia

29 United Arab

13 Austria 76 Maldives di

sviluppo

Emirates 45 Philippines 60 Chile 93 Yemen

14 United Kingdom 77 Mongolia

30 Barbados 46 Mexico 61 Botswana

15 United States 78 Paraguay

31 Estonia 47 Honduras 62 Belize

16 Singapore 79 Georgia umano

32 Peru 48 Cyprus 63 Malta

17 Argentina 80 Oman 391

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

30

tabella …e raggiungendo l’uguaglianza tra donne e uomini…

Disuguaglianza di genere nell’istruzione

MDG MDG MDG

MDG Net primary Gross primary Gross secondary Gross tertiary

a a b, c b, d b, d b, d

enrolment enrolment enrolment enrolment

Youth literacy

Adult literacy Female

Female Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of

rate rate Female Female Female Female

female female female female female female

rate ratio ratio ratio

rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to

(% aged 15 (% aged

male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate

and older) 15–24) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005

HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT e e e e e e e e

1 Iceland .. .. .. .. 97 0.97 98 0.97 109 1.03 93 1.85

2 Norway .. .. .. .. 98 1.00 98 1.00 114 1.01 97 1.54

3 Australia .. .. .. .. 97 1.00 104 0.99 144 0.95 80 1.25

e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f

4 Canada .. .. .. .. .. .. 99 1.00 116 0.98 72 1.36

5 Ireland .. .. .. .. 96 1.00 106 0.99 118 1.09 67 1.27

6 Sweden .. .. .. .. 96 1.00 97 1.00 103 1.00 100 1.55

7 Switzerland .. .. .. .. 93 0.99 101 0.99 91 0.93 43 0.84

8 Japan .. .. .. .. 100 1.00 100 1.00 102 1.00 52 0.89

9 Netherlands .. .. .. .. 98 0.99 106 0.98 117 0.98 63 1.08

f f

10 France .. .. .. .. 99 1.00 110 0.99 116 1.00 64 1.29

11 Finland .. .. .. .. 98 1.00 99 0.99 113 1.05 101 1.21

12 United States .. .. .. .. 93 1.01 99 0.99 95 1.02 97 1.40

13 Spain .. .. .. .. 99 0.99 105 0.98 127 1.05 74 1.22

14 Denmark .. .. .. .. 96 1.01 99 1.00 126 1.03 94 1.39

e e

15 Austria .. .. .. .. 98 1.02 106 1.00 100 0.95 55 1.20

16 United Kingdom .. .. .. .. 99 1.00 107 1.00 107 1.03 70 1.39

17 Belgium .. .. .. .. 99 1.00 103 0.99 108 0.97 70 1.24

e,f e,f

18 Luxembourg .. .. .. .. 95 1.01 100 1.00 97 1.06 13 1.18

19 New Zealand .. .. .. .. 99 1.00 102 1.00 127 1.07 99 1.50

20 Italy 98.0 0.99 99.8 1.00 98 0.99 102 0.99 99 0.99 76 1.36

e e

21 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. .. 90 0.94 101 0.94 85 0.96 31 0.95

e e

22 Germany .. .. .. .. 96 1.01 101 1.00 99 0.98 .. ..

23 Israel .. .. .. .. 98 1.01 110 1.01 92 0.99 66 1.34

24 Greece 94.2 0.96 99.0 1.00 99 1.00 101 1.00 101 0.98 95 1.14

25 Singapore 88.6 0.92 99.6 1.00 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

26 Korea (Republic of) .. .. .. .. 99 1.00 104 0.99 93 1.00 69 0.62

g g g g

27 Slovenia 99.6 1.00 99.9 1.00 98 0.99 100 0.99 99 1.00 96 1.43

e e e e e e e e

28 Cyprus 95.1 0.96 99.8 1.00 99 1.00 101 1.00 97 1.02 35 1.13

g g g g

29 Portugal 92.0 0.96 99.6 1.00 98 1.00 112 0.96 104 1.10 64 1.30

30 Brunei Darussalam 90.2 0.95 98.9 1.00 94 1.01 107 1.00 98 1.04 20 2.02

f f

31 Barbados .. .. .. .. 98 1.00 108 1.00 113 1.00 54 2.47

e e

32 Czech Republic .. .. .. .. 93 1.02 100 0.98 97 1.02 52 1.16

33 Kuwait 91.0 0.96 99.8 1.00 86 0.99 97 0.98 98 1.06 29 2.66

34 Malta 89.2 1.03 97.8 1.04 84 0.95 95 0.94 101 1.03 37 1.36

35 Qatar 88.6 0.99 97.5 1.03 96 1.00 106 0.99 99 0.98 33 3.45

36 Hungary .. .. .. .. 88 0.98 97 0.98 96 0.99 78 1.46

37 Poland .. .. .. .. 97 1.00 98 0.99 99 0.99 74 1.41

f f f f f f f f

38 Argentina 97.2 1.00 99.1 1.00 98 0.99 112 0.99 89 1.07 76 1.41

g g g g e,f e,f

39 United Arab Emirates 87.8 0.99 95.5 0.98 70 0.97 82 0.97 66 1.05 39 3.24

e e

40 Chile 95.6 1.00 99.2 1.00 89 0.98 101 0.96 91 1.01 47 0.96

41 Bahrain 83.6 0.94 97.3 1.00 97 1.00 104 0.99 102 1.06 50 2.23

e e

42 Slovakia .. .. .. .. 92 1.01 98 0.99 95 1.01 46 1.29

43 Lithuania 99.6 1.00 99.7 1.00 89 1.00 95 1.00 96 0.99 93 1.57

44 Estonia 99.8 1.00 99.8 1.00 95 0.99 99 0.97 101 1.01 82 1.66

e e

45 Latvia 99.7 1.00 99.8 1.00 89 1.03 90 0.96 98 1.01 96 1.79

umano e,f e,f f f f f e,f e,f

46 Uruguay 97.3 1.01 99.0 1.01 93 1.01 108 0.98 113 1.16 55 2.03

f f f f f f f f

47 Croatia 97.1 0.98 99.7 1.00 87 0.99 94 0.99 89 1.02 42 1.19

e e

sviluppo 48 Costa Rica 95.1 1.00 98.0 1.01 .. .. 109 0.99 82 1.06 28 1.26

49 Bahamas .. .. .. .. 92 1.03 101 1.00 91 1.00 .. ..

e,f e,f e e e e

50 Seychelles 92.3 1.01 99.4 1.01 100 1.01 116 1.01 105 0.99 .. ..

di e e

51 Cuba 99.8 1.00 100.0 1.00 96 0.98 99 0.95 94 1.00 78 1.72

Indicatori 52 Mexico 90.2 0.97 97.6 1.00 98 1.00 108 0.98 83 1.07 24 0.99

53 Bulgaria 97.7 0.99 98.1 1.00 93 0.99 101 0.99 101 0.95 47 1.14

392 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 30

tabella

MDG MDG MDG

MDG Net primary Gross primary Gross secondary Gross tertiary

a a b, c b, d b, d b, d

enrolment enrolment enrolment enrolment

Youth literacy

Adult literacy Female

Female Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of

rate rate Female Female Female Female

female female female female female female

rate ratio ratio ratio

rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to

(% aged 15 (% aged

male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate

and older) 15–24) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005

e e e e e e

54 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 96 1.06 102 1.06 93 0.98 .. ..

e e e e e,f e,f e,f e,f

55 Tonga 99.0 1.00 99.4 1.00 93 0.96 112 0.95 102 1.08 8 1.67

g g g g e e e,f e,f

56 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 74.8 0.81 96.5 0.97 .. .. 106 0.98 107 1.19 59 1.09

57 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

58 Oman 73.5 0.85 96.7 0.99 76 1.01 85 1.00 85 0.96 19 1.09

g g g g e e e e e e e e

59 Trinidad and Tobago 97.8 0.99 99.5 1.00 90 1.00 99 0.97 82 1.04 14 1.27

60 Romania 96.3 0.98 97.8 1.00 92 0.99 106 0.99 86 1.01 50 1.26

61 Saudi Arabia 76.3 0.87 94.7 0.98 79 1.03 91 1.00 86 0.96 34 1.47

62 Panama 91.2 0.99 95.6 0.99 98 0.99 109 0.97 73 1.07 55 1.63

f f f f f f f f

63 Malaysia 85.4 0.93 97.3 1.00 95 1.00 96 1.00 81 1.14 36 1.31

e e

64 Belarus 99.4 1.00 99.8 1.00 88 0.97 100 0.97 96 1.01 72 1.37

e e

65 Mauritius 80.5 0.91 95.4 1.02 96 1.02 102 1.00 88 0.99 19 1.26

66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 94.4 0.95 99.8 1.00 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

e e e e

67 Russian Federation 99.2 1.00 99.8 1.00 93 1.01 128 1.00 91 0.99 82 1.36

f f f f f f f f

68 Albania 98.3 0.99 99.5 1.00 94 1.00 105 0.99 77 0.96 23 1.57

69 Macedonia (TFYR) 94.1 0.96 98.5 0.99 92 1.00 98 1.00 83 0.98 35 1.38

f f f f f f f f

70 Brazil 88.8 1.00 97.9 1.02 95 1.00 135 0.93 111 1.10 27 1.32

MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT e e e e e e

71 Dominica .. .. .. .. 85 1.02 92 0.99 106 0.97 .. ..

72 Saint Lucia .. .. .. .. 96 0.98 107 0.97 85 1.21 20 2.80

73 Kazakhstan 99.3 1.00 99.9 1.00 90 0.98 108 0.99 97 0.97 62 1.42

e,f e,f

74 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 92.7 0.99 98.1 1.02 92 1.01 104 0.98 79 1.13 41 1.08

75 Colombia 92.9 1.00 98.4 1.01 87 1.00 111 0.98 82 1.11 31 1.09

e e

76 Ukraine 99.2 0.99 99.8 1.00 83 1.00 107 1.00 85 0.92 75 1.20

g g g g e,f e,f e e e e e,f e,f

77 Samoa 98.3 0.99 99.4 1.00 91 1.00 100 1.00 85 1.12 7 0.93

h h h h h h h h

78 Thailand 90.5 0.95 97.8 1.00 86 0.96 94 0.96 72 1.05 44 1.06

e,f e,f

79 Dominican Republic 87.2 1.00 95.4 1.03 88 1.01 110 0.95 78 1.21 41 1.64

e e f f

80 Belize .. .. .. .. 96 1.03 125 0.96 85 1.02 4 2.43

e e e e

81 China 86.5 0.91 98.5 0.99 .. .. 112 0.99 74 1.00 20 0.95

e e e e e e

82 Grenada .. .. .. .. 83 0.99 91 0.96 102 1.03 .. ..

83 Armenia 99.2 0.99 99.9 1.00 81 1.05 96 1.04 89 1.03 31 1.22

e e e e

84 Turkey 79.6 0.84 93.3 0.95 87 0.95 91 0.95 68 0.82 26 0.74

f f

85 Suriname 87.2 0.95 94.1 0.98 96 1.04 120 1.00 100 1.33 15 1.62

86 Jordan 87.0 0.91 99.0 1.00 90 1.02 96 1.01 88 1.02 40 1.06

e e

87 Peru 82.5 0.88 96.3 0.98 97 1.00 112 1.00 92 1.01 34 1.03

88 Lebanon .. .. .. .. 92 0.99 105 0.97 93 1.10 54 1.15

e,f e,f e e e e

89 Ecuador 89.7 0.97 96.5 1.00 98 1.01 117 1.00 61 1.00 .. ..

90 Philippines 93.6 1.02 96.6 1.03 95 1.02 112 0.99 90 1.12 31 1.23

91 Tunisia 65.3 0.78 92.2 0.96 97 1.01 108 0.97 88 1.09 35 1.40

e e e e e e e e

92 Fiji .. .. .. .. 96 0.99 105 0.98 91 1.07 17 1.20

93 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. .. .. 88 0.95 105 0.90 83 1.24 .. ..

94 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 76.8 0.87 96.7 0.99 100 1.10 122 1.22 78 0.94 25 1.09

g g g g f f f f f f e,f e,f

95 Paraguay 92.7 0.98 96.1 1.00 88 1.00 103 0.97 64 1.02 28 1.34

f f

96 Georgia .. .. .. .. 92 0.99 94 1.01 83 1.01 47 1.04

97 Guyana .. .. .. .. .. .. 131 0.98 103 1.02 13 2.13

98 Azerbaijan 98.2 0.99 99.9 1.00 84 0.98 95 0.98 81 0.96 14 0.90 Indicatori

e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f

99 Sri Lanka 89.1 0.97 96.1 1.01 98 1.00 101 0.99 83 1.00 .. ..

e,f e,f e,f e,f

100 Maldives 96.4 1.00 98.3 1.00 79 1.00 93 0.98 78 1.14 (.) 2.37

e e e,f e,f

101 Jamaica 85.9 1.16 .. .. 90 1.00 94 1.00 89 1.03 26 2.29 di

g g g g

102 Cape Verde 75.5 0.86 96.7 1.01 89 0.98 105 0.95 70 1.07 7 1.04 sviluppo

g g g g

103 El Salvador 79.2 0.96 90.3 1.04 93 1.00 111 0.96 64 1.03 21 1.23

e e

104 Algeria 60.1 0.76 86.1 0.92 95 0.98 107 0.93 86 1.07 24 1.37 umano

105 Viet Nam 86.9 0.93 93.6 0.99 .. .. 91 0.94 75 0.97 13 0.71

e e

106 Occupied Palestinian Territories 88.0 0.91 98.8 1.00 80 0.99 88 0.99 102 1.07 39 1.04 393

r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8

30

tabella Disuguaglianza di genere nell’istruzione

MDG MDG MDG

MDG Net primary Gross primary Gross secondary Gross tertiary

a a b, c b, d b, d b, d

enrolment enrolment enrolment enrolment

Youth literacy

Adult literacy Female

Female Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of

rate rate Female Female Female Female

female female female female female female

rate ratio ratio ratio

rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to

(% aged 15 (% aged

male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate

and older) 15–24) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005

e e e e e e e e

107 Indonesia 86.8 0.92 98.5 1.00 94 0.96 115 0.96 63 0.99 15 0.79

108 Syrian Arab Republic 73.6 0.84 90.2 0.95 .. .. 121 0.95 65 0.94 .. ..

109 Turkmenistan 98.3 0.99 99.8 1.00 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

e,f e,f

110 Nicaragua 76.6 1.00 88.8 1.06 86 0.98 110 0.97 71 1.15 19 1.11

g g g g e e e e e e e e

111 Moldova 98.6 0.99 99.7 1.00 86 0.99 92 0.99 83 1.03 41 1.48

e e

112 Egypt 59.4 0.71 78.9 0.88 91 0.95 97 0.94 82 0.92 .. ..

e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f

113 Uzbekistan .. .. .. .. .. .. 99 0.99 93 0.97 14 0.80

114 Mongolia 97.5 1.00 98.4 1.01 85 1.03 94 1.02 98 1.13 54 1.62

e e e e e e e,f e,f

115 Honduras 80.2 1.01 90.9 1.05 92 1.02 113 1.00 73 1.24 20 1.46

116 Kyrgyzstan 98.1 0.99 99.7 1.00 86 0.99 97 0.99 87 1.01 46 1.25

e,f e,f e,f e,f f f

117 Bolivia 80.7 0.87 96.1 0.98 96 1.01 113 1.00 87 0.97 .. ..

e,f e,f

118 Guatemala 63.3 0.84 78.4 0.91 92 0.95 109 0.92 49 0.91 8 0.72

g g g g e,f e,f e,f e,f

119 Gabon 79.7 0.90 95.1 0.98 .. .. 129 0.99 42 0.86 .. ..

e e e e f f e,f e,f

120 Vanuatu .. .. .. .. 93 0.98 116 0.97 38 0.86 4 0.58

f f f f f f

121 South Africa 80.9 0.96 94.3 1.01 87 1.00 102 0.96 97 1.07 17 1.22

122 Tajikistan 99.2 1.00 99.8 1.00 96 0.96 99 0.96 74 0.83 9 0.35

123 Sao Tome and Principe 77.9 0.85 94.9 0.99 96 0.99 132 0.98 46 1.08 .. ..

e e e e

124 Botswana 81.8 1.02 95.6 1.04 84 1.00 105 0.98 75 1.05 5 1.00

f f

125 Namibia 83.5 0.96 93.5 1.03 74 1.07 100 1.01 60 1.15 7 1.15

e e

126 Morocco 39.6 0.60 60.5 0.75 83 0.94 99 0.89 46 0.85 10 0.85

e,f e,f f f

127 Equatorial Guinea 80.5 0.86 94.9 1.00 .. .. 111 0.95 22 0.57 2 0.43

e e e e

128 India 47.8 0.65 67.7 0.80 85 0.93 116 0.94 50 0.80 9 0.70

129 Solomon Islands .. .. .. .. .. .. 94 0.95 27 0.83 .. ..

130 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 60.9 0.79 74.7 0.90 81 0.95 108 0.88 40 0.76 7 0.72

e,f e,f

131 Cambodia 64.1 0.76 78.9 0.90 98 0.98 129 0.92 24 0.69 2 0.46

132 Myanmar 86.4 0.92 93.4 0.98 91 1.02 101 1.02 40 0.99 .. ..

133 Bhutan .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

e e e e e,f e,f

134 Comoros .. .. .. .. .. .. 80 0.88 30 0.76 2 0.77

e e

135 Ghana 49.8 0.75 65.5 0.86 65 0.99 87 0.96 40 0.85 4 0.56

136 Pakistan 35.4 0.55 53.1 0.69 59 0.76 75 0.76 23 0.74 4 0.88

137 Mauritania 43.4 0.73 55.5 0.82 72 1.00 94 1.01 19 0.85 2 0.33

138 Lesotho 90.3 1.23 .. .. 89 1.06 131 1.00 43 1.26 4 1.27

g g g g e,f e,f e,f e,f

139 Congo 79.0 0.87 96.5 0.98 48 1.20 84 0.92 35 0.84 1 0.19

e,f e,f f f f f

140 Bangladesh 40.8 0.76 60.3 0.90 96 1.03 111 1.03 48 1.03 4 0.53

e e e e e e

141 Swaziland 78.3 0.97 89.8 1.03 80 1.01 104 0.93 44 0.96 5 1.06

e,f e,f e e f f

142 Nepal 34.9 0.56 60.1 0.75 74 0.87 108 0.91 42 0.86 3 0.40

143 Madagascar 65.3 0.85 68.2 0.94 92 1.00 136 0.96 .. .. 2 0.89

e e e e e e

144 Cameroon 59.8 0.78 .. .. .. .. 107 0.85 39 0.80 5 0.66

e,f e,f e,f e,f

145 Papua New Guinea 50.9 0.80 64.1 0.93 .. .. 70 0.88 23 0.79 .. ..

146 Haiti .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

147 Sudan 51.8 0.73 71.4 0.84 .. .. 56 0.87 33 0.94 .. ..

e e f f

148 Kenya 70.2 0.90 80.7 1.01 79 1.01 110 0.96 48 0.95 2 0.60

149 Djibouti .. .. .. .. 30 0.81 36 0.82 19 0.66 2 0.73

e,f e,f

150 Timor-Leste .. .. .. .. .. .. 145 0.92 52 1.00 12 1.48

g g g g f f f f f f e,f e,f

151 Zimbabwe 86.2 0.93 97.9 1.00 82 1.01 95 0.98 35 0.91 3 0.63

e e e,f e,f

152 Togo 38.5 0.56 63.6 0.76 72 0.86 92 0.85 27 0.51 1 0.20

umano g g g g e,f e,f

153 Yemen 34.7 0.47 58.9 0.65 63 0.73 75 0.74 31 0.49 5 0.37

e e f f

154 Uganda 57.7 0.75 71.2 0.86 .. .. 119 1.00 17 0.81 3 0.62

e,f e,f f f f f f f

sviluppo 155 Gambia .. .. .. .. 77 0.99 84 1.06 42 0.82 (.) 0.23

LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

156 Senegal 29.2 0.57 41.0 0.70 67 0.97 77 0.97 18 0.75 .. ..

di f f

157 Eritrea .. .. .. .. 43 0.86 57 0.81 23 0.59 (.) 0.15

Indicatori g g g g e e f f

158 Nigeria 60.1 0.77 81.3 0.94 64 0.88 95 0.86 31 0.84 7 0.55

e e

159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 62.2 0.80 76.2 0.94 91 0.98 104 0.96 .. .. 1 0.48

394 r a p p o r t o s u l l o s v i l u p p o u m a n o 2 0 0 7- 2 0 0 8 30

tabella

MDG MDG MDG

MDG Net primary Gross primary Gross secondary Gross tertiary

a a b, c b, d b, d b, d

enrolment enrolment enrolment enrolment

Youth literacy

Adult literacy Female

Female Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of Ratio of

rate rate Female Female Female Female

female female female female female female

rate ratio ratio ratio

rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to rate to

(% aged 15 (% aged

male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate male rate

and older) 15–24) (%) (%) (%) (%)

HDI rank 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 1995–2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005

e e

160 Guinea 18.1 0.43 33.7 0.57 61 0.87 74 0.84 21 0.53 1 0.24

e e e e e e e e

161 Rwanda 59.8 0.84 76.9 0.98 75 1.04 121 1.02 13 0.89 2 0.62

f f e,f e,f

162 Angola 54.2 0.65 63.2 0.75 .. .. .. .. 15 0.78 1 0.66

e e e,f e,f

163 Benin 23.3 0.49 33.2 0.56 70 0.81 85 0.80 23 0.57 1 0.25

f f

164 Malawi 54.0 0.72 70.7 0.86 97 1.05 124 1.02 25 0.81 (.) 0.54

e e

165 Zambia 59.8 0.78 66.2 0.91 89 1.00 108 0.95 25 0.82 .. ..

e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f

166 Côte d’Ivoire 38.6 0.63 52.1 0.74 50 0.80 63 0.79 18 0.55 .. ..

e e e e

167 Burundi 52.2 0.78 70.4 0.92 58 0.91 78 0.86 11 0.74 1 0.38

e,f e,f e,f e,f

168 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 54.1 0.67 63.1 0.81 .. .. 54 0.78 16 0.58 .. ..

169 Ethiopia 22.8 0.46 38.5 0.62 59 0.92 86 0.86 24 0.65 1 0.32

e e e e

170 Chad 12.8 0.31 23.2 0.42 .. .. 62 0.67 8 0.33 (.) 0.14

e e

171 Central African Republic 33.5 0.52 46.9 0.67 .. .. 44 0.66 .. .. .. ..

172 Mozambique 25.0 0.46 36.6 0.61 74 0.91 94 0.85 11 0.69 1 0.49

e e e e

173 Mali 15.9 0.49 16.9 0.52 45 0.81 59 0.80 18 0.62 2 0.47

174 Niger 15.1 0.35 23.2 0.44 33 0.73 39 0.73 7 0.68 1 0.45

e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f e,f

175 Guinea-Bissau .. .. .. .. 37 0.71 56 0.67 13 0.54 (.) 0.18

176 Burkina Faso 16.6 0.53 26.5 0.66 40 0.79 51 0.80 12 0.70 1 0.45

f f e,f e,f e,f e,f

177 Sierra Leone 24.2 0.52 37.4 0.63 .. .. 65 0.71 22 0.71 1 0.40

i i i i i i i i

Developing countries 69.9 0.91 81.4 0.91 83 0.95 104 0.94 58 0.93 16 0.91

i i i i i i i i

Least developed countries 44.3 0.80 58.0 0.80 70 0.92 90 0.89 28 0.81 3 0.63

i i i i i i i i

Arab States 59.4 0.88 79.5 0.88 77 0.92 88 0.90 65 0.92 21 1.01

i i i i i i i i

East Asia and the Pacific 86.7 0.99 97.5 0.99 93 0.99 110 0.98 72 1.00 21 0.93

i i i i i i i i

Latin America and the Caribbean 89.7 1.01 97.0 1.01 95 1.00 115 0.96 91 1.08 32 1.17

i i i i i i i i

South Asia 47.4 0.81 66.6 0.81 82 0.92 109 0.93 48 0.83 9 0.74

i i i i i i i i

Sub-Saharan Africa 51.2 0.84 65.1 0.84 68 0.93 92 0.89 28 0.79 4 0.62

i i i i i i i i

Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS 98.7 1.00 99.6 1.00 91 1.00 107 0.99 90 0.98 63 1.30

i i i i i i i i

OECD .. .. .. .. 96 1.00 101 0.99 98 1.00 65 1.17

i i i i i i i i

High-income OECD .. .. .. .. 96 1.01 102 0.99 103 1.00 76 1.20

High human development 93.6 1.01 98.4 1.01 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Medium human development 71.2 0.92 83.2 0.92 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Low human development 43.8 0.80 58.9 0.80 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

i i i i i i i i

High income .. .. .. .. 95 1.01 101 0.99 102 1.00 73 1.21

i i i i i i i i

Middle income 86.5 0.99 96.2 0.99 92 0.99 110 0.97 78 1.01 28 1.09

i i i i i i i i

Low income 48.8 0.82 65.8 0.82 76 0.92 99 0.91 41 0.82 7 0.68

i i i i i i i i

World 72.7 0.92 82.5 0.92 85 0.96 104 0.95 64 0.94 25 1.05

NOTES SOURCES

age group for the same level of education. For the Columns 1–4:

a. Data refer to national literacy estimates from UNESCO Institute for

tertiary level, the population used is the five-year

censuses or surveys conducted between 1995 Statistics 2007a.

age group following on from the secondary school Columns 5–12:

and 2005, unless otherwise specified. Due to UNESCO Institute for

leaving age. Gross enrolment ratios in excess

differences in methodology and timeliness of Statistics 2007c.

of 100 indicate that there are pupils or students

underlying data, comparisons across countries outside the theoretical age group who are enrolled

and over time should be made with caution. For in that level of education.

e.

more details, see http://www.uis.unesco.org/. National or UNESCO Institute for

b. Data for some countries may refer to national or Statistics estimate.

f.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates. For Data refer to an earlier year than that specified.

g.

more details, see http://www.uis.unesco.org/. UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimate based on

c. The net enrolment rate is the number of pupils of its Global Age-specific Literacy Projections model,

the theoretical school-age group for a given level April 2007.

h.

of education level who are enrolled in that level, Data refer to the 2006 school year. Indicatori

i.

expressed as a percentage of the total population Data refer to aggregates calculated by UNESCO

in that age group. Institute for Statistics.

d. The gross enrolment ratio is the total number

of pupils or students enrolled in a given level of di

education, regardless of age, expressed as a sviluppo

percentage of the population in the theoretical umano

395

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DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in relazioni internazionali
SSD:
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Demografia dei paesi meno sviluppati e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Roma Tre - Uniroma3 o del prof Nobile Annunziata.

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