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Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number

of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the

State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person

holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an


(The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of

whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they

shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which

List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the

United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall,

in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and

the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be

the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed;

and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of

Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them

for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the

said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the

Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a

quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the

States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case,

after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the

Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have

equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.) (This clause

in parentheses was superseded by the 12th Amendment.)

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which

they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of

the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall

any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five

Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

(In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or

Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on

the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal,

Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what

Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the

Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.) (This clause in parentheses has

been modified by the 20th and 25th Amendments.)

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which

shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been

elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United

States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or


"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of

the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the

Constitution of the United States."

Section 2 - Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States,

and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United

States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the

executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective

Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the

United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make

Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and

by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other

public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the

United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which

shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such

inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in

the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the

Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their

next Session.

Section 3 - State of the Union, Convening Congress

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union,

and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and

expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them,

and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment,

he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors

and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and

shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4 - Disqualification

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed

from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high

Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III. - The Judicial Branch

Section 1 - Judicial powers

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in

such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The

Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good

Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which

shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2 - Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials

(The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this

Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made,

under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and

Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which

the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between

a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between

Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a

State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.) (This section in

parentheses is modified by the 11th Amendment.)

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in

which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the

other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both

as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress

shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial

shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not

committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress

may by Law have directed.

Section 3 - Treason

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in

adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of

Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on

Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of

Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the

Person attainted.

Article. IV. - The States

Section 1 - Each State to Honor all others

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial

Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the

Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect


Section 2 - State citizens, Extradition

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in

the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from

Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the

State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction

of the Crime.

(No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into

another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from

such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such

Service or Labour may be due.) (This clause in parentheses is superseded by the 13th


Section 3 - New States

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be

formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by

the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the

Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations

respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in

this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or

of any particular State.

Section 4 - Republican government

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of

Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the

Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against

domestic Violence.

Article. V. - Amendment

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose

Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds

of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either

Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified

by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three

fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the

Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One

thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses

in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be

deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article. VI. - Debts, Supremacy, Oaths

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this

Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under

the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance

thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United

States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be

bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary


The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several

State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and

of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution;

but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public

Trust under the United States.

Article. VII. - Ratification

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the

Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth

Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven

and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof

We have hereunto subscribed our Names.

Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York - Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons,

Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco.


Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce


Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

The Amendments

The following are the Amendments to the Constitution. The first ten Amendments

collectively are commonly known as the Bill of Rights.

Amendment 1 - Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the

free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of

the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of


Amendment 2 - Right to Bear Arms. Ratified 12/15/1791.

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the

people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment 3 - Quartering of Soldiers. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the

Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment 4 - Search and Seizure. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against

unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but

upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the

place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment 5 - Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified


No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a

presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval

forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall

any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor

shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived

of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be

taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment 6 - Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Ratified


In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial,

by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been

committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be

informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses

against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have

the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment 7 - Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the

right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-

examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common


Amendment 8 - Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual

punishments inflicted.

Amendment 9 - Construction of Constitution. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or

disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment 10 - Powers of the States and People. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to

the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Amendment 11 - Judicial Limits. Ratified 2/7/1795.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law

or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of

another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Amendment 12 - Choosing the President, Vice-President. Ratified 6/15/1804.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and

Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with

themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in

distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists

of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of

the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed

to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of

Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if

such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person

have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding

three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose

immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be

taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this

purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a

majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of

Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve

upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall

act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the


The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-

President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if

no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall

choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the

whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a

choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible

to that of Vice-President of the United States.

Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished. Ratified 12/6/1865.

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof

the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place

subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868.




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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in relazioni internazionali
A.A.: 2011-2012

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Atreyu di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Gli Stati Uniti nel XX secolo e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Roma Tre - Uniroma3 o del prof Fiorentino Daniele.

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