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Dispense per il corso di Differenziali Economici e Migrazioni della Prof.ssa Paola Giacomello e del Dott. Paolo Sellari. Trattasi del riassunto dello Human Development
Report 2009
redatto dall'ONU all'interno dello United Nations Development Programme, all'interno del quale è sottolineata... Vedi di più

Esame di Differenziali Economici e Migrazioni docente Prof. P. Giacomello






Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development

Team for the preparation of the

Human Development Report 2009


Jeni Klugman


Led by Francisco R. Rodríguez, comprising Ginette Azcona, Matthew Cummins, Ricardo Fuentes

Nieva, Mamaye Gebretsadik, Wei Ha, Marieke Kleemans, Emmanuel Letouzé, Roshni Menon,

Daniel Ortega, Isabel Medalho Pereira, Mark Purser and Cecilia Ugaz (Deputy Director until

October 2008).


Led by Alison Kennedy, comprising Liliana Carvajal, Amie Gaye, Shreyasi Jha, Papa Seck

and Andrew Thornton.

National HDR and network

Eva Jespersen (Deputy Director HDRO), Mary Ann Mwangi, Paola Pagliani and Timothy Scott.

Outreach and communications

Led by Marisol Sanjines, comprising Wynne Boelt, Jean-Yves Hamel, Melissa Hernandez,

Pedro Manuel Moreno and Yolanda Polo.

Production, translation, budget and operations, administration

Carlotta Aiello (production coordinator), Sarantuya Mend (operations manager),

Fe Juarez-Shanahan and Oscar Bernal.

2 2009



Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development

Human Development Report 2009

Contents of the full report CHAPTER 4


Acknowledgements Impacts at origin and destination

Acronyms 4.1 Impacts at places of origin

OVERVIEW 4.1.1 Household level effects

4.1.2 Community and national level economic effects

4.1.3 Social and cultural effects

CHAPTER 1 4.1.4 Mobility and national development strategies

4.2 Destination place effects

Freedom and movement: how mobility can foster human development 4.2.1 Aggregate economic impacts

1.1 Mobility matters 4.2.2 Labour market impacts

1.2 Choice and context: understanding why people move 4.2.3 Rapid urbanization

1.3 Development, freedom and human mobility 4.2.4 Fiscal impacts

1.4 What we bring to the table 4.2.5 Perceptions and concerns about migration

4.3 Conclusions


People in motion: who moves where, when and why Policies to enhance human development outcomes

2.1 Human movement today 5.1 The core package

2.2 Looking back 5.1.1 Liberalizing and simplifying regular channels

2.2.1 The long-term view 5.1.2 Ensuring basic rights for migrants

2.2.2 The 20th century 5.1.3 Reducing transaction costs associated with movement

2.3 Policies and movement 5.1.4 Improving outcomes for migrants and destination communities

2.4 Looking ahead: the crisis and beyond 5.1.5 Enabling benefits from internal mobility

2.4.1 The economic crisis and the prospects for recovery 5.1.6 Making mobility an integral part of national development strategies

2.4.2 Demographic trends 5.2 The political feasibility of reform

2.4.3 Environmental factors 5.3 Conclusions

2.5 Conclusions




3.1 Incomes and livelihoods

3.1.1 Impacts on gross income Tables

3.1.2 Financial costs of moving Reader’s guide

3.2 Health Technical note

3.3 Education Definition of statistical terms and indicators

3.4 Empowerment, civic rights and participation Country classification

3.5 Understanding outcomes from negative drivers

3.5.1 When insecurity drives movement

3.5.2 Development-induced displacement

3.5.3 Human trafficking

3.6 Overall impacts

3.7 Conclusions 3




Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development

Overcoming barriers:

Human mobility and development

Consider Juan. Born into a poor family in rural Mexico, his family

struggled to pay for his health care and education. At the age of

12, he dropped out of school to help support his family. Six years

later, Juan followed his uncle to Canada in pursuit of higher wages

and better opportunities. Life expectancy in Canada is five years

higher than in Mexico and incomes are three times greater. Juan

was selected to work temporarily in Canada, earned the right to

stay and eventually became an entrepreneur whose business now

employs native-born Canadians. This is just one case out of millions

of people every year who find new opportunities and freedoms by

migrating, benefiting themselves as well as their areas of origin and

destination. its value is more than that: being able to decide

Now consider Bhagyawati. She is a mem- where to live is a key element of human freedom.

ber of a lower caste and lives in rural Andhra When people move, they embark on a jour-

Pradesh, India. She travels to Bangalore city with ney of hope and uncertainty, whether within or

her children to work on construction sites for across international borders. Most people move

six months each year, earning Rs 60 (US$1.20) in search of better opportunities, hoping to com-

per day. While away from home, her children bine their own talents with resources in the des-

do not attend school because it is too far from tination country so as to benefit themselves and

the construction site and they do not know their immediate family, who often accompany or

the local language. Bhagyawati is not entitled follow them. If they succeed, their initiative and

to subsidized food or health care, nor does she efforts can also benefit those left behind and the

vote, because she is living outside her registered society in which they make their new home. But

district. Like millions of other internal migrants, not all do succeed. Migrants who leave friends

she has few options for improving her life other and family may face loneliness, may feel unwel-

than to move to a different city in search of bet- come among people who fear or resent newcom-

ter opportunities. ers, may lose their jobs or fall ill and thus be

Our world is very unequal. The huge differ- unable to access the support services they need

ences in human development across and within in order to prosper.

countries have been a recurring theme of the The 2009 HDR explores how better policies

Human Development Report (HDR) since it towards human mobility can enhance human de-

was first published in 1990. In this year’s report, velopment. It lays out the case for governments

we explore for the first time the topic of migra- to reduce restrictions on movement within and

tion. For many people in developing countries, across their borders, so as to expand human

moving away from their home town or village choices and freedoms. It argues for practical

can be the best—sometimes the only—option measures that can improve prospects on arrival,

open to improve their life chances. Human mo- which in turn will have large benefits both for

bility can be hugely effective in raising a person’s destination communities and for places of origin.

income, health and education prospects. But

4 2009



Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development

How and why people move prospects for their children (figure 1). Surveys

of migrants report that most are happy in their

Discussions about migration typically start from

the perspective of flows from developing coun-

tries into the rich countries of Europe, North

America and Australasia. Yet most movement Gains in schooling are greatest for migrants



in the world does not take place between devel- from low-HDI countries

oping and developed countries; it does not even Gross total enrolment ratio at origin versus destination by

take place between countries. The overwhelming origin country HDI category, 2000 census or latest round

majority of people who move do so inside their

own country. Using a conservative definition, we

estimate that approximately 740 million people

are internal migrants—almost four times as

many as those who have moved internationally.

Among people who have moved across national

borders, just over a third moved from a devel-

oping to a developed country—fewer than 70 Low HDI Medium HDI High HDI Very high HDI

million people. Most of the world’s 200 million (47% versus 95%) (66% versus 92%) (77% versus 92%) (92% versus 93%)

international migrants moved from one devel-

oping country to another or between developed Enrolment ratio at origin Enrolment ratio at destination

countries (map 1).

Most migrants, internal and international,

reap gains in the form of higher incomes, bet- Source: Ortega (2009).

Note: Gross total enrolment includes primary, secondary and tertiary education.

ter access to education and health, and improved

Most movement occurs within regions


Map Origin and destination of international migrants, circa 2000 0.53

8.22 9.57 8.53

0.84 Europe 2.44


North America 31.52 Asia


1.30 1.34

1.33 1.07 35.49



1.24 1.29

19.72 0.06 0.22


0.75 Latin America 0.14

and the Caribbean 3.13

3.54 Africa 1.65

0.08 0.30 0.31



0.13 0.73 Oceania


Human Development Index, 2007 Regions Number of migrants (in millions)


Very high North America Intra-


High regional


Medium migration

Latin America and the Caribbean

Low Asia

The size of countries is proportional to 2007 population. Africa

Source: HDR team estimates based on Migration DRC (2007) database. 5




Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development until conditions at home allow their return, but

destination, despite the range of adjustments and around half a million per year travel to developed

obstacles typically involved in moving. Once es- countries and seek asylum there. A much larger

tablished, migrants are often more likely than number, some 26 million, have been internally

local residents to join unions or religious and displaced. They have crossed no frontiers, but

other groups. Yet there are trade-offs and the may face special difficulties away from home in

gains from mobility are unequally distributed. a country riven by conflict or racked by natural

People displaced by insecurity and conflict disasters. Another vulnerable group consists of

face special challenges. There are an estimated people—mainly young women—who have been

14 million refugees living outside their coun- trafficked. Often duped with promises of a better

try of citizenship, representing about 7 percent life, their movement is not one of free will but of

of the world’s migrants. Most remain near the duress, sometimes accompanied by violence and

country they fled, typically living in camps sexual abuse.

In general, however, people move of their

own volition, to better-off places. More than

The poorest have the most to gain from moving…


Figure three quarters of international migrants go to a

Differences between destination and origin country HDI, country with a higher level of human develop-

2000–2002 ment than their country of origin (figure 2). Yet,

they are significantly constrained, both by poli-

Latin America and

0.3 cies that impose barriers to entry and by the re-

the Caribbean

region sources they have available to enable their move.

People in poor countries are the least mobile: for

by 0.2 Asia example, fewer than 1 percent of Africans have

destination Africa moved to Europe. Indeed, history and contem-

porary evidence suggest that development and

0.1 migration go hand in hand: the median emigra-

at Europe

difference tion rate in a country with low human develop-

ment is below 4 percent, compared to more than

0 | | | | |

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 8 percent from countries with high levels of

Average human development (figure 3).

Origin country HDI Oceania


–0.1 America Barriers to movement

The share of international migrants in the world’s

Source: HDR team estimates based on Migration DRC (2007) database.

Note: Averages estimated using Kernel density regressions. population has remained remarkably stable at

around 3 percent over the past 50 years, despite

factors that could have been expected to increase

flows. Demographic trends—an aging popula-

… but they also move less


Figure tion in developed countries and young, still-rising

Emigration rates by HDI and income populations in developing countries—and grow-

ing employment opportunities, combined with

Median emigration rates by origin country HDI group cheaper communications and transport, have

increased the ‘demand’ for migration. However,

Low HDI To developing countries those wishing to migrate have increasingly come

To developed countries

Medium HDI up against government-imposed barriers to

High HDI movement. Over the past century, the number of

Very high HDI nation states has quadrupled to almost 200, cre-

ating more borders to cross, while policy changes

| | | | | |

0 2 4 3 8 10 have further limited the scale of migration even

Median emigration rate (%) as barriers to trade fell.

Barriers to mobility are especially high for

Source: HDR team estimates based on Migration DRC (2007) and UN (2009e). people with low skills, despite the demand for

6 2009



Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development

the availability of migrants for childcare allows

their labour in many rich countries. Policies Large gains to

resident mothers to work outside the home. As

generally favour the admission of the better human development

migrants acquire the language and other skills

educated, for instance by allowing students to can be achieved

needed to move up the income ladder, many in-

stay after graduation and inviting professionals by lowering the

tegrate quite naturally, making fears about inas-

to settle with their families. But governments barriers to movement

similable foreigners—similar to those expressed

tend to be far more ambivalent with respect to and improving the

early in the 20th century in America about the

low-skilled workers, whose status and treatment treatment of movers

Irish, for example—seem equally unwarranted

often leave much to be desired. In many coun- with respect to newcomers today. Yet it is also

tries, agriculture, construction, manufacturing true that many migrants face systemic disadvan-

and service sectors have jobs that are filled by tages, making it difficult or impossible for them

such migrants. Yet governments often try to ro- to access local services on equal terms with local

tate less educated people in and out of the coun- people. And these problems are especially severe

try, sometimes treating temporary and irregular for temporary and irregular workers.

workers like water from a tap that can be turned In migrants’ countries of origin, the impacts

on and off at will. An estimated 50 million peo- of movement are felt in higher incomes and

ple today are living and working abroad with ir- consumption, better education and improved

regular status. Some countries, such as Thailand health, as well as at a broader cultural and so-

and the United States, tolerate large numbers cial level. Moving generally brings benefits, most

of unauthorized workers. This may allow those directly in the form of remittances sent to im-

individuals to access better paying jobs than at mediate family members. However, the benefits

home, but although they often do the same work are also spread more broadly as remittances are

and pay the same taxes as local residents, they spent—thereby generating jobs for local work-

may lack access to basic services and face the risk ers—and as behaviour changes in response to

of being deported. Some governments, such as ideas from abroad. Women, in particular, may

those of Italy and Spain, have recognized that be liberated from traditional roles.

unskilled migrants contribute to their societies The nature and extent of these impacts de-

and have regularized the status of those in work, pend on who moves, how they fare abroad and

while other countries, such as Canada and New whether they stay connected to their roots

Zealand, have well designed seasonal migrant through flows of money, knowledge and ideas.

programmes for sectors such as agriculture. Because migrants tend to come in large num-

While there is broad consensus about the bers from specific places—for example, Kerala

value of skilled migration to destination coun- in India or Fujian Province in China—commu-

tries, low-skilled migrant workers generate much nity-level effects can typically be larger than na-

controversy. It is widely believed that while these tional ones. However, over the longer term, the

migrants fill vacant jobs they also displace local flow of ideas from human movement can have

workers and reduce wages. Other concerns posed far-reaching effects on social norms and class

by migrant inflows include heightened risk of structures across a whole country. The outflow

crime, added burdens on local services and the of skills is sometimes seen as negative, particu-

fear of losing social and cultural cohesion. But larly for the delivery of services such as educa-

these concerns are often exaggerated. While re- tion or health. Yet, even when this is the case, the

search has found that migration can, in certain best response is policies that address underlying

circumstances, have negative effects on locally structural problems, such as low pay, inadequate

born workers with comparable skills, the body financing and weak institutions. Blaming the

of evidence suggests that these effects are gener- loss of skilled workers on the workers themselves

ally small and may, in some contexts, be entirely largely misses the point, and restraints on their

absent. mobility are likely to be counter-productive—

not to mention the fact that they deny the basic

The case for mobility human right to leave one’s own country.

This report argues that migrants boost economic However, international migration, even if

output, at little or no cost to locals. Indeed, there well managed, does not amount to a national

may be broader positive effects, for instance when 7




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Dispense per il corso di Differenziali Economici e Migrazioni della Prof.ssa Paola Giacomello e del Dott. Paolo Sellari. Trattasi del riassunto dello Human Development
Report 2009
redatto dall'ONU all'interno dello United Nations Development Programme, all'interno del quale è sottolineata l'importanza della mobilità individuale quale strumento di sviluppo socio-economico.

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in analisi economica delle istituzioni internazionali
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Differenziali Economici e Migrazioni e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università La Sapienza - Uniroma1 o del prof Giacomello Paola.

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