melissap - Genius - 8039 Punti

The last invaders: the Normans
In 1066 William of Normandy defeated Harold II and the Anglo-Saxon troops at the Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror was crowned Williaam I, thus beginning a permanent Norman occupation of Egland. The Normans 8who originally came from Denmark) spoke French and had French customs. What followed was a period of transition and development for England.
The social order under the Normans
The social order in England altered dramatically because of the predominance of the Norman aristocracy. Many of the Anglo-Saxon nobles tried to oppose it, but, by 1100, all land was completely in the hands of the Normans and their descendants replaced the Anglo-Saxon as the ruling class in England. After an initial period of conflict between the two peoples, they eventually began to mix through marriage and languages and traditions.
The feudal system
The system that the Normans enstablisched became the model for the following medieval government and can be defined as a feudal system. It consisted in a strongly hierarchical state wih the king at the top, who could force people to pay taxes at will.
Below the king were the barons and lords who had almost absolute power over their territories. In the event of war they would provide a certain number of knights or horsemen (who, in exchange for their services in battle, received lands from the barons). The middle class was made up of merchants and yeomen. Merchants earned their living from commerce while yeomen were small landowners. At the bottom of the feudal pyramid were the peasants. They were the majority of the population, they owned no land and has very little freedom.
The last Norman King was Stephen who was succeeded by Henry II, a Plantagenet. Henry enforced the Constitution of Clarendon in 1164. Up to this time ckerks or clergy, who had been accused of committing crimes, were tried in the bishop's court. According to this new law, they would be tried at the king's court and then judged by the ecclesiastical court. In this way the king wanted to establish a compromise between the power of the state and the power of the church, but it was not accepted by the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket, who after a six-year exile, was assassinated by four of the king's knights in Canterbury Cathedral. A sistem of Common Law was introduced in 1166. This was an important novelty because it meant law was applied commonly throughout the King's land and the foundations of trial by jury were laid.

eleo - Moderatore - 20793 Punti

Stessa cosa, dovresti prima postare un tuo tentativo e poi noi ti aiutiamo con le correzioni :hi

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melody_gio Tutor 33161 Punti

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