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FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

independent political activity and civil society.

Central Asia by ultranationalist soccer hooligans The country’s civil liberties rating declined even

who enjoy a measure of support from elements though the political opposition scored

of the political leadership. impressive gains in parliamentary elections held

in September. Opposition parties, which had

For the countries of Central Europe and the boycotted the previous parliamentary polls in

Baltic states, the principal challenge remains the 2005, organized a unified coalition; this bloc and

growing pressure on living standards and a formerly pro-Chávez party that has drifted into

economic stability stemming from the global opposition won a combined 52 percent of the

economic downturn. In general, this newly vote. However, due to changes in the electoral

democratic region weathered the economic system, opposition representation in the new

storm successfully, and the protection of civil parliament will be just over 40 percent.

liberties remained strong. Hungary, however,

experienced a score decline due to policies In response to the opposition gains, Chávez

adopted by newly elected prime minister Viktor pushed through a series of laws in the final days

Orbán, leader of the right-leaning Fidesz party. of the old parliament that will extend his

He was widely criticized for pushing through influence over the press and civil society, and

legislation that will enhance state control of the limit the rights of incoming legislators. The

press and threaten journalistic freedoms. Latvia, outgoing parliament also approved a measure

another country that was hit hard by the giving Chávez the power to bypass the

economic downturn, saw its civil liberties rating opposition bloc in the new parliament and rule

drop due to the impact on press freedom from by decree on a range of issues for 18 months.

the recent sale under less-than-transparent

circumstances of one of the country’s most Other developments in the region were more

influential newspapers. positive. Brazil further solidified its democracy

by holding a presidential election that was

Americas: Violence in Mexico, Autocracy in deemed fair and competitive, resulting in victory

Venezuela for Dilma Rousseff, an ally of outgoing

president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. A new

Two of the most worrying recent challenges to president, Juan Manuel Santos, was also elected

freedom in Latin America—uncontrolled crime in Colombia, which enjoyed a decline in

and authoritarian populism—led to declines in political polarization after outgoing president

two of the region’s leading states, Mexico and Álvaro Uribe accepted a Constitutional Court

Venezuela. decision that ended his effort to pursue a third

term.

Mexico suffered a decrease in its political rights

rating and a drop from Free to Partly Free status

due to the government’s inability to stem the Pressure on Free Assembly and

Asia-Pacific:

wave of violence by drug-trafficking groups in Expression, Progress in Philippines

several states. While the country benefited from

an important consolidation of democracy during Conforming to the trends in other regions and in

the past decade, government institutions have contrast to modest improvements in 2009, the

failed to protect ordinary citizens, journalists, number of countries with declines in aggregate

and elected officials from organized crime. score in the Asia-Pacific region outnumbered

Extortion and other racketeering activities have those with gains by a ratio of 2 to 1.

spread, and conditions for the media have

deteriorated to the point where editors have The most positive development was a major

significantly altered coverage to avoid improvement in the Philippines due to elections

repercussions from drug gangs. that were deemed relatively free and fair, and

that were conducted in notably less violent

In Venezuela, the policies of President Hugo circumstances than in the recent past. The

Chávez continued to erode the space for Philippines had its designation as an electoral

7

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

internet censorship and violent forced evictions

democracy restored as a result. Tonga held its increased; highly questionable judicial

first free and fair legislative elections, with procedures in commercial cases pointed to

prodemocracy candidates winning the majority political intervention; leading human rights

of seats. Moreover, the prime minister was lawyers were harassed, disbarred, and

named by an elected parliament for the first “disappeared”; and new regulations made it

time; previously the king had chosen the head of more difficult for civil society groups to obtain

government. The military regime in Burma funding from overseas donors. Meanwhile,

oversaw that country’s first elections since 1990. conditions for ethnic and religious minorities

The electoral process was tightly controlled to remained harsh, and in some cases worsened.

ensure the government-backed party’s sweeping Uighur webmasters and journalists were

victory, and the popular opposition National sentenced to long prison terms after unfair trials,

League for Democracy was formally dissolved including two sentences of life imprisonment;

during the year. Nevertheless, aspects of the new the persecution of house church Christians

electoral laws enabled the registration and intensified toward year’s end; and Falun Gong

participation of a range of political parties, and practitioners were a key target of crackdowns

some opposition and independent ethnic ahead of the Shanghai World Expo as well as a

minority members won election to the new reinvigorated three-year forced conversion

assembly. program. It is noteworthy that despite such

pressures and often at great personal risk, many

The most prominent decline in the region was in of China’s bloggers, journalists, legal

Sri Lanka, which suffered from the misuse of professionals, workers, petitioners, and members

state resources prior to national elections, the of minority groups continued to push the limits

persecution of opposition presidential candidate of permissible activity in increasingly

Sarath Fonseka, and the increasing concentration sophisticated ways.

of power in the hands of President Mahinda

Rajapaksa and his family. Declines in the areas

of freedom of assembly and freedom of Sub-Saharan Africa: Past Gains in Jeopardy

expression were apparent in several other The year 2010 featured a continued pattern of

countries and territories. In Cambodia, Thailand, volatility and decline for sub-Saharan Africa.

Hong Kong, and Indian-administered Kashmir, There was more backsliding than improvement,

the space for peaceful protests on politically though gains were noted in several of the

sensitive matters was curtailed, with security region’s more important countries.

forces in some cases using deadly violence and

arrests to disperse demonstrators. In Vietnam, a During the 1990s, the state of African

crackdown on activists in advance of a democracy improved dramatically, with major

Communist Party Congress created a climate of increases in the number of Free and Partly Free

self-censorship on political topics. countries and a substantial decrease in the roster

of countries designated as Not Free. Over the

While China’s activist community was past decade, however, conditions have

encouraged by the decision to grant the 2010 stagnated; the number of countries ranked as Not

Nobel Peace Prize to jailed democracy advocate Free actually showed a slight increase, and the

Liu Xiaobo, the Chinese Communist Party’s region as a whole registered declines in both

response highlighted the depth of its anxiety political rights and civil liberties indicators.

over any public debate on the need for a more

open and responsive political system. The The most notable improvement in 2010 took

repression surrounding the award also reflected place in Guinea, which emerged from a

a broader trend of Communist Party efforts to murderous military dictatorship and held

tighten control over the media, the judiciary, and successful elections amid enhanced observance

civil society, and to strengthen its repressive of freedom of speech and other civil liberties.

apparatus in the face of growing rights- Also making gains during the year were Kenya,

consciousness among the public. In 2010, 8

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

world. A backlash against immigration—

Nigeria, Tanzania, and the territory of especially from Muslim countries—has spread

Somaliland. throughout Europe and triggered controversies

over the construction of mosques, the wearing of

The most significant setback occurred in veils and headscarves, and changes to

Ethiopia, which declined from Partly Free to Not citizenship laws. The political and societal

Free. Ethiopia has experienced steady, friction has been exacerbated by a series of cases

incremental declines in recent years, and in 2010 in which Muslims professing extremist

the pace of erosion accelerated due to massive ideologies have allegedly plotted to commit

repression that accompanied national elections. terrorist acts in major European cities. Indeed, at

Another major decline occurred in Côte d’Ivoire, year’s end, arrests of terrorism suspects with

where at year’s end President Laurent Gbagbo North African or South Asian backgrounds were

refused to give up power despite having lost the made in Belgium, Britain, Denmark, and

long-delayed presidential election by what Sweden.

neutral observers described as a decisive margin.

Gbagbo’s supporters in the military were Many European countries have opted for

allegedly responsible for a number of policies that restrict future immigration and, in

postelection killings, and reportedly menaced some cases, asylum applications. A growing

leaders of the political opposition and a United number have taken steps to curtail customs

Nations peacekeeping force. identified with Islam that much of the population

finds offensive. France is one of several

Other declines were recorded in Djibouti (which countries to have adopted limits on the wearing

dropped from Partly Free to Not Free), Burundi, of veils in public places. In another move against

Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Rwanda, migrants, France systematically deported several

Swaziland, and Zambia. Of particular concern thousand Roma to Romania, drawing harsh

were the setbacks in Rwanda, due to heightened criticism from European Union officials.

repression in the run-up to national elections,

and Burundi, also stemming from ruling party Tensions with Muslim minorities have also led

intimidation of the opposition during an election to problems concerning freedom of expression.

campaign. Threats of violence have repeatedly been made

against Jyllands-Posten, the Danish newspaper

Western Europe and North America: that first published contentious cartoons of the

Immigration, Free Speech, and Security prophet Muhammad, and other media outlets

that were involved in the controversy. At the

The countries of Western Europe and North same time, the Netherlands and several other

America continued to register the highest scores countries have threatened to prosecute

on the Freedom in the World scale despite their journalists and bloggers who caricatured

ongoing inability to devise rational and humane Muslims in their writings or drawings.

policies toward immigrants from the developing

R P

EGIONAL ATTERNS

Free Partly Free Not Free

24 (69%) 10 (29%) 1 (3%)

Americas 16 (41%) 15 (38%) 8 (21%)

Asia-Pacific 13 (45%) 9 (31%) 7 (24%)

Central & Eastern Europe/Former Soviet Union 1 (6%) 3 (17%) 14 (78%)

Middle East and North Africa 9 (19%) 22 (46%) 17 (35%)

Sub-Saharan Africa 24 (96%) 1 (4%) 0 (0%)

Western Europe 9

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Britain’s new Conservative Party government CONCLUSION

has not yet acted on its pledges to reform laws

that contribute to the phenomenon of “libel Democratic Resistance

tourism,” in which foreign individuals use the

plaintiff-friendly English courts to press libel In addition to its overall finding of a fifth year of

suits against critical journalists and scholars. “freedom recession,” Freedom in the World

Press freedom advocates have described libel 2011 reflects a number of developments that

tourism as a serious menace to intellectual may be cause for optimism. The global

inquiry and the robust exchange of ideas. While economic downturn has not triggered a major

the most highly publicized cases have involved reversal for democratic institutions in the

writings on terrorism-related subjects, more countries where the impact has been greatest.

recent suits have been brought against scientists And in Latin America, the examples of

and medical researchers who put forward democratic governance set by Chile and Brazil

controversial opinions. The United States took a have proven more attractive than Hugo Chávez’s

major step against libel tourism in 2010 by “21st century socialism.” While South Asia

enacting a law that makes it practically remains a source of political volatility, the

impossible to enforce foreign libel rulings in region has experienced more gains than setbacks

U.S. courts. for democracy in recent years.

While the United States has a generally more Nor have years of repression succeeded in

successful record of absorbing large numbers of destroying the spirit of democratic resistance in

immigrants than does Europe, the country has authoritarian settings. In Belarus, the example

recently experienced a heated and sometimes set by thousands of demonstrators who flooded

ugly debate over policies toward undocumented the streets to express their fury at yet another

workers, especially from Latin America. In a bogus election was just as important as the

testament to federal legislative paralysis on the ruthless reaction by President Lukashenka’s

issue, Congress in late 2010 rejected a bill that security forces. The steady erosion of

would have offered a path to citizenship to democratic space in Venezuela did not

young illegal immigrants who had been raised in discourage opposition supporters, who exhibited

the United States and enrolled in college or the sufficient tenacity and unity to win a majority of

U.S. military. votes in parliamentary elections. Independent-

minded journalists and intellectuals refused to be

President Barack Obama has not attempted silenced in China, Iran, and Egypt. And the

major rollbacks of his predecessor’s release from house arrest of Burmese opposition

antiterrorism policies. While the Obama leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was a welcome

administration has put an end to practices that reminder that there are limits to the power of

were widely regarded as torture and taken other even the most relentless dictatorships.

steps applauded by civil libertarians, it has also

aggressively pursued terrorists abroad— There were also signs—modest, to be sure—that

including through targeted killings by unmanned the democratic world was more attuned to the

aircraft—and declined to investigate, much less challenges posed by an increasingly assertive

prosecute, officials from the Bush administration band of autocracies. In their public statements,

who were responsible for extreme antiterrorism especially at multilateral venues, President

measures. Moreover, Obama has so far failed in Obama and other senior U.S. officials showed a

his efforts to close the detention center at greater inclination to talk about the importance

Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where over 100 of democracy and identify threats to freedom.

terrorism suspects are still held. Perhaps more tellingly, documents released by

WikiLeaks indicated that U.S. diplomats in

authoritarian countries were realistic, astute,

concerned about growing repression, and often

sympathetic toward the political opposition.

10

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

domestic critics if there is no resistance from the

Thus even as U.S. officials spoke favorably in outside world. Indeed, if the world’s

public about Russia under the president’s “reset” democracies fail to unite and speak out in

policy, American diplomats were writing defense of their own values, despots will

messages about a “mafia state” in which corrupt continue to gain from divide-and-conquer

security forces held sway. strategies, as Russia’s leaders are now doing in

their approach to Europe and the United States.

More often, however, the world’s most powerful

authoritarians have acted with aggression and This is not the first time that the adversaries of

self-assurance, and democratic leaders have freedom seemed to have the wind at their backs

responded with equivocation or silence. Few and democracy appeared to be in retreat. In the

heads of state joined President Obama in past, the forces of democracy invariably

congratulating Liu Xiaobo on his Nobel award, recovered and prevailed. Democracy still boasts

even fewer called for his release from prison, its most potent weapon: the attractive example

and none called Beijing to account for its of free institutions, free minds, civil liberties,

malicious campaign against the prize, or its and law-based societies. Despite talk about the

efforts to dissuade foreign governments from China model, no society has indicated a desire to

sending representatives to the award ceremony. emulate the political system that rules over the

Among lesser powers, those with energy riches Chinese people, with its elaborate censorship

or geostrategic significance demonstrated that apparatus, remote leadership, suppression of

acts of antidemocratic contempt will draw no religion, and contempt for minority cultures.

serious rebuke from the democratic world. Thus Only despots seeking more efficient and

the dearth of comment on the patently fraudulent comprehensive methods of control see in

elections in Ethiopia and Egypt, both China—or Russia—a template worth copying.

beneficiaries of close ties to the United States, or Nor is today’s challenge as intimidating as many

in Azerbaijan, a crucial exporter of oil and gas. seem to believe. Nearly 40 years ago, more than

half of the world was ruled by one form of

The failure of the major democracies of the autocracy or another; many millions lived under

developing world to speak out against outright totalitarianism. The majority now live in

authoritarian abuses is another source of democratic states.

disappointment. The image of Brazil’s Lula

embracing Iran’s Ahmadinejad is especially The past decade began at a high point for

unsettling given that Lula himself was once the freedom and concluded with freedom under

political prisoner of a military dictatorship. duress. The next decade could witness a new

India’s reluctance to exert pressure on Burma’s wave of democratic development if democracy’s

ruling junta remains an impediment to political champions remember that freedom is more

change in one of the world’s most repressive powerful—both as an idea and as the basis for

environments. And the consistent refusal of practical governance—than anything its

South Africa to join in solidarity with the forces adversaries have to offer.

of democracy in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the

world stands in stark contrast to the international

cooperation that helped to bring down apartheid.

It is often observed that a government that

mistreats its people also fears its people.

Certainly it is not merely self-confidence that is

leading Iran’s rulers to conduct wave after wave

of political arrests, or Hugo Chávez to attempt to

smother civil society, or China’s Communist

leadership to devote billions of dollars to the

control of information. But authoritarian regimes Eliza B. Young assisted in the preparation of

will have a much freer hand to silence their this report.

11

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Freedom in the World 2011

Table of Independent Countries

Country Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

Afghanistan Not Free 6 6 ↓

Albania* Partly Free 3 3

Algeria Not Free 6 5

Andorra* Free 1 1

Angola Not Free 6 5

Antigua and Barbuda* Free 3 2

Argentina* Free 2 2

Armenia Partly Free 6 4

Australia* Free 1 1

Austria* Free 1 1

Azerbaijan Not Free 6 5

Bahamas* Free 1 1

Bahrain Not Free 6 5 ↓

Bangladesh* Partly Free 3 4

Barbados* Free 1 1

Belarus Not Free 7 6

Belgium* Free 1 1

Belize* Free 1 2

Benin* Free 2 2

Bhutan Partly Free 4 5

Bolivia* Partly Free 3 3

Bosnia and Herzegovina* Partly Free 4 3

Botswana* Free 3 2

Brazil* Free 2 2

Brunei Not Free 6 5

Bulgaria* Free 2 2

Burkina Faso Partly Free 5 3

Burma Not Free 7 7

Burundi Partly Free 5 ▼ 5

Cambodia Not Free 6 5 ↓

Cameroon Not Free 6 6

Canada* Free 1 1

Cape Verde* Free 1 1

Central African Republic Partly Free 5 5

Chad Not Free 7 6

Chile* Free 1 1

China Not Free 7 6

Colombia* Partly Free 3 4 ↑

Comoros* Partly Free 3 4

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FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Country Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

Congo (Brazzaville) Not Free 6 5

Congo (Kinshasa) Not Free 6 6

Costa Rica* Free 1 1

Côte d’Ivoire Not Free 7 ▼ 6 ▼

Croatia* Free 1 2

Cuba Not Free 7 6

Cyprus* Free 1 1

Czech Republic* Free 1 1

Denmark* Free 1 1

Djibouti Not Free ▼ 6 ▼ 5

Dominica* Free 1 1

Dominican Republic* Free 2 2

East Timor* Partly Free 3 4

Ecuador* Partly Free 3 3

Egypt Not Free 6 5 ↓

El Salvador* Free 2 3

Equatorial Guinea Not Free 7 7

Eritrea Not Free 7 7

Estonia* Free 1 1

Ethiopia Not Free ▼ 6 ▼ 6 ▼

Fiji Partly Free 6 4 ↓

Finland* Free 1 1

France* Free 1 1 ↓

Gabon Not Free 6 5

The Gambia Partly Free 5 5

Georgia Partly Free 4 3 ▲

Germany* Free 1 1

Ghana* Free 1 2

Greece* Free 1 2

Grenada* Free 1 2

Guatemala* Partly Free 4 4

Guinea Partly Free ▲ 5 ▲ 5 ▲

Guinea-Bissau Partly Free 4 4 ↓

Guyana* Free 2 3

Haiti Partly Free 4 5 ↓

Honduras Partly Free 4 4

Hungary* Free 1 1 ↓

Iceland* Free 1 1

India* Free 2 3

Indonesia* Free 2 3

Iran Not Free 6 6 ↓

Iraq Not Free 5 6

13

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Country Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

Ireland* Free 1 1

Israel* Free 1 2

Italy* Free 1 2

Jamaica* Free 2 3

Japan* Free 1 2

Jordan Not Free 6 5

Kazakhstan Not Free 6 5

Kenya Partly Free 4 3 ▲

Kiribati* Free 1 1

Kosovo Partly Free 5 4

Kuwait Partly Free 4 5 ▼

Kyrgyzstan Partly Free ▲ 5 ▲ 5

Laos Not Free 7 6

Latvia* Free 2 2 ▼

Lebanon Partly Free 5 3

Lesotho* Partly Free 3 3

Liberia* Partly Free 3 4

Libya Not Free 7 7

Liechtenstein* Free 1 1

Lithuania* Free 1 1

Luxembourg* Free 1 1

Macedonia* Partly Free 3 3

Madagascar Partly Free 6 4 ↓

Malawi* Partly Free 3 4

Malaysia Partly Free 4 4

Maldives* Partly Free 3 4

Mali* Free 2 3

Malta* Free 1 1

Marshall Islands* Free 1 1

Mauritania Not Free 6 5

Mauritius* Free 1 2

Mexico* Partly Free ▼ 3 ▼ 3

Micronesia* Free 1 1

Moldova* Partly Free 3 3 ▲

Monaco* Free 2 1

Mongolia* Free 2 2

Montenegro* Free 3 2

Morocco Partly Free 5 4

Mozambique Partly Free 4 3

Namibia* Free 2 2

Nauru* Free 1 1

Nepal Partly Free 4 4

Netherlands* Free 1 1

14

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Country Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

New Zealand* Free 1 1

Nicaragua* Partly Free 4 4

Niger Partly Free 5 4

Nigeria Partly Free 4 ▲ 4

North Korea Not Free 7 7

Norway* Free 1 1

Oman Not Free 6 5

Pakistan Partly Free 4 5

Palau* Free 1 1

Panama* Free 1 2

Papua New Guinea* Partly Free 4 3

Paraguay* Partly Free 3 3

Peru* Free 2 3

Philippines* Partly Free 3 ▲ 3

Poland* Free 1 1

Portugal* Free 1 1

Qatar Not Free 6 5

Romania* Free 2 2

Russia Not Free 6 5

Rwanda Not Free 6 5 ↓

Saint Kitts and Nevis* Free 1 1

Saint Lucia* Free 1 1

Saint Vincent and Grenadines* Free 1 ▲ 1

Samoa* Free 2 2

San Marino* Free 1 1

São Tomé and Príncipe* Free 2 2

Saudi Arabia Not Free 7 6

Senegal* Partly Free 3 3

Serbia* Free 2 2

Seychelles* Partly Free 3 3

Sierra Leone* Partly Free 3 3

Singapore Partly Free 5 4

Slovakia* Free 1 1

Slovenia* Free 1 1

Solomon Islands Partly Free 4 3

Somalia Not Free 7 7

South Africa* Free 2 2

South Korea* Free 1 2

Spain* Free 1 1

Sri Lanka Partly Free 5 ▼ 4

Sudan Not Free 7 7

Suriname* Free 2 2

Swaziland Not Free 7 5 ↓

15

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Country Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

Sweden* Free 1 1

Switzerland* Free 1 1

Syria Not Free 7 6

Taiwan* Free 1 2

Tajikistan Not Free 6 5

Tanzania* Partly Free 3 ▲ 3

Thailand Partly Free 5 4 ↓

Togo Partly Free 5 4

Tonga* Partly Free 3 ▲ 3

Trinidad and Tobago* Free 2 2

Tunisia Not Free 7 5

Turkey* Partly Free 3 3

Turkmenistan Not Free 7 7

Tuvalu* Free 1 1

Uganda Partly Free 5 4

Ukraine* Partly Free ▼ 3 3 ▼

United Arab Emirates Not Free 6 5

United Kingdom* Free 1 1

United States* Free 1 1

Uruguay* Free 1 1

Uzbekistan Not Free 7 7

Vanuatu* Free 2 2

Venezuela Partly Free 5 5 ▼

Vietnam Not Free 7 5

Yemen Not Free 6 5

Zambia* Partly Free 3 4 ↓

Zimbabwe Not Free 6 6

PR and CL stand for political rights and civil liberties, respectively; 1 represents the most free

and 7 the least free rating.

▲ ▼ up or down indicates an improvement or decline in ratings or status since the last survey.

up or down indicates a trend of positive or negative changes that took place but were not

↑ ↓

sufficient to result in a change in political rights or civil liberties ratings.

indicates a country’s status as an electoral democracy.

* The ratings reflect global events from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010.

NOTE: 16

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Table of Related Territories

Territory Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

Hong Kong Partly Free 5 2

Puerto Rico Free 1 1

Table of Disputed Territories

Territory Freedom Status PR CL Trend Arrow

Abkhazia Partly Free 5 5

Gaza Strip Not Free 6 6

Indian Kashmir Partly Free 4 5 ▼

Nagorno-Karabakh Not Free ▼ 6 ▼ 5

Northern Cyprus Free 2 2

Pakistani Kashmir Not Free 6 5

Somaliland Partly Free 4 ▲ 5

South Ossetia Not Free 7 6

Tibet Not Free 7 7

Transnistria Not Free 6 6

West Bank Not Free 6 5

Western Sahara Not Free 7 6

17

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Status and Ratings Changes, Trend Arrow Explanations

Status Changes

Improvements

Guinea’s political rights rating improved from 7 to 5, its civil liberties rating from 6 to 5,

and its status from Not Free to Partly Free due to a transition from military to civilian rule,

Guinea credible presidential elections held in November 2010, and heightened observance of

freedoms of expression and association.

Kyrgyzstan’s political rights rating improved from 6 to 5 and its status from Not Free to

Partly Free due to the adoption of a new constitution designed to dismantle the

Kyrgyzstan superpresidential system, and genuinely competitive, multiparty parliamentary elections

held in October 2010. Declines

Djibouti’s political rights rating declined from 5 to 6 and its status from Partly Free to Not

Djibouti Free due to constitutional changes that will allow President Ismael Omar Guelleh to run

for a third term in office.

Ethiopia’s political rights rating declined from 5 to 6, its civil liberties rating from 5 to 6,

and its status from Partly Free to Not Free due to national elections that were thoroughly

Ethiopia tainted by intimidation of opposition supporters and candidates as well as a clampdown on

independent media and nongovernmental organizations.

Mexico’s political rights rating declined from 2 to 3 and its status from Free to Partly Free

Mexico due to the targeting of local officials by organized crime groups and the government’s

inability to protect citizens’ rights in the face of criminal violence.

Nagorno-Karabakh’s political rights rating declined from 5 to 6 and its status from Partly

Nagorno- Free to Not Free due to the complete absence of opposition candidates in the May 2010

Karabakh parliamentary elections.

Ukraine’s civil liberties rating declined from 2 to 3 and its status from Free to Partly Free

due to deteriorating media freedom, secret service pressure on universities to keep students

from participating in protests, government hostility toward opposition gatherings and

Ukraine foreign nongovernmental organizations, and an increase in presidential influence over the

judiciary. Ratings Changes

Improvements

Georgia’s civil liberties rating improved from 4 to 3 due to a reduction in the political

instability the country confronted in the aftermath of the 2008 Russian invasion, as well as

Georgia greater media diversity, including the launch of satellite broadcasts by the opposition

television station Maestro.

Kenya’s civil liberties rating improved from 4 to 3 due to the reduced threat of ethnic and

Kenya political violence demonstrated by a peaceful constitutional referendum held in August

2010.

Moldova’s civil liberties rating improved from 4 to 3 due to a more balanced and diverse

media environment, a reduction in government hostility toward civil society groups, and a

Moldova lack of interference with political gatherings ahead of the November 2010 parliamentary

elections.

Nigeria’s political rights rating improved from 5 to 4 due to increasing efforts at electoral

Nigeria reform, greater opposition leverage to demand transparent elections, and the emergence of

a diverse slate of presidential candidates within the ruling People’s Democratic Party.

18

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

The Philippines’ political rights rating improved from 4 to 3 due to comparatively peaceful

Philippines and credible presidential and legislative elections held in May 2010.

St. Vincent St. Vincent and the Grenadines’ political rights rating improved from 2 to 1 due to the

and the opposition’s ability to challenge the ruling party and gain a significant number of seats in

Grenadines the December 2010 parliamentary elections.

Somaliland’s political rights rating improved from 5 to 4 due to the successful conduct of a

Somaliland long-delayed presidential election and the peaceful transfer of power from the incumbent

president to his leading rival.

Tanzania’s political rights rating improved from 4 to 3 due to the more open and

Tanzania competitive nature of national elections held in October 2010.

Tonga’s political rights rating improved from 5 to 3 due to free and fair parliamentary

Tonga elections held in November 2010, in which for the first time a majority of seats were filled

through universal suffrage and won by prodemocracy candidates.

Declines

Burundi’s political rights rating declined from 4 to 5 due to arrests and intimidation by the

Burundi government and ruling party during local, parliamentary, and presidential election

campaigns.

Côte d’Ivoire’s political rights rating declined from 6 to 7 and its civil liberties rating

declined from 5 to 6 due to incumbent president Laurent Gbagbo’s refusal to step down or

Côte recognize the November 2010 electoral victory of opposition presidential candidate

d’Ivoire Alassane Ouattara, as well as political violence that stemmed from the postelection

standoff, including state security forces’ targeting of ethnic minority groups that supported

Ouattara.

Indian Kashmir’s civil liberties rating declined from 4 to 5 due to a surge in state violence

Indian against protesters opposed to Indian rule, including the enforcement of onerous curfews

Kashmir and use of live ammunition that caused over 100 civilian deaths in a three-month period.

Kuwait’s civil liberties rating declined from 4 to 5 due to restrictions on freedom of

Kuwait expression including the legal harassment of critical journalists, as well as a ban on public

rallies in September 2010.

Latvia’s civil liberties rating declined from 1 to 2 due to negative developments for press

Latvia freedom, including threats to editorial independence following the sale of an influential

newspaper under less-than-transparent circumstances.

Sri Lanka’s political rights rating declined from 4 to 5 due to the misuse of state resources

before and during the 2010 presidential and parliamentary elections, the arrest and

Sri Lanka prosecution of opposition presidential candidate Sarath Fonseka, and an increasing

concentration of power in the executive branch and the president’s family.

Venezuela’s civil liberties rating declined from 4 to 5 due to a raft of legislation that

granted President Hugo Chávez wide-ranging decree powers, tightened restrictions on civil

Venezuela society and the media, and attempted to vitiate opposition gains in September 2010

parliamentary elections. Trend Arrows

Up

Colombia received an upward trend arrow due to an improved equilibrium between the

Colombia three branches of government and the end of surveillance operations that had targeted both

civil society and government figures.

Down

Afghanistan received a downward trend arrow due to fraudulent parliamentary elections in

Afghanistan September 2010. 19

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Bahrain received a downward trend arrow due to an intensified crackdown on members of

Bahrain the Shiite Muslim majority in 2010, including assaults and arrests of dozens of activists

and journalists, as well as reports of widespread torture of political prisoners.

Cambodia received a downward trend arrow due to the government’s consolidation of

Cambodia control over all aspects of the electoral process, its increased intimidation of civil society,

and its apparent influence over the tribunal trying former members of the Khmer Rouge.

Egypt received a downward trend arrow due to extensive restrictions on opposition

Egypt candidates and reform advocates during the 2010 parliamentary elections, as well as a

widespread crackdown on the media that resulted in increased self-censorship.

Fiji received a downward trend arrow due to the replacement of additional magistrates

Fiji with appointees who support the legitimacy and actions of the current military regime.

France received a downward trend arrow due to a continued pattern of political and

societal discrimination against ethnic minorities, manifested in policies including a

France government-sponsored debate about national identity, the passage of a ban on facial

coverings in public places, and the systematic deportation of some 8,000 Roma.

Guinea-Bissau received a downward trend arrow due to the military’s interference in the

Guinea- country’s politics and the civilian president’s increasingly apparent willingness to

Bissau acquiesce to its demands.

Haiti received a downward trend arrow due to evidence of massive fraud in November

Haiti 2010 elections, as well as disregard for electoral laws and lack of transparency in the

operation of the Provisional Electoral Council.

Hungary received a downward trend arrow due to the government’s efforts to consolidate

control over the country’s independent institutions, including the creation of a new media

Hungary council dominated by the ruling party that has the ability to impose large fines on

broadcast, print, and online media outlets.

Iran received a downward trend arrow due to the rising economic and political clout of the

Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, extensive efforts by the government to restrict

Iran freedom of assembly, and the sentencing of the entire leadership of the Baha’i community

to lengthy prison terms.

Madagascar received a downward trend arrow due to de facto president Andry Rajoelina’s

Madagascar attempt to unilaterally impose an electoral process in violation of internationally mediated

agreements with the main opposition parties.

Rwanda received a downward trend arrow due to a severe crackdown on opposition

Rwanda politicians, journalists, and civil society activists in the run-up to a deeply flawed August

2010 presidential election.

Swaziland received a downward trend arrow due to a major crackdown

Swaziland on oppositionist and prodemocracy groups before and during organized demonstrations in

September 2010.

Thailand received a downward trend arrow due to the use of violence in putting down

Thailand street protests in April and May 2010, and the coercive use of lèse-majesté laws and

emergency powers to limit freedom of expression and personal autonomy.

Zambia received a downward trend arrow due to political violence against the opposition

Zambia and civil society groups, as well as the judiciary’s failure to demonstrate substantial

independence in key decisions throughout the year.

20

FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2011: THE AUTHORITARIAN CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRACY

Global Data

Country Breakdown by Status

Population Breakdown by Status

Global Trends in Freedom

Free Countries Partly Free Countries Not Free Countries

Year Under

Review Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage

87 45 60 31 47 24

2010 86 45 58 30 48 25

2000 65 40 50 30 50 30

1990 51 31 51 31 60 37

1980 21


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DESCRIZIONE DISPENSA

Materiale didattico per il corso di Politica comparata del prof. Marco Giuliani. Trattasi del rapporto pubblicato nel 2011 da Freedom House dal titolo "Freedom in the World 2011. The Authoritarian Challenge to Democracy" all'interno del quale sono analizzate le problematiche legate alla diffusione dei valori di libertà e democrazia nel mondo.


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in scienze internazionali e istituzioni europee
SSD:
Università: Milano - Unimi
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Politica comparata e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Milano - Unimi o del prof Giuliani Marco.

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