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Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

Sheet1

DETAILED DATA USED IN PATTERNS OF DEMOCRACY

Arend Lijphart

Because I am frequently asked to provide more detailed data on my basic ten variables for particular countries and particu

Variables 1 through 4 (dealing with parties, elections, and cabinets) require a great deal of space, so let me begin with var

VARIABLE 5: INTEREST GROUP PLURALISM

Two-thirds of the data in Table 9.1 (p. 177) of Patterns of Democracy are based on an unpublished manuscript by Alan Si

AUL 2.75 ITA 3.25

AUT 0.62 JAM 3.30

BAH - JPN 1.25

BAR - LUX 1.38

BEL 1.25 MAL -

BOT - MAU -

CAN 3.62 NET 1.12

COL 2.50 NZ 2.88

CR 2.50 NOR 0.38

DEN 0.88 PNG -

FIN 1.62 POR -

FRA 2.68 SPA -

GER 1.38 SWE 0.50

GRE - SWI 1.00

ICE 2.25 TRI 3.30

IND - UK 3.25

IRE 3.00 US 3.50

ISR 0.62 VEN 1.90

In later work, Siaroff has provided ratings for four periods: 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s

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VARIABLE 6: FEDERALISM-DECENTRALIZATION

VARIABLE 7: BICAMERALISM

VARIABLE 8: CONSTITUTIONAL RIGIDITY

VARIABLE 9: JUDICIAL REVIEW

Ratings for particular years or periods can be gleaned from Tables 10.1 (p. 189), 11.2 (p. 212), 12.1 (p. 220), and 12.2 (p.

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VARIABLE 10: CENTRAL BANK INDEPENDENCE

Of the three indexes used in Table 13.1 (pp. 236-37), the Grilli-Masciandaro-Tabellini and Governors' turnover indexes are

The original values of the Governors' turnover index can be found in Cukierman, Webb, and Neyapti (1994), pp. 380-81, e

The last two columns of Appendix A, p. 314, of Patterns of Democracy provide my overall index of central bank independe

Page 1

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AUL 0.42 ITA 0.26

AUT 0.57 JAM 0.35

BAH - JPN 0.25

BAR - LUX 0.33

BEL 0.26 MAL -

BOT - MAU -

CAN 0.52 NET 0.48

COL 0.33 NZ 0.18

CR 0.39 NOR 0.17

DEN 0.46 PNG -

FIN 0.28 POR -

FRA 0.37 SPA -

GER 0.69 SWE 0.29

GRE - SWI 0.57

ICE 0.34 TRI 0.39

IND - UK 0.34

IRE 0.41 US 0.56

ISR 0.39 VEN 0.22

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VARIABLE 1: EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTARY PARTIES (ENPP)

and

VARIABLE 4: ELECTORAL DISPROPORTIONALITY (DISPROP)

AUSTRALIA

Column A: Liberal and National parties counted as one party.

Column B: Liberal and National parties counted as two parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

See also pp. 69-74 and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP

A B MEAN A B MEAN

1946 2.035 2.399 2.217 6.863 9.607 8.235

1949 1.905 2.617 2.261 9.246 7.495 8.371

1951 1.961 2.570 2.266 6.394 5.357 5.875

1954 1.993 2.548 2.270 2.906 2.875 2.891

1955 1.900 2.574 2.237 8.464 6.844 7.654

1958 1.871 2.589 2.230 13.661 11.052 12.357

1961 1.999 2.517 2.258 8.283 7.120 7.701

1963 1.937 2.656 2.296 11.053 8.998 10.025

1966 1.829 2.632 2.231 13.470 10.828 12.149

1969 1.994 2.605 2.300 7.961 6.948 7.455

1972 1.990 2.467 2.228 6.072 6.902 6.487

1974 1.997 2.521 2.259 3.576 5.956 4.766

1975 1.684 2.501 2.093 16.714 14.049 15.381

1977 1.739 2.443 2.091 17.645 15.021 16.333

1980 1.935 2.641 2.288 10.699 8.465 9.582

1983 1.923 2.231 2.077 8.624 10.407 9.516

1984 2.000 2.407 2.203 6.563 7.818 7.191

1987 1.949 2.280 2.114 10.070 10.408 10.239

1990 2.020 2.354 2.187 12.620 12.516 12.568

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1993 2.034 2.368 2.210 7.262 8.093 7.678

1996 1.982 2.623 2.303 12.921 10.949 11.935

AUSTRIA

ENPP DISPROP

1945 2.091 2.649

1949 2.545 3.050

1953 2.471 3.981

1956 2.223 4.021

1959 2.198 4.394

1962 2.195 3.982

1966 2.137 3.814

1970 2.122 2.991

1971 2.211 1.186

1975 2.211 1.043

1979 2.221 0.931

1983 2.262 2.441

1986 2.633 0.925

1990 2.993 2.066

1994 3.728 1.025

1995 3.477 1.072

BAHAMAS

ENPP DISPROP

1972 1.633 13.865

1977 1.447 22.497

1982 1.615 16.582

1987 1.973 10.148

1992 1.739 14.252

BARBADOS

ENPP DISPROP

1966 2.182 6.361

1971 1.600 17.504

1976 1.704 17.719

1981 1.874 10.420

1986 1.246 29.353

1991 1.849 12.467

1994 1.840 16.444

BELGIUM

Column A: Linguistic splits in major parties not counted.

Column B: Linguistic segments of major parties counted as separate parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

See also pp. 69-74 and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP

A B MEAN A B MEAN

1946 2.905 - - 3.036 - -

1949 2.746 - - 4.886 - - Page 3

Sheet1

1950 2.491 - - 3.232 - -

1954 2.634 - - 3.611 - -

1958 2.454 - - 3.337 - -

1961 2.688 - - 4.082 - -

1965 3.590 - - 2.439 - -

1968 4.104 4.966 4.535 1.583 3.502 2.543

1971 4.438 5.449 4.943 1.874 2.423 2.148

1974 4.331 5.762 5.046 1.910 1.908 1.909

1977 3.789 5.242 4.515 2.510 2.520 2.515

1978 3.806 6.804 5.305 2.919 2.805 2.862

1981 4.237 7.623 5.930 4.370 4.163 4.267

1985 3.850 7.003 5.426 3.828 3.296 3.562

1987 3.859 7.132 5.495 3.506 3.236 3.371

1991 4.612 8.413 6.512 4.169 3.478 3.824

1995 4.417 8.030 6.223 3.663 3.116 3.390

BOTSWANA

ENEP DISPROP

1965 1.186 8.382

1969 1.526 7.457

1974 1.336 6.730

1979 1.185 12.650

1984 1.306 14.013

1989 1.170 22.664

1994 1.713 10.317

CANADA

ENPP DISPROP

1945 2.849 8.095

1949 1.751 20.616

1953 2.154 14.041

1957 2.860 2.911

1958 1.536 21.148

1962 2.841 6.428

1963 2.647 7.449

1965 2.590 10.190

1968 2.332 11.572

1972 2.843 6.255

1974 2.380 9.852

1979 2.446 10.405

1980 2.392 8.724

1984 1.691 20.910

1988 2.333 11.324

1993 2.350 17.674

COLOMBIA

Column A: Liberal and Conservative parties counted as one party each.

Column B: Factions of these two parties counted as parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

DISPROP means legislative disproportionality.

Last column: Disproportionality in presidential elections.

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See also pp. 69-74, 159-161, and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP PRESID

A B MEAN A B MEAN DISPROP

1958 2.000 4.000 3.000 7.813 5.525 6.669 19.851

1960 2.000 4.000 3.000 8.256 5.838 7.047 -

1962 2.000 4.000 3.000 4.578 3.237 3.907 15.895

1964 2.000 4.000 3.000 1.387 0.981 1.184 -

1966 2.000 4.000 3.000 5.667 4.007 4.837 28.187

1968 2.000 4.000 3.000 3.378 2.389 2.884 -

1970 2.000 4.000 3.000 1.290 0.913 1.102 51.268

1974 2.279 4.494 3.386 1.553 1.351 1.452 38.671

1978 2.060 4.116 3.088 1.881 1.475 1.678 48.615

1982 1.985 3.969 2.977 1.425 1.157 1.291 48.157

1986 2.466 4.913 3.689 3.257 2.786 3.022 38.900

1990 2.198 4.394 3.296 0.587 0.498 0.542 41.972

1991 3.311 6.378 4.844 2.534 2.381 2.458 -

1994 2.823 5.604 4.213 3.689 3.123 3.406 48.929

COSTA RICA

DISPROP means legislative disproportionality.

Third column: disproportionality in presidential elections.

See also pp. 159-61 of Patterns of Democracy.

PRESID

ENPP DISPROP DISPROP

1953 1.964 4.243 35.291

1958 3.209 3.462 49.078

1962 2.605 2.775 44.176

1966 2.136 3.012 49.522

1970 2.147 5.123 43.274

1974 3.133 6.148 46.573

1978 2.380 5.447 46.801

1982 2.270 3.185 37.782

1986 2.212 3.225 46.730

1990 2.212 4.073 47.858

1994 2.296 4.761 49.097

DENMARK

ENPP DISPROP

1945 4.476 1.819

1947 3.558 4.241

1950 3.985 0.379

4/1953 3.838 0.809

9/1953 3.630 2.161

1957 3.763 1.808

1960 3.593 2.066

1964 3.504 1.877

1966 3.963 1.797

1968 4.233 1.867

1971 3.937 3.446

1973 6.856 1.201 Page 5

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1975 5.410 1.422

1977 5.174 0.406

1979 4.834 1.488

1981 5.468 1.560

1984 5.041 1.379

1987 5.312 2.109

1988 5.314 2.340

1990 4.364 2.609

1994 4.536 1.574

FINLAND

ENPP DISPROP

1945 4.766 2.708

1948 4.542 3.042

1951 4.780 1.728

1954 4.713 2.149

1958 4.867 2.169

1962 5.092 4.129

1966 4.964 2.925

1970 5.580 2.901

1972 5.507 2.327

1975 5.312 3.221

1979 5.208 2.678

1983 5.140 2.191

1987 4.933 4.973

1991 5.230 3.179

1995 4.884 3.653

FRANCE

DISPROP means legislative disproportionality.

Third column: disproportionality in presidential elections.

See also pp. 159-61 of Patterns of Democracy.

PRESID

ENPP DISPROP DISPROP

1958 3.448 17.359 -

1962 3.428 12.261 -

1965 - - 44.803

1967 3.759 8.209 -

1968 2.490 15.713 -

1969 - - 41.789

1973 4.516 9.003 -

1974 - - 49.195

1978 4.196 5.374 -

1981 2.679 13.117 48.244

1986 3.896 7.228 -

1988 3.069 9.684 45.981

1993 2.859 20.439 -

1995 - - 47.358

GERMANY

Column A: CDU and CSU counted as one party. Page 6

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Column B: CDU and CSU counted as two parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B

See also pp. 69-74 and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP

A B MEAN A B MEAN

1949 4.014 4.652 4.333 3.864 3.795 3.829

1953 2.786 3.635 3.210 4.335 3.667 4.001

1957 2.388 3.071 2.730 4.765 4.687 4.726

1961 2.511 3.114 2.813 3.608 3.429 3.519

1965 2.383 2.928 2.656 2.389 2.302 2.346

1969 2.244 2.712 2.478 4.036 3.914 3.975

1972 2.338 2.789 2.564 0.681 0.672 0.676

1976 2.313 2.853 2.583 0.579 0.569 0.574

1980 2.436 2.965 2.700 1.449 1.406 1.428

1983 2.513 3.162 2.838 0.499 0.497 0.498

1987 2.800 3.472 3.136 0.686 0.667 0.676

1990 2.648 3.172 2.910 4.860 4.623 4.741

1994 2.905 3.446 3.175 1.775 1.760 1.767

GREECE

ENPP DISPROP

1974 1.724 15.792

1977 2.350 13.581

1981 2.094 8.393

1985 2.146 7.082

6/1989 2.404 4.360

11/1989 2.324 3.858

1990 2.368 3.971

1993 2.174 7.573

ICELAND

ENPP DISPROP

1946 3.605 1.606

1949 3.467 6.746

1953 3.440 7.999

1956 3.476 13.567

6/1959 3.196 7.551

10/1959 3.442 3.072

1963 3.327 2.796

1967 3.543 2.336

1971 3.854 2.673

1974 3.383 2.762

1978 3.846 3.392

1979 3.785 2.667

1983 4.063 3.725

1987 5.342 2.307

1991 3.776 2.819

1995 3.949 2.023

INDIA Page 7

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Column A: Congress Party counted as one party.

Column B: Congress Party counted as two parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

See also pp. 69-74 and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP

A B MEAN A B MEAN

1977 2.628 2.940 2.784 10.596 10.106 10.351

1980 2.167 4.187 3.177 19.640 15.484 17.562

1984 1.688 3.340 2.514 21.454 16.056 18.755

1989 4.126 5.780 4.953 8.113 8.037 8.075

1991 3.599 5.764 4.681 7.110 5.484 6.297

1996 5.832 7.234 6.533 7.335 7.178 7.256

IRELAND

ENPP DISPROP

1948 3.629 5.517

1951 3.246 2.419

1954 3.035 1.971

1957 2.751 4.309

1961 2.812 4.382

1965 2.632 2.135

1969 2.454 5.361

1973 2.580 2.275

1977 2.382 4.868

1981 2.614 2.663

2/1982 2.560 1.626

11/1982 2.555 2.723

1987 2.895 5.117

1989 2.974 3.501

1992 3.508 2.860

ISRAEL

DISPROP means legislative disproportionality.

Third column: disproportionality in prime-ministerial election.

See also pp. 159-61 of Patterns of Democracy.

PRIME-M

ENPP DISPROP DISPROP

1949 5.042 2.370 -

1951 5.024 0.697 -

1955 5.955 1.206 -

1959 4.921 1.046 -

1961 5.349 0.640 -

1965 4.709 0.837 -

1969 3.563 0.717 -

1973 3.360 2.780 -

1977 4.369 2.657 -

1981 3.125 2.953 -

1984 3.867 2.145 -

1988 4.396 2.524 -

1992 4.393 2.224 - Page 8

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1996 5.607 1.654 49.505

ITALY

Column A: Christian Democrats counted as one party.

Column B: Christian Democrats counted as two parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

See also pp. 69-74 and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP

A B MEAN A B MEAN

1946 4.390 6.309 5.350 1.559 1.186 1.373

1948 2.873 4.835 3.854 3.607 2.765 3.186

1953 3.543 5.468 4.505 3.641 2.872 3.256

1958 3.452 5.412 4.432 2.733 2.120 2.426

1963 3.738 5.483 4.610 2.570 2.056 2.313

1968 3.526 5.143 4.334 2.647 2.105 2.376

1972 3.554 5.220 4.387 3.227 2.638 2.933

1976 3.159 4.358 3.758 2.734 2.274 2.504

1979 3.468 4.937 4.203 2.683 2.177 2.430

1983 4.116 5.581 4.849 2.543 2.125 2.334

1987 4.074 5.667 4.871 2.516 2.078 2.297

1992 5.712 8.222 6.967 2.509 1.996 2.252

1994 - - 6.558 - - 9.662

1996 - - 6.130 - - 6.164

JAMAICA

ENPP DISPROP

1962 1.953 7.111

1967 1.887 11.477

1972 1.729 13.337

1976 1.514 21.567

1980 1.342 26.084

1983 - - (boycotted election)

1989 1.600 18.359

1993 1.301 26.336

JAPAN

Column A: Liberal Democrats counted as one party.

Column B: Liberal Democrats counted as two parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

See also pp. 69-74 and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP

A B MEAN A B MEAN

1946 - - 5.764 - - 5.087

1947 - - 4.024 - - 3.947

1949 - - 2.775 - - 9.485

1952 - - 3.058 - - 3.415

1953 - - 3.866 - - 3.695

1955 - - 3.684 - - 4.034

1958 1.984 3.173 2.578 2.638 2.557 2.598

1960 2.002 3.348 2.675 5.849 5.295 5.572

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1963 2.151 3.556 2.854 3.821 3.432 3.626

1967 2.413 3.969 3.191 5.817 4.583 5.200

1969 2.502 4.462 3.482 7.457 5.885 6.671

1972 2.678 4.524 3.601 5.617 4.781 5.199

1976 3.201 5.163 4.182 6.531 6.075 6.303

1979 3.307 5.416 4.362 3.241 3.052 3.146

1980 2.743 4.758 3.750 6.028 5.005 5.516

1983 3.240 5.291 4.266 3.789 3.704 3.746

1986 2.531 4.546 3.538 7.171 5.514 6.342

1990 2.550 4.236 3.393 6.726 5.559 6.142

1993 4.057 6.804 5.430 6.358 5.295 5.826

LUXEMBOURG

ENPP DISPROP

1945 3.049 3.562

1948+51 3.066 1.316

1954 2.677 3.948

1959 3.144 1.592

1964 3.168 3.542

1968 3.401 2.213

1974 4.052 1.830

1979 3.457 5.167

1984 3.225 2.991

1989 3.774 4.979

1994 3.896 4.675

MALTA ENPP DISPROP

1966 1.972 7.288

1971 1.999 1.063

1976 1.996 0.773

1981 1.996 3.232

1987 2.000 0.314

1992 1.996 1.515

MAURITIUS

ENPP DISPROP

1976 2.445 7.928

1982 2.074 22.227

1983 3.342 13.592

1987 3.475 11.650

1991 2.608 23.534

1995 2.342 19.655

NETHERLANDS

ENPP DISPROP

1946 4.468 1.105

1948 4.682 1.270

1952 4.651 1.500 Page 10

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1956 4.075 0.984

1959 4.145 1.641

1963 4.505 1.213

1967 5.711 1.426

1971 6.396 1.669

1972 6.421 1.186

1977 3.698 1.487

1981 4.289 1.293

1982 4.015 1.132

1986 3.491 1.645

1989 3.753 0.841

1994 5.416 1.051

NEW ZEALAND

ENPP DISPROP

1946 1.995 1.087

1949 1.956 5.165

1951 1.882 8.412

1954 1.969 11.564

1957 1.999 6.376

1960 1.956 9.311

1963 1.969 8.588

1966 2.024 12.438

1969 1.990 8.865

1972 1.869 12.062

1975 1.869 12.928

1978 2.014 15.547

1981 2.084 16.628

1984 1.984 15.403

1987 1.940 8.883

1990 1.740 17.377

1993 2.162 18.197

NORWAY

ENPP DISPROP

1945 3.175 7.830

1949 2.672 9.229

1953 3.089 4.075

1957 2.992 3.632

1961 3.215 3.052

1965 3.512 4.244

1969 3.177 3.803

1973 4.140 5.017

1977 2.969 5.906

1981 3.194 4.927

1985 3.088 4.744

1989 4.235 3.651

1993 4.041 3.945

PAPUA NEW GUINEA Page 11

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ENPP DISPROP

1977 4.459 11.069

1982 2.693 9.775

1987 5.951 9.547

1992 10.830 9.861

PORTUGAL

ENPP DISPROP

1976 3.434 3.646

1979 4.163 2.919

1980 4.226 2.976

1983 3.409 2.968

1985 4.261 3.618

1987 2.371 6.118

1991 2.230 5.612

1995 2.551 4.455

SPAIN ENPP DISPROP

1977 2.915 9.985

1979 2.808 10.556

1982 2.337 8.007

1986 3.021 6.930

1989 2.853 9.174

1993 2.673 7.057

1996 2.724 5.348

SWEDEN

ENPP DISPROP

1948 3.060 3.511

1952 3.089 2.189

1956 3.184 2.432

1958 3.169 2.159

1960 3.112 2.054

1964 3.246 2.267

1968 2.873 3.029

1970 3.316 1.581

1973 3.351 1.524

1976 3.447 1.195

1979 3.482 1.270

1982 3.129 2.390

1985 3.396 1.306

1988 3.665 2.454

1991 4.193 2.860

1994 3.504 1.175

SWITZERLAND

ENPP DISPROP

1947 4.969 3.401 Page 12

Sheet1

1951 4.801 2.455

1955 4.708 1.682

1959 4.746 1.913

1963 4.779 1.151

1967 5.126 1.441

1971 5.490 2.462

1975 5.008 3.074

1979 5.111 1.695

1983 5.315 2.889

1987 5.771 3.757

1991 6.701 2.564

1995 5.604 4.429

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

ENPP DISPROP

1961 1.800 9.039

1966 1.800 12.125

1971 - - (boycotted election)

1976 1.906 9.744

1981 1.742 21.608

1986 1.180 24.575

1991 2.111 17.134

1995 2.227 1.408

UNITED KINGDOM

ENPP DISPROP

1945 2.108 11.796

1950 2.077 6.910

1951 2.055 2.609

1955 2.027 4.129

1959 1.986 7.300

1964 2.057 8.881

1966 2.018 8.434

1970 2.068 6.587

2/1974 2.250 15.473

10/1974 2.254 14.959

1979 2.150 11.582

1983 2.093 17.448

1987 2.174 14.953

1992 2.268 13.553

UNITED STATES

Column A: Democrats counted as one party.

Column B: Democrats counted as two parties.

Third column (MEAN): Mean of A and B.

DISPROP means legislative disproportionality.

Last column: Disproportionality in presidential elections.

See also pp. 69-74, 159-61, and 315 of Patterns of Democracy.

ENPP DISPROP PRESID

A B MEAN A B MEAN DISPROP

Page 13

Sheet1

1946 1.976 2.430 2.203 2.274 2.133 2.203 -

1948 1.923 2.965 2.444 6.999 5.811 6.405 47.943

1950 1.995 2.815 2.405 3.957 3.258 3.607 -

1952 2.009 2.646 2.327 1.167 1.103 1.135 44.622

1954 1.991 2.778 2.384 0.575 0.430 0.502 -

1956 1.989 2.792 2.390 2.617 2.236 2.427 42.289

1958 1.835 2.996 2.416 8.329 7.154 7.742 -

1960 1.924 2.940 2.432 4.922 4.168 4.545 49.915

1962 1.930 2.933 2.431 7.423 6.369 6.896 -

1964 1.775 2.998 2.386 9.918 8.534 9.226 38.711

1966 1.959 2.885 2.422 5.694 4.804 5.249 -

1968 1.973 2.850 2.412 4.797 3.989 4.393 51.038

1970 1.942 2.915 2.429 3.621 2.933 3.277 -

1972 1.973 2.850 2.412 2.731 2.182 2.456 38.443

1974 1.795 3.000 2.397 7.897 6.576 7.237 -

1976 1.790 3.000 2.395 9.671 8.136 8.903 48.983

1978 1.861 2.988 2.424 9.152 7.725 8.439 -

1980 1.973 2.850 2.412 4.586 3.761 4.174 45.568

1982 1.894 2.969 2.431 5.715 4.750 5.232 -

1984 1.948 2.905 2.427 5.386 4.540 4.963 40.894

1986 1.933 2.929 2.431 4.020 3.367 3.693 -

1988 1.926 2.937 2.432 5.553 4.648 5.100 46.141

1990 1.908 2.978 2.443 7.891 6.563 7.227 -

1992 1.940 2.945 2.442 7.080 5.662 6.371 49.966

1994 2.002 2.567 2.285 1.308 0.926 1.117 -

VENEZUELA

DISPROP means legislative disproportionality.

Third column: disproportionality in presidential elections.

See also pp. 159-61 of Patterns of Democracy.

PRESID

ENPP DISPROP DISPROP

1958 2.541 4.472 44.959

1963 4.281 3.288 53.066

1968 4.879 4.819 57.832

1973 2.716 5.073 44.903

1978 2.646 3.907 48.760

1983 2.422 4.953 37.922

1988 2.829 3.990 43.936

1993 4.738 3.764 56.530

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VARIABLE 2: MINIMAL WINNING ONE-PARTY CABINETS

and

VARIABLE 3: EXECUTIVE DOMINANCE (CABINET DURABILITY)

General explanatory notes concerning Variables 2 and 3:

First column (CABINET NUMBER): The numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., indicate different cabinets according to the criterion of partis

Fifth column (MIN WIN): A minimal winning cabinet is given the score of 1.00, and oversized and minority cabinets receive

Page 14

Sheet1

Sixth column (ONE PARTY): A one-party cabinet is scored 1.00 and a coalition cabinet 0.00. Scores between 1.00 and 0

Seventh column (MEAN): Mean of MIN WIN and ONE PARTY scores.

AUSTRALIA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Chifley 31.10.46 1145 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Menzies 19.12.49 508 1.00 0.50 0.75

2b Menzies 11.05.51 1155 1.00 0.50 0.75

2c Menzies 09.07.54 551 1.00 0.50 0.75

2d Menzies 11.01.56 1063 1.00 0.50 0.75

2e Menzies 09.12.58 1110 1.00 0.50 0.75

2f Menzies 23.12.61 724 1.00 0.50 0.75

2g Menzies/Holt 17.12.63 1093 1.00 0.50 0.75

2h Holt/McEwen/Gorton 14.12.66 1063 1.00 0.50 0.75

2i Gorton/McMahon 11.11.69 1134 1.00 0.50 0.75

3a Whitlam 19.12.72 540 1.00 1.00 1.00

3b Whitlam 12.06.74 518 1.00 1.00 1.00

4a Fraser 12.11.75 36 0.00 0.50 0.25

4b Fraser 18.12.75 733 0.50 0.50 0.50

4c Fraser 20.12.77 1048 0.50 0.50 0.50

4d Fraser 02.11.80 859 1.00 0.50 0.75

5a Hawke 11.03.83 643 1.00 1.00 1.00

5b Hawke 13.12.84 951 1.00 1.00 1.00

5c Hawke 22.07.87 986 1.00 1.00 1.00

5d Hawke/Keating 03.04.90 1086 1.00 1.00 1.00

5e Keating 24.03.93 1083 1.00 1.00 1.00

6 Howard 11.03.96 112 0.50 0.50 0.50

AUSTRIA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Figl 18.12.45 701 0.00 0.00 0.00

2a Figl 19.11.47 719 0.00 0.00 0.00

2b Figl 07.11.49 1242 0.00 0.00 0.00

2c Raab 02.04.53 1178 0.00 0.00 0.00

2d Raab 23.06.56 1117 0.00 0.00 0.00

2e Raab/Gorbach 15.07.59 1348 0.00 0.00 0.00

2f Gorbach/Klaus 24.03.63 1122 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Klaus 19.04.66 1464 1.00 1.00 1.00

4a Kreisky 22.04.70 548 0.00 1.00 0.50

4b Kreisky 22.10.71 1468 1.00 1.00 1.00

4c Kreisky 29.10.75 1289 1.00 1.00 1.00

4d Kreisky 10.05.79 1475 1.00 1.00 1.00

5 Sinowatz/Vranitzky 24.05.83 1338 1.00 0.00 0.50

6a Vranitzky 21.01.87 1426 0.00 0.00 0.00

6b Vranitzky 17.12.90 1444 1.00 0.00 0.50

6c Vranitzky 30.11.94 468 1.00 0.00 0.50

Page 15

Sheet1

6d Vranitzky 12.03.96 111 1.00 0.00 0.50

BAHAMAS

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Pindling 19.09.72 1764 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Pindling 19.07.77 1787 1.00 1.00 1.00

1c Pindling 10.06.82 1835 1.00 1.00 1.00

1d Pindling 19.06.87 1888 1.00 1.00 1.00

2 Ingraham 19.08.92 1412 1.00 1.00 1.00

BARBADOS

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Barrow 03.03.66 2016 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Barrow 09.09.71 1820 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Adams 02.09.76 1750 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Adams/St.John 18.06.81 1805 1.00 1.00 1.00

3a Barrow/Sandiford 28.05.86 1700 1.00 1.00 1.00

3b Sandiford 22.01.91 1323 1.00 1.00 1.00

4 Arthur 06.09.94 664 1.00 1.00 1.00

BELGIUM

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Spaak 11.03.46 21 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 v.Acker/Huysmans 01.04.46 360 1.00 0.00 0.50

3 Spaak 27.03.47 874 1.00 0.00 0.50

4 Eyskens 17.08.49 317 1.00 0.00 0.50

5 Duvieusart/

Pholien/v.Houtte 30.06.50 1392 1.00 1.00 1.00

6 van Acker 22.04.54 1526 1.00 0.00 0.50

7 Eyskens 26.06.58 134 0.00 1.00 0.50

8 Eyskens 07.11.58 900 1.00 0.00 0.50

9a Lefevre 25.04.61 1555 0.00 0.00 0.00

9b Harmel 28.07.65 235 1.00 0.00 0.50

10 Vandenboeynants 20.03.66 821 1.00 0.00 0.50

11a Eyskens 18.06.68 1312 0.50 0.00 0.25

11b Eyskens 21.01.72 371 0.50 0.00 0.25

12 Leburton 26.01.73 454 0.00 0.00 0.00

13 Tindemans 25.04.74 48 0.00 0.00 0.00

14 Tindemans 12.06.74 1087 0.75 0.00 0.38

15 Tindemans/

Vandenboeynants 03.06.77 669 0.00 0.00 0.00

16 Martens 03.04.79 295 0.00 0.00 0.00

17 Martens 23.01.80 116 0.50 0.00 0.25

18 Martens 18.05.80 157 0.00 0.00 0.00

19 Eyskens 22.10.80 421 0.50 0.00 0.25

20a Martens 17.12.81 1442 1.00 0.00 0.50

20b Martens 28.11.85 893 1.00 0.00 0.50

Page 16

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21 Martens 09.05.88 1404 0.00 0.00 0.00

22a Dehaene 13.03.92 1197 1.00 0.00 0.50

22b Dehaene 23.06.95 374 1.00 0.00 0.50

BOTSWANA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Khama 01.03.65 1692 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Khama 18.10.69 1834 1.00 1.00 1.00

1c Khama 26.10.74 1820 1.00 1.00 1.00

1d Khama/Masire 20.10.79 1785 1.00 1.00 1.00

1e Masire 08.09.84 1855 1.00 1.00 1.00

1f Masire 07.10.89 1834 1.00 1.00 1.00

1g Masire 15.10.94 625 1.00 1.00 1.00

CANADA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Mackenzie/St.Lau. 30.08.45 1396 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b St.Laurent 26.06.49 1506 1.00 1.00 1.00

1c St.Laurent 10.08.53 1411 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Diefenbaker 21.06.57 283 0.00 1.00 0.50

2b Diefenbaker 31.03.58 1592 1.00 1.00 1.00

2c Diefenbaker 09.08.62 256 0.00 1.00 0.50

3a Pearson 22.04.63 971 0.00 1.00 0.50

3b Pearson/Trudeau 18.12.65 932 0.00 1.00 0.50

3c Trudeau 07.07.68 1604 1.00 1.00 1.00

3d Trudeau 27.11.72 619 0.00 1.00 0.50

3e Trudeau 08.08.74 1761 1.00 1.00 1.00

4 Clark 04.06.79 273 0.00 1.00 0.50

5 Trudeau/Turner 03.03.80 1659 1.00 1.00 1.00

6a Mulroney 17.09.84 1542 1.00 1.00 1.00

6b Mulroney/Campbell 07.12.88 1793 1.00 1.00 1.00

7 Chrツtien 04.11.93 970 1.00 1.00 1.00

COLOMBIA

CABINET MIN ONE

NUMBER PRESIDENT BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Lleras C. 07.08.58 1461 0.50 0.50 0.50

1b Lツon 07.08.62 1461 0.50 0.50 0.50

1c Lleras R. 07.08.66 1461 0.50 0.50 0.50

1d Pastrana 07.08.70 1461 0.50 0.50 0.50

1e Lツpez 07.08.74 1461 0.50 0.50 0.50

1f Turbay 07.08.78 1461 0.50 0.50 0.50

1g Betancur 07.08.82 1461 1.00 0.50 0.75

2 Barco 07.08.86 1461 0.75 0.75 0.75

3 Gaviria 07.08.90 459 0.50 0.50 0.50

4 Gaviria 09.11.91 234 0.50 0.50 0.50

5 Gaviria 30.06.92 147 0.50 0.50 0.50

6 Gaviria 24.11.92 621 0.50 0.50 0.50

Page 17

Sheet1

7 Samper 07.08.94 541 0.50 0.50 0.50

8 Samper 30.01.96 153 1.00 0.75 0.88

COSTA RICA

CABINET MIN ONE

NUMBER PRESIDENT BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Figueres 08.11.53 1642 1.00 1.00 1.00

2 Echaudi 08.05.58 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

3 Orlich 08.05.62 1461 1.00 1.00 1.00

4 Trejos 08.05.66 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

5a Figueres 08.05.70 1461 1.00 1.00 1.00

5b Oduber 08.05.74 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

6 Carazo 08.05.78 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

7a Monge 08.05.82 1461 1.00 1.00 1.00

7b Arias 08.05.86 1461 1.00 1.00 1.00

8 Calderツn 08.05.90 1461 1.00 1.00 1.00

9 Figueres 08.05.94 785 0.50 1.00 0.75

DENMARK

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Kristensen 08.11.45 735 0.00 1.00 0.50

2a Hedtoft 13.11.47 1037 0.00 1.00 0.50

2b Hedtoft 15.09.50 42 0.00 1.00 0.50

3a Eriksen 27.10.50 921 0.00 0.00 0.00

3b Eriksen 05.05.53 148 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Hedtoft/Nansen 30.09.53 1336 0.00 1.00 0.50

5 Hansen/Kampmann 28.05.57 1270 1.00 0.00 0.50

6 Kampmann/Krag 18.11.60 1408 0.00 0.00 0.00

7a Krag 26.09.64 793 0.00 1.00 0.50

7b Krag 28.11.66 430 0.00 1.00 0.50

8 Baunsgaard 01.02.68 1348 1.00 0.00 0.50

9 Krag/Jorgensen 11.10.71 800 0.00 1.00 0.50

10 Hartling 19.12.73 421 0.00 1.00 0.50

11a Jorgensen 13.02.75 743 0.00 1.00 0.50

11b Jorgensen 25.02.77 551 0.00 1.00 0.50

12 Jorgensen 30.08.78 422 0.00 0.00 0.00

13a Jorgensen 26.10.79 797 0.00 1.00 0.50

13b Jorgensen 31.12.81 253 0.00 1.00 0.50

14a Schlツter 10.09.82 498 0.00 0.00 0.00

14b Schlツter 21.01.84 1328 0.00 0.00 0.00

14c Schlツter 10.09.87 267 0.00 0.00 0.00

15 Schlツter 03.06.88 928 0.00 0.00 0.00

16 Schlツter 18.12.90 769 0.00 0.00 0.00

17 Rasmussen 25.01.93 609 1.00 0.00 0.50

18 Rasmussen 26.09.94 644 0.00 0.00 0.00

FINLAND

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

Page 18

Sheet1

1 Paasikivi 17.04.45 342 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 Pekkala 25.03.46 857 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Fagerholm 29.07.48 596 0.00 1.00 0.50

4 Kekkonen 17.03.50 306 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 Kekkonen 17.01.51 63 0.00 0.00 0.00

6 Kekkonen 21.03.51 183 0.00 0.00 0.00

7 Kekkonen 20.09.51 658 0.00 0.00 0.00

8 Kekkonen 09.07.53 130 0.00 0.00 0.00

9 Tuomioja 16.11.53 170 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 T"rngren 05.05.54 168 0.00 0.00 0.00

11 Kekkonen 20.10.54 500 1.00 0.00 0.50

12 Fagerholm 03.03.56 450 0.00 0.00 0.00

13 Sukselainen 27.05.57 36 0.00 0.00 0.00

14 Sukselainen 02.07.57 62 0.00 0.00 0.00

15a Sukselainen 02.09.57 88 0.00 0.00 0.00

v.Fieandt 29.11.57 148 [non-party cabinet]

15b Kuuskoski 26.04.58 125 0.00 0.00 0.00

16 Fagerholm 29.08.58 137 0.00 0.00 0.00

17 Suksel./Miettunen 13.01.59 1186 0.00 1.00 0.50

18a Karjalainen 13.04.62 614 1.00 0.00 0.50

Lehto 18.12.63 269 [non-party cabinet]

18b Virolainen 12.09.64 622 1.00 0.00 0.50

19 Paasio 27.05.66 665 0.00 0.00 0.00

20 Koivisto 22.03.68 783 0.00 0.00 0.00

21 Aura 14.05.70 62 0.00 0.00 0.00

22 Karjalainen 15.07.70 254 0.00 0.00 0.00

23 Karjalainen 26.03.71 217 0.50 0.00 0.25

24 Aura 29.10.71 117 0.00 0.00 0.00

25 Paasio 23.02.72 194 0.00 1.00 0.50

26 Sorsa 04.09.72 1012 0.50 0.00 0.25

Liinamaa 13.06.75 170 [non-party cabinet]

27 Miettunen 30.11.75 304 0.00 0.00 0.00

28 Miettunen 29.09.76 228 0.00 0.00 0.00

29 Sorsa 15.05.77 291 0.00 0.00 0.00

30 Sorsa 02.03.78 449 0.00 0.00 0.00

31 Koivisto/Sorsa 25.05.79 1315 0.00 0.00 0.00

32 Sorsa 30.12.82 128 0.00 0.00 0.00

33 Sorsa 07.05.83 1454 0.00 0.00 0.00

34 Holkeri 30.04.87 1216 0.00 0.00 0.00

35 Holkeri 28.08.90 241 0.00 0.00 0.00

36 Aho 26.04.91 1151 0.00 0.00 0.00

37 Aho 20.06.94 297 1.00 0.00 0.50

38 Lipponen 13.04.95 445 0.00 0.00 0.00

FRANCE

CABINET MIN ONE

NUMBER PRESIDENT BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 de Gaulle 08.01.59 1193 0.50 0.50 0.50

2a de Gaulle 15.04.62 235 1.00 0.50 0.75

2b de Gaulle 06.12.62 1130 1.00 0.50 0.75

2c de Gaulle 09.01.66 454 1.00 0.50 0.75

2d de Gaulle 08.04.67 461 0.50 0.50 0.50

Page 19

Sheet1

2e de Gaulle 12.07.68 345 0.50 0.50 0.50

3 Pompidou 22.06.69 1383 0.50 0.50 0.50

4 Pompidou 05.04.73 418 1.00 0.50 0.75

5 Giscard d'E. 28.05.74 812 0.50 0.50 0.50

6 Giscard d'E. 17.08.76 595 0.50 0.50 0.50

7 Giscard d'E. 04.04.78 1144 1.00 0.50 0.75

8 Mitterrand 22.05.81 32 1.00 1.00 1.00

9 Mitterrand 23.06.81 1126 0.50 0.50 0.50

10 Mitterrand 23.07.84 605 1.00 1.00 1.00

11 Chirac* 20.03.86 784 1.00 0.00 0.50

12 Mitterrand 12.05.88 1783 0.50 1.00 0.75

13a Balladur* 30.03.93 779 1.00 0.00 0.50

13b Chirac 18.05.95 410 1.00 0.50 0.75

*prime ministers in parliamentary phases.

GERMANY

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Adenauer 15.09.49 1485 1.00 0.00 0.50

2 Adenauer 09.10.53 652 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Adenauer 23.07.55 822 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Adenauer 22.10.57 983 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 Adenauer 01.07.60 501 1.00 0.50 0.75

6 Adenauer 14.11.61 370 0.50 0.00 0.25

7 Adenauer 19.11.62 25 0.00 0.50 0.25

8a Adenauer/Erhard 14.12.62 1047 0.50 0.00 0.25

8b Erhard 26.10.65 367 1.00 0.00 0.50

9 Erhard 28.10.66 34 0.00 0.50 0.25

10 Kiesinger 01.12.66 1056 0.00 0.00 0.00

11a Brandt 22.10.69 1150 1.00 0.00 0.50

11b Brandt/Schmidt 15.12.72 1461 1.00 0.00 0.50

11c Schmidt 15.12.76 1420 1.00 0.00 0.50

11d Schmidt 04.11.80 682 1.00 0.00 0.50

12 Schmidt 17.09.82 17 0.00 1.00 0.50

13a Kohl 04.10.82 177 1.00 0.00 0.50

13b Kohl 30.03.83 1442 1.00 0.00 0.50

13c Kohl 11.03.87 1408 1.00 0.00 0.50

13d Kohl 17.01.91 1400 0.50 0.00 0.25

13e Kohl 17.11.94 592 1.00 0.00 0.50

GREECE

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Karamanlis 28.11.74 1089 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Karam./Rallis 21.11.77 1430 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Papandreou 21.10.81 1323 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Papandreou 05.06.85 1488 1.00 1.00 1.00

3 Tzannetakis 02.07.89 143 0.50 0.00 0.25

4 Zolotas 22.11.89 140 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 Mitsotakis 26.04.90 1293 1.00 1.00 1.00

6 Papand./Simitis 25.10.93 980 1.00 1.00 1.00

Page 20

Sheet1

ICELAND

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Thors 01.07.46 218 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 Stefansson 04.02.47 1037 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Thors 07.12.49 96 0.00 1.00 0.50

4a Steinthorsson 13.03.50 1280 1.00 0.00 0.50

4b Thors 13.09.53 1046 1.00 0.00 0.50

5 Jonasson 25.07.56 881 1.00 0.00 0.50

6a Jonsson 23.12.58 188 0.00 1.00 0.50

6b Jonsson 29.06.59 144 0.00 1.00 0.50

7a Thors 20.11.59 1455 1.00 0.00 0.50

7b Benediktssson 14.11.63 1306 1.00 0.00 0.50

7c Bened./Hafstein 12.06.67 1463 1.00 0.00 0.50

8 Johannesson 14.06.71 1172 1.00 0.00 0.50

9 Hallgrimsson 29.08.74 1463 1.00 0.00 0.50

10 Johanesson 31.08.78 410 1.00 0.00 0.50

11 Gr"ndal 15.10.79 116 0.00 1.00 0.50

12 Thoroddsen 08.02.80 1203 1.00 0.00 0.50

13 Hermannsson 26.05.83 1504 1.00 0.00 0.50

14 Palsson 08.07.87 448 1.00 0.00 0.50

15 Hermannsson 28.09.88 365 0.00 0.00 0.00

16 Hermannsson 28.09.89 579 1.00 0.00 0.50

17 Oddsson 30.04.91 1454 1.00 0.00 0.50

18 Oddsson 23.04.95 435 1.00 0.00 0.50

INDIA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Desai 24.03.77 856 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 C.Singh 28.07.79 170 0.00 0.00 0.00

3a I.Gandhi/R.Gandhi 14.01.80 1813 1.00 0.50 0.75

3b R.Gandhi 31.12.84 1800 1.00 0.50 0.75

4 V.P.Singh 05.12.89 351 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 Shekhar 21.11.90 212 0.00 1.00 0.50

6a Rao 21.06.91 923 0.00 0.50 0.25

6b Rao 30.12.93 867 1.00 0.50 0.75

7 Vajpayee 15.05.96 17 0.00 0.00 0.00

8 Gowda 01.06.96 30 0.00 0.00 0.00

IRELAND

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Costello 18.02.48 1211 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 de Valera 13.06.51 1085 0.00 1.00 0.50

3 Costello 02.06.54 1022 1.00 0.00 0.50

4a de Valera/Lemass 20.03.57 1666 1.00 1.00 1.00

4b Lemass 11.10.61 1268 0.00 1.00 0.50

4c Lemass/Lynch 01.04.65 1553 0.50 1.00 0.75

Page 21

Sheet1

4d Lynch 02.07.69 1351 1.00 1.00 1.00

5 Cosgrave 14.03.73 1574 1.00 0.00 0.50

6 Lynch/Haughey 05.07.77 1456 1.00 1.00 1.00

7 Fitzgerald 30.06.81 252 0.00 0.00 0.00

8 Haughey 09.03.82 280 0.00 1.00 0.50

9 Fitzgerald 14.12.82 1547 1.00 0.00 0.50

10 Haughey 10.03.87 855 0.00 1.00 0.50

11 Haughey/Reynolds 12.07.89 1280 0.50 0.00 0.25

12 Reynolds 12.01.93 702 1.00 0.00 0.50

13 Bruton 15.12.94 564 1.00 0.00 0.50

ISRAEL

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Ben-Gurion 10.03.49 941 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 Ben-Gurion 07.10.51 443 0.50 0.00 0.25

3 Ben-G./Sharett 23.12.52 918 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Sharett 29.06.55 126 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 Ben-Gurion 02.11.55 972 0.00 0.00 0.00

6 Ben-Gurion 01.07.58 533 1.00 0.00 0.50

7 Ben-Gurion 16.12.59 687 0.00 0.00 0.00

8 Ben-G./Eshkol 02.11.61 1530 1.00 0.00 0.50

9 Eshkol 10.01.66 507 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 Eshkol/Meir 01.06.67 928 0.00 0.00 0.00

11 Meir 15.12.69 1542 0.00 0.00 0.00

12 Meir 06.03.74 89 0.00 0.00 0.00

13 Rabin 03.06.74 148 0.00 0.00 0.00

14 Rabin 29.10.74 784 0.00 0.00 0.00

15 Rabin 21.12.76 180 0.00 0.00 0.00

16 Begin 19.06.77 127 0.00 0.00 0.00

17 Begin 24.10.77 1381 0.00 0.00 0.00

18 Begin 05.08.81 796 0.00 0.00 0.00

19 Shamir 10.10.83 339 0.50 0.00 0.25

20 Peres/Shamir 13.09.84 1561 0.00 0.00 0.00

21 Shamir 22.12.88 536 0.00 0.00 0.00

22 Shamir 11.06.90 237 0.00 0.00 0.00

23 Shamir 03.02.91 353 0.50 0.00 0.25

24 Shamir 22.01.92 173 0.00 0.00 0.00

25 Rabin 13.07.92 895 1.00 0.00 0.50

26 Rabin 25.12.94 332 0.00 0.00 0.00

27 Peres 22.11.95 189 1.00 0.00 0.50

28 Netanyahu* 29.05.96 33 0.50 0.50 0.50

*directly elected prime minister.

ITALY

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 de Gaspari 12.07.46 206 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 de Gaspari 03.02.47 117 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 de Gaspari 31.05.47 198 0.00 0.00 0.00

4a de Gaspari 15.12.47 160 0.00 0.00 0.00

Page 22

Sheet1

4b de Gaspari 23.05.48 614 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 de Gaspari 27.01.50 545 0.00 0.00 0.00

6 de Gaspari 26.07.51 722 0.00 0.00 0.00

7 deG./Pella/Fanfani 17.07.53 209 0.00 0.50 0.25

8 Scelba/Segni 11.02.54 1194 0.50 0.00 0.25

9 Zoli 20.05.57 416 0.00 0.50 0.25

10 Fanfani 10.07.58 221 0.00 0.00 0.00

11 Segni/Tambroni/

Fanfani 16.02.59 1101 0.00 0.50 0.25

12 Fanfani 21.02.62 485 1.00 0.00 0.50

13 Leone 21.06.63 167 0.00 0.50 0.25

14 Moro 05.12.63 1664 0.00 0.00 0.00

15 Leone 25.06.68 170 0.00 0.50 0.25

16 Rumor 12.12.68 236 0.00 0.00 0.00

17 Rumor 05.08.69 234 0.00 0.50 0.25

18 Rumor/Colombo 27.03.70 337 0.00 0.00 0.00

19 Colombo 27.02.71 356 1.00 0.00 0.50

20 Andreotti 18.02.72 129 0.00 0.50 0.25

21 Andreotti 26.06.72 439 1.00 0.00 0.50

22 Rumor 08.09.73 187 0.00 0.00 0.00

23 Rumor 14.03.74 254 0.00 0.00 0.00

24 Moro 23.11.74 447 0.00 0.00 0.00

25a Moro 13.02.76 167 0.00 0.50 0.25

25b Andreotti 29.07.76 965 0.00 0.50 0.25

26 Andreotti 21.03.79 137 0.00 0.00 0.00

27 Cossiga 05.08.79 243 0.00 0.00 0.00

28 Cossiga 04.04.80 198 0.00 0.00 0.00

29 Forlani 19.10.80 252 0.00 0.00 0.00

30 Spadolini 28.06.81 531 0.00 0.00 0.00

31 Fanfani 11.12.82 236 0.00 0.00 0.00

32 Craxi 04.08.83 1353 0.00 0.00 0.00

33 Fanfani 18.04.87 102 0.00 0.50 0.25

34 Goria/De Mita/And. 29.07.87 1356 0.00 0.00 0.00

35a Andreotti 15.04.91 440 0.00 0.00 0.00

35b Amati 28.06.92 305 0.50 0.00 0.25

36 Ciampi 29.04.93 377 0.00 0.00 0.00

37 Berlusconi 11.05.94 251 0.00 0.00 0.00

Dini 17.01.95 487 [non-party cabinet]

38 Prodi 18.05.96 44 0.00 0.00 0.00

JAMAICA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Bustamante 10.04.62 1778 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Sangster/Shearer 21.02.67 1834 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Manley 29.02.72 1751 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Manley 15.12.76 1415 1.00 1.00 1.00

3a Seaga 30.10.80 1141 1.00 1.00 1.00

3b Seaga 15.12.83 2186 1.00 1.00 1.00

4a Manley/Patterson 09.12.89 1207 1.00 1.00 1.00

4b Patterson 30.03.93 1189 1.00 1.00 1.00

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JAPAN

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Yoshida 22.05.46 373 1.00 0.00 0.50

2 Katayama/Ashida 30.05.47 508 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Yoshida 19.10.48 120 0.00 1.00 0.50

4 Yoshida 16.02.49 497 0.00 0.00 0.00

5a Yoshida 28.06.50 854 1.00 1.00 1.00

5b Yoshida 29.10.52 204 1.00 1.00 1.00

6 Yoshida 21.05.53 567 0.00 1.00 0.50

7a Hatoyama 09.12.54 100 0.00 0.50 0.25

7b Hatoyama 19.03.55 248 0.00 1.00 0.50

8a Hatoyama/Ishibashi/

Kishi 22.11.55 933 1.00 0.50 0.75

8b Kishi/Ikeda 12.06.58 910 1.00 0.50 0.75

8c Ikeda 08.12.60 1096 1.00 0.50 0.75

8d Ikeda/Sato 09.12.63 1166 1.00 0.50 0.75

8e Sato 17.02.67 1062 1.00 0.50 0.75

8f Sato/Tanaka 14.01.70 1073 1.00 0.50 0.75

8g Tanaka/Miki 22.12.72 1463 1.00 0.50 0.75

8h Fukuda/Ohira 24.12.76 1049 0.00 0.50 0.25

8i Ohira 08.11.79 252 0.00 0.50 0.25

8j Suzuki/Nakasone 17.07.80 1257 0.00 0.50 0.25

9 Nakasone 26.12.83 939 0.00 0.00 0.00

10a Nakasone/Takeshita/

Uno/Kaifu 22.07.86 1317 0.00 0.50 0.25

10b Kaifu/Miyazawa 28.02.90 1258 0.00 0.50 0.25

11 Hosokawa 09.08.93 262 0.00 0.00 0.00

12 Hata 28.04.94 63 0.00 0.00 0.00

13 Murayama/Mashimoto 30.06.94 732 0.00 0.00 0.00

LUXEMBOURG

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Dupong 20.11.45 466 0.00 0.00 0.00

2a Dupong 01.03.47 501 1.00 0.00 0.50

2b Dupong 14.07.48 1084 1.00 0.00 0.50

3a Dupong/Bech 03.07.51 1092 1.00 0.00 0.50

3b Bech/Frieden 29.06.54 1702 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Werner 25.02.59 1970 1.00 0.00 0.50

5 Werner 18.07.64 1658 1.00 0.00 0.50

6 Werner 31.01.69 1961 1.00 0.00 0.50

7 Thorn 15.06.74 1856 1.00 0.00 0.50

8 Werner 15.07.79 1832 1.00 0.00 0.50

9a Santer 20.07.84 1820 1.00 0.00 0.50

9b Santer 14.07.89 1825 1.00 0.00 0.50

9c Santer/Juncker 13.07.94 719 1.00 0.00 0.50

MALTA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE Page 24

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NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Borg Olivier 28.03.66 1904 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Mintoff 14.06.71 1923 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Mintoff 18.09.76 1911 1.00 1.00 1.00

2c Mintoff/Mifsud B. 12.12.81 1970 1.00 1.00 1.00

3a Fenech Adami 05.05.87 1754 1.00 1.00 1.00

3b Fenech Adami 22.02.92 1591 1.00 1.00 1.00

MAURITIUS

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Ramgoolam 28.12.76 1995 1.00 0.00 0.50

2 Jugnauth 15.06.82 286 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Jugnauth 28.03.83 152 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Jugnauth 27.08.83 177 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 Jugnauth 20.02.84 900 0.00 0.00 0.00

6a Jugnauth 08.08.86 392 0.00 0.00 0.00

6b Jugnauth 04.09.87 346 0.00 0.00 0.00

7 Jugnauth 15.08.88 770 0.00 0.00 0.00

8a Jugnauth 24.09.90 361 0.00 0.00 0.00

8b Jugnauth 20.09.91 1242 0.00 0.00 0.00

9 Jugnauth 13.02.95 320 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 Ramgoolam 30.12.95 184 0.00 0.00 0.00

NETHERLANDS

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Beel 03.07.46 766 1.00 0.00 0.50

2 Drees 07.08.48 1487 0.00 0.00 0.00

3a Drees 02.09.52 1502 0.00 0.00 0.00

3b Drees 13.10.56 800 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Beel 22.12.58 148 1.00 0.00 0.50

5a de Quay 19.05.59 1527 0.00 0.00 0.00

5b Marijnen 24.07.63 643 0.00 0.00 0.00

6 Cals 27.04.65 574 0.00 0.00 0.00

7 Zijlstra 22.11.66 132 0.00 0.00 0.00

8 de Jong 03.04.67 1555 1.00 0.00 0.50

9 Biesheuvel 06.07.71 408 1.00 0.00 0.50

10 Biesheuvel 17.08.72 267 0.00 0.00 0.00

11 den Uyl 11.05.73 1683 0.00 0.00 0.00

12 van Agt 19.12.77 1362 1.00 0.00 0.50

13 van Agt 11.09.81 260 0.00 0.00 0.00

14 van Agt 29.05.82 159 0.00 0.00 0.00

15a Lubbers 04.11.82 1348 1.00 0.00 0.50

15b Lubbers 14.07.86 1212 1.00 0.00 0.50

16 Lubbers 07.11.89 1749 1.00 0.00 0.50

17 Kok 22.08.94 679 1.00 0.00 0.50

NEW ZEALAND

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE Page 25

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NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Fraser 20.12.46 1084 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Holland 08.12.49 650 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Holland 19.09.51 1164 1.00 1.00 1.00

2c Holland/Holyoake 26.11.54 1112 1.00 1.00 1.00

3 Nash 12.12.57 1096 1.00 1.00 1.00

4a Holyoake 12.12.60 1103 1.00 1.00 1.00

4b Holyoake 20.12.63 1088 1.00 1.00 1.00

4c Holyoake 12.12.66 1106 1.00 1.00 1.00

4d Holyoake/Marshall 22.12.69 1082 1.00 1.00 1.00

5 Kirk/Rowling 08.12.72 1099 1.00 1.00 1.00

6a Muldoon 12.12.75 1097 1.00 1.00 1.00

6b Muldoon 13.12.78 1094 1.00 1.00 1.00

6c Muldoon 11.12.81 958 1.00 1.00 1.00

7a Lange 26.07.84 1119 1.00 1.00 1.00

7b Lange/Palmer/Moore 19.08.87 1171 1.00 1.00 1.00

8a Bolger 02.11.90 1122 1.00 1.00 1.00

8b Bolger 28.11.93 822 1.00 1.00 1.00

8c Bolger 28.02.96 124 0.00 1.00 0.50

NORWAY

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Gerhardsen 01.11.45 1439 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Gerhardsen/Torp 10.10.49 1463 1.00 1.00 1.00

1c Torp/Gerhardsen 12.10.53 1456 1.00 1.00 1.00

1d Gerhardsen 07.10.57 1435 1.00 1.00 1.00

1e Gerhardsen 11.09.61 715 0.00 1.00 0.50

2 Lyng 27.08.63 28 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Gerhardsen 24.09.63 748 0.00 1.00 0.50

4a Borten 11.10.65 1427 1.00 0.00 0.50

4b Borten 07.09.69 552 1.00 0.00 0.50

5 Brattelli 13.03.71 585 0.00 1.00 0.50

6 Korvald 18.10.72 363 0.00 0.00 0.00

7a Brattelli/Nordli 16.10.73 1427 0.00 1.00 0.50

7b Nordli/Brundtland 12.09.77 1493 0.00 1.00 0.50

8 Willoch 14.10.81 602 0.00 1.00 0.50

9a Willoch 08.06.83 902 1.00 0.00 0.50

9b Willoch 26.11.85 164 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 Brundtland 09.05.86 1256 0.00 1.00 0.50

11 Syse 16.10.89 383 0.00 0.00 0.00

12a Brundtland 03.11.90 1069 0.00 1.00 0.50

12b Brundtland 07.10.93 998 0.00 1.00 0.50

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Somare 09.08.77 456 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 Somare 08.11.78 491 0.00 0.00 0.00

3 Chan 13.03.80 872 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Somare 02.08.82 973 0.00 0.00 0.00

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5 Somare 01.04.85 137 0.00 0.00 0.00

6 Somare 16.08.85 97 0.00 0.00 0.00

7 Wingti 21.11.85 622 1.00 0.00 0.50

8 Wingti 05.08.87 338 1.00 0.00 0.50

9 Namaliu 08.07.88 769 1.00 0.00 0.50

10 Namaliu 16.08.90 701 0.00 0.00 0.00

11 Wingti 17.07.92 775 1.00 0.00 0.50

12 Chan 31.08.94 670 1.00 0.00 0.50

PORTUGAL

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Soares 16.07.76 563 0.00 1.00 0.50

2 Soares 30.01.78 199 1.00 0.00 0.50

Costa/Pinto/Pintas. 17.08.78 504 [non-party-cabinet]

3a Sa Carneiro 03.01.80 281 0.00 0.00 0.00

3b Sa Carn./Balsemao 10.10.80 972 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 Soares 09.06.83 881 1.00 0.00 0.50

5 Silva 06.11.85 649 0.00 1.00 0.50

6 Silva 17.08.87 1536 0.00 0.00 0.00

7 Silva 31.10.91 1458 1.00 1.00 1.00

8 Guterres 28.10.95 247 0.00 1.00 0.50

SPAIN

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Su rez 15.06.77 656 0.00 1.00 0.50

1b Su rez/Calvo 02.04.79 1341 0.00 1.00 0.50

2a Gonzalez 03.12.82 1329 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Gonzalez 24.07.86 1196 1.00 1.00 1.00

2c Gonzalez 01.11.89 1351 0.50 1.00 0.75

2d Gonzalez 14.07.93 1027 0.00 1.00 0.50

3 Aznar 06.05.96 56 0.00 1.00 0.50

SWEDEN

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Erlander 28.10.48 1067 0.00 1.00 0.50

2a Erlander 30.09.51 357 1.00 0.00 0.50

2b Erlander 21.09.52 1466 1.00 0.00 0.50

2c Erlander 26.09.56 399 1.00 0.00 0.50

3a Erlander 30.10.57 215 0.00 1.00 0.50

3b Erlander 02.06.58 852 0.00 1.00 0.50

3c Erlander 01.10.60 1464 0.00 1.00 0.50

3d Erlander 04.10.64 1456 0.00 1.00 0.50

3e Erlander/Palme 29.09.68 730 1.00 1.00 1.00

3f Palme 29.09.70 1128 0.00 1.00 0.50

3g Palme 31.10.73 1069 0.00 1.00 0.50

4 Fツlldin 04.10.76 739 1.00 0.00 0.50

5 Ullsten 13.10.78 364 0.00 1.00 0.50

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6 Fツlldin 12.10.79 588 1.00 0.00 0.50

7 Fツlldin 22.05.81 504 0.00 0.00 0.00

8a Palme 08.10.82 1092 0.00 1.00 0.50

8b Palme/Carlsson 04.10.85 1096 0.00 1.00 0.50

8c Carlsson 04.10.88 1094 0.00 1.00 0.50

9 Bildt 03.10.91 1099 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 Carlsson/Persson 06.10.94 634 0.00 1.00 0.50

SWITZERLAND

CABINET MIN ONE

NUMBER P.M./PRES. BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a [annual 11.12.47 1463 0.00 0.00 0.00

1b rotation] 13.12.51 740 0.00 0.00 0.00

2a 22.12.53 723 0.00 0.00 0.00

2b 15.12.55 1463 1.00 0.00 0.50

3a 17.12.59 1456 0.00 0.00 0.00

3b 12.12.63 1479 0.00 0.00 0.00

3c 30.12.67 1439 0.00 0.00 0.00

3d 08.12.71 1463 0.00 0.00 0.00

3e 10.12.75 1478 0.00 0.00 0.00

3f 27.12.79 1453 0.00 0.00 0.00

3g 19.12.83 1451 0.00 0.00 0.00

3h 09.12.87 1456 0.00 0.00 0.00

3i 04.12.91 1470 0.00 0.00 0.00

3j 13.12.95 201 0.00 0.00 0.00

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Williams 04.11.61 1829 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Williams 07.11.66 1659 1.00 1.00 1.00

1c Williams 24.05.71 1939 1.00 1.00 1.00

1d Williams/Chambers 13.09.76 1883 1.00 1.00 1.00

1e Chambers 09.11.81 1862 1.00 1.00 1.00

2 Robinson 15.12.86 1827 1.00 1.00 1.00

3 Manning 16.12.91 1421 1.00 1.00 1.00

4 Panday 06.11.95 238 1.00 0.00 0.50

UNITED KINGDOM

CABINET PRIME MIN ONE

NUMBER MINISTER BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Attlee 26.07.45 1678 1.00 1.00 1.00

1b Attlee 28.02.50 605 1.00 1.00 1.00

2a Churchill/Eden 26.10.51 1309 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Eden/Macmillan 27.05.55 1602 1.00 1.00 1.00

2c Macm./Douglas-H. 15.10.59 1829 1.00 1.00 1.00

3a Wilson 17.10.64 536 1.00 1.00 1.00

3b Wilson 06.04.66 1536 1.00 1.00 1.00

4 Heath 20.06.70 1354 1.00 1.00 1.00

5a Wilson 05.03.74 227 0.00 1.00 0.50

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5b Wilson/Callaghan 18.10.74 647 1.00 1.00 1.00

5c Callaghan 26.07.76 1013 0.00 1.00 0.50

6a Thatcher 05.05.79 1499 1.00 1.00 1.00

6b Thatcher 12.06.83 1462 1.00 1.00 1.00

6c Thatcher/Major 13.06.87 1764 1.00 1.00 1.00

6d Major 11.04.92 1542 1.00 1.00 1.00

UNITED STATES

CABINET MIN ONE

NUMBER PRESIDENT BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1a Truman 03.01.47 731 0.50 0.75 0.62

1b Truman 03.01.49 1478 1.00 0.75 0.88

2a Eisenhower 20.01.53 713 1.00 1.00 1.00

2b Eisenhower 03.01.55 748 0.50 1.00 0.75

2c Eisenhower 20.01.57 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

3a Kennedy/Johnson 20.01.61 1461 1.00 0.75 0.88

3b Johnson 20.01.65 1461 1.00 0.75 0.88

4a Nixon 20.01.69 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

4b Nixon/Ford 20.01.73 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

5 Carter 20.01.77 1461 1.00 0.75 0.88

6a Reagan 20.01.81 1461 0.75 1.00 0.88

6b Reagan 20.01.85 713 0.75 1.00 0.88

6c Reagan 03.01.87 748 0.50 1.00 0.75

6d Bush 20.01.89 1461 0.50 1.00 0.75

7a Clinton 20.01.93 713 1.00 0.75 0.88

7b Clinton 03.01.95 545 0.50 0.75 0.62

VENEZUELA

CABINET MIN ONE

NUMBER PRESIDENT BEGIN DAYS WIN PARTY MEAN

1 Betancur 13.02.59 647 0.50 0.50 0.50

2 Betancur 21.11.60 1206 0.50 0.50 0.50

3 Leoni 11.03.64 245 0.50 1.00 0.75

4 Leoni 11.11.64 1260 0.50 0.50 0.50

5 Leoni 24.04.68 321 0.50 1.00 0.75

6 Caldera 11.03.69 430 0.50 0.50 0.50

7 Caldera 15.05.70 1397 0.50 1.00 0.75

8 Pツrez 12.03.74 1826 1.00 1.00 1.00

9 Herrera 12.03.79 1788 0.50 1.00 0.75

10a Lusinchi 02.02.84 1827 1.00 1.00 1.00

10b Pツrez 02.02.89 1132 0.50 1.00 0.75

11 Pツrez 10.03.92 94 0.50 0.50 0.50

12 Pツrez 12.06.92 344 0.50 1.00 0.75

Velasquez 22.05.93 256 [non-party cabinet]

13 Caldera 02.02.94 880 0.50 0.50 0.50

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me periods, I have decided to transform my handwritten notes into printed tables/guidelines that are hopefully self-explanatory and that

s 5 through 10 which can be dealt with more briefly.

(Siaroff 1998) in which he provides ratings for the 1960s and the 1980s. The remaining one-third of the data, for the 12 developing cou

see his "Corporatism in 24 Industrial Democracies: Meaning and Measurement," European Journal of Political Research,

this also applies to the 4.5 rating for Austria and India. Belgium's overall rating is 3.1

an additional source is Alex Cukierman, Central Bank Strategy, Credibility, and Independence: Theory and Evidence (Cam

MAU, 1 turnover

or the entire 1945-96 period and also for the 1971-96 period. The corresponding values for 1945-70 are as follows:

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moreover, if such cabinets have more than one prime minister, they are counted as different cabinets (cabinet life II). In A

00 score. Scores between 1.00 and 0.00 can occur, however, as a result of adjustments for "blocking" cabinets, presidential cabinets, f

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an occur, however, as a result of adjustments for presidential cabinets, factionalized or closely linked parties, etc. See chapter 6 of Patt

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AUTORE

Atreyu

PUBBLICATO

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DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in scienze internazionali e istituzioni europee
SSD:
Università: Milano - Unimi
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Politica comparata e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Milano - Unimi o del prof Giuliani Marco.

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