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Paesi in via di sviluppo e politiche commerciali

Materiale didattico per il corso di Economia Internazionale del prof. Alireza Jay Naghavi. Trattasi di slides in lingua inglese a cura del docente, all'interno delle quali sono affrontati i seguenti argomenti: la politica commerciale nei paesi in via

... Espandi » di sviluppo; lo sviluppo dell'industria e l'industrializzazione import-substituting; il protezionismocome strumento di sviluppo industriale; il peso delle esportazioninelle economie dei paesi in via di sviluppo; il dualismo economico ed i suoi problemi; l'industrializzazione export-oriented dei paesi del sud-est asiatico; le "tigri asiatiche". « Comprimi
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  • 24-09-2011
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Economia Internazionale Alireza Naghavi Capitolo 10 La politica commerciale nei paesi in via di sviluppo 1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.2003 Ulrico Hoepli Editore S.p.A. Slide 10-1 Slide 3-1 Chapter Organization Introduction Import-Substituting Industrialization Problems of the Dual Economy Export-Oriented Industrialization: The East Asian Miracle Summary Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-2 Introduction There is a great diversity among the developing countries in terms of their income per capita. Why are some countries so much poorer than others? • For about 30 years after World War II trade policies in many developing countries were strongly influenced by the belief that the key to economic development was creation of a strong manufacturing sector. – The best way to create a strong manufacturing sector was by protecting domestic manufacturers from international competition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-3 Introduction Table 10-... Espandi »1: Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, 1999 (dollars) Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-4 Import-Substituting Industrialization From World War II until the 1970s many developing countries attempted to accelerate their development by limiting imports of manufactured goods to foster a manufacturing sector serving the domestic market. The most important economic argument for protecting manufacturing industries is the infant industry argument. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-5 Import-Substituting Industrialization The Infant Industry Argument • It states that developing countries have a potential comparative advantage in manufacturing and they can realize that potential through an initial period of protection. • It implies that it is a good idea to use tariffs or import quotas as temporary measures to get industrialization started. – Example: The U.S. and Germany had high tariff rates on manufacturing in the 19th century, while Japan had extensive import controls until the 1970s. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-6 Import-Substituting Industrialization Problems with the Infant Industry Argument • It is not always good to try to move today into the industries that will have a comparative advantage in the future. – Example: In the 1980s South Korea became an exporter of automobiles, whereas in the 1960s its capital and skilled labor were still very scarce. • Protecting manufacturing does no good unless the protection its « Comprimi