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daddo--093 - Genius - 2711 Punti
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The preludeto the breach with Rome was anti-clericalim of the late Middle Ages .Humanism encouraged confidence in the power of human reason,unintentionally subverting medieval dogma.The Protestant Reformation in Germany had begun with the doctrines of Martin Luter(1483-1546),and the French theologian John Calvin(1509-64) in Switzerland.Indeed,Henry VIII did not wish to transform England into a Protestant country;in 1521 he was honoured by the Pope with the title Fidei Defensor(defender of the Faith) for the pamphlet he wrote against Luther.However,by 1530,his queen Catherine of Aragon,was too old to give him a son and Henry VII needed a male heir.Catherine was his brother's widow so Henry VIII asked Pope Clement VII to declare this marriage invalid.Clement did not wish to offend Catherine's ephew, the Emperor Charles V, so he refused.Henry's new mistress,Ann Boleyn,was pregnant.The only way he could have a legitimate male heir was to marry her.To diverce and re-marr,Henry set up the Church of England and was excommunicated by The Pope.
Henry declared himsef "Supreme Head of the Church" in England,by means of the Act of Supremacy.Sir Thomas More,who was the king's Chancellor was executed because of hisopposition.The break from Rome was legitimised by Parliament which also suppressed orders of monks and friars and estabilished the supremacy of the State over the Church even in spiritual matters.The King's secretary Thomas Cromwell dissolved the monasteries and seized their wealth.This destroyed centres of education,gave the king money to defend himself from attacks fromthe Catholi powers and allowed him to reward his supporters.Overnight the monasteries became ruins and a new class of landowners arose.Archbishop Cranmer persuaded Henry to strengthen the English Church by authorizinga new translation of the Bible.The new Anglican Church was born.Though independent,it remained faithful to the dogma of the faith of rome.Ann Boleyn gave Henry another daughter,Elizabeth and was executed.Finally,his third wife gave brth to a son,Edward,who succeded his faher.In his short reign,the anglican church became truly ptotestant.The Act of Uniformity enforced the use of the English Book of Prayer instead of the Latin misal.The forms of worship nd furnishings of the church became the central keyyo salvation.As a result,many grammar schools were set up at this time.Protestantism appealed to the middle classes.Without the hiearchy of the riesthood,they had responsability for their own salvation through studying the Bible and a devout hard working life.Any wordly succes was proof of their faith and seemed a just reward.Mary I tried to reverse 20 years of religious change by forcing people to attend mass again to accept the authority of the Pope over the Church of England.
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