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Moore’s law

• Wow

– This growth rate is hard to imagine, most people

underestimate

– How many ancestors do you have from 20 generations ago

• i.e., roughly how many people alive in the 1500’s did it take to make

you?

20 =

• 2 more than 1 million people

– (This underestimation is the key to pyramid schemes!)

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 13

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis

Graphical illustration of Moore’s law

1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002

10,000 150,000,000

transistors transistors

Leading edge Leading edge

chip in 1981 chip in 2002

• Something that doubles frequently grows more quickly

than most people realize!

– A 2002 chip can hold about 15,000 1981 chips inside itself

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 14

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis 7

Design Technology

• The manner in which we convert our concept of

desired system functionality into an implementation

Compilation/ Libraries/ Test/

Synthesis IP Verification

System Model simulat./

System Hw/Sw/

Compilation/Synthesis: specification checkers

synthesis OS

Automates exploration and

insertion of implementation

details for lower level. Behavior Cores Hw-Sw

Behavioral synthesis cosimulators

specification

Libraries/IP: Incorporates pre-

designed implementation from

lower abstraction level into

higher level. RT RT HDL simulators

RT synthesis components

specification

Test/Verification: Ensures correct

functionality at each level, thus Logic Gates/ Gate

reducing costly iterations Logic synthesis Cells simulators

between levels. specification

To final implementation

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 15

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis

Design productivity exponential increase

100,000

10,000 Mo.

1,000 –

Productivity Trans./Staff

100

10

1 (K)

0.1

0.01

2005

1993 2001 2003

1983 1985 1987 1991

1981 1989 1999

1997 2007

1995 2009

• Exponential increase over the past few decades

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 16

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis 8

The co-design ladder

• In the past: Sequential program code (e.g., C, VHDL)

Behavioral synthesis

– Hardware and software Compilers (1990's)

(1960's,1970's)

design technologies were Register transfers

very different Assembly instructions RT synthesis

– Recent maturation of (1980's, 1990's)

Assemblers, linkers

synthesis enables a unified Logic equations / FSM's

(1950's, 1960's) Logic synthesis

view of hardware and (1970's, 1980's)

Machine instructions

software Logic gates

• Hardware/software Implementation

“codesign” Microprocessor plus VLSI, ASIC, or PLD

program bits: “software” implementation: “hardware”

The choice of hardware versus software for a particular function is simply a tradeoff among various

design metrics, like performance, power, size, NRE cost, and especially flexibility; there is no

fundamental difference between what hardware or software can implement.

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 17

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis

Independence of processor and IC

technologies

• Basic tradeoff

– General vs. custom

– With respect to processor technology or IC technology

– The two technologies are independent

General- Single-

ASIP

purpose purpose

General, Customized,

processor processor

providing improved: providing improved:

Flexibility Power efficiency

Maintainability Performance

NRE cost Size

Time- to-prototype Cost (high volume)

Time-to-market

Cost (low volume) PLD Semi-custom Full-custom

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 18

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis 9

Design productivity gap

• While designer productivity has grown at an impressive rate

over the past decades, the rate of improvement has not kept

pace with chip capacity

10,000 100,000

1,000 10,000

100 1000

Logic transistors Gap Productivity

per chip 10 100

IC capacity (K) Trans./Staff-Mo.

(in millions) 1 10

0.1 1

productivity

0.01 0.1

0.001 0.01

2007

2003

1999 2001

1995

1993 2009

2005

1997

1989 1991

1985 1987

1981 1983

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 19

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis

Design productivity gap

• 1981 leading edge chip required 100 designer months

– 10,000 transistors / 100 transistors/month

• 2002 leading edge chip requires 30,000 designer months

– 150,000,000 / 5000 transistors/month

• Designer cost increase from $1M to $300M

10,000 100,000

1,000 10,000

100 1000

Logic transistors Gap Productivity

10 100

per chip IC capacity (K) Trans./Staff-Mo.

(in millions) 1 10

0.1 1

productivity

0.01 0.1

0.001 0.01

2003

2001

1995

1993 2009

2007

2005

1999

1997

1989 1991

1987

1981 1985

1983

Embedded Systems Design: A Unified 20

Hardware/Software Introduction, (c) 2000 Vahid/Givargis 10


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DESCRIZIONE DISPENSA

Technology is a manner of accomplishing a task, especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge.
There are three key technologies for embedded systems:
Processor technology;
IC technology;
Design technology.


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in ingegneria delle telecomunicazioni
SSD:
Università: L'Aquila - Univaq
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Sistemi embedded e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università L'Aquila - Univaq o del prof Pomante Luigi.

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