Paesi in via di sviluppo e politiche commerciali
Materiale didattico per il corso di Economia Internazionale del prof. Alireza Jay Naghavi. Trattasi di slides in lingua inglese a cura del docente, all'interno delle quali sono affrontati i seguenti argomenti: la politica commerciale nei paesi in via di sviluppo; lo sviluppo dell'industria e l'industrializzazione import-substituting; il protezionismocome strumento di sviluppo industriale; il peso delle esportazioninelle economie dei paesi in via di sviluppo; il dualismo economico ed i suoi problemi; l'industrializzazione export-oriented dei paesi del sud-est asiatico; le "tigri asiatiche".
commercio internazionale , paesi via sviluppo , economia internazionale , protezionismo , industrializzazione import substituting , dualismo economico , industrializzazione export oriented , tigri asiatiche
Economia Internazionale Alireza Naghavi Capitolo 10 La politica commerciale nei paesi in via di sviluppo 1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.2003 Ulrico Hoepli Editore S.p.A. Slide 10-1 Slide 3-1 Chapter Organization Introduction Import-Substituting Industrialization Problems of the Dual Economy Export-Oriented Industrialization: The East Asian Miracle Summary Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-2 Introduction There is a great diversity among the developing countries in terms of their income per capita. Why are some countries so much poorer than others? • For about 30 years after World War II trade policies in many developing countries were strongly influenced by the belief that the key to economic development was creation of a strong manufacturing sector. – The best way to create a strong manufacturing sector was by protecting domestic manufacturers from international competition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-3 Introduction Table 10-1: Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, 1999 (dollars) Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-4 Import-Substituting Industrialization From World War II until the 1970s many developing countries attempted to accelerate their development by limiting imports of manufactured goods to foster a manufacturing sector serving the domestic market. The most important economic argument for protecting manufacturing industries is the infant industry argument. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-5 Import-Substituting Industrialization The Infant Industry Argument • It states that developing countries have a potential comparative advantage in manufacturing and they can realize that potential through an initial period of protection. • It implies that it is a good idea to use tariffs or import quotas as temporary measures to get industrialization started. – Example: The U.S. and Germany had high tariff rates on manufacturing in the 19th century, while Japan had extensive import controls until the 1970s. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-6 Import-Substituting Industrialization Problems with the Infant Industry Argument • It is not always good to try to move today into the industries that will have a comparative advantage in the future. – Example: In the 1980s South Korea became an exporter of automobiles, whereas in the 1960s its capital and skilled labor were still very scarce. • Protecting manufacturing does no good unless the protection itself helps make industry competitive. – Example: Pakistan and India have protected their heavy manufacturing sectors for decades and have recently begun to develop significant exports of light manufactures like textiles. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-7 Import-Substituting Industrialization Market Failure Justifications for Infant Industry Protection • Two market failures are identified as reasons why infant industry protection may be a good idea: – Imperfect capital markets justification – If a developing country does not have a set of financial institutions that would allow savings from traditional sectors (such as agriculture) to be used to finance investment in new sectors (such as manufacturing), then growth of new industries will be restricted. – Appropriability argument – Firms in a new industry generate social benefits for which they are not compensated (e.g. start-up costs of adapting technology). Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-8 Import-Substituting Industrialization Promoting Manufacturing Through Protection • Import-substituting industrialization – The strategy of encouraging domestic industry by limiting imports of manufactured goods – Many less-developed countries have pursued this strategy. • Has import-substituting industrialization promoted economic development? – Many economists are now harshly critical of the results of import substitution, arguing that it has fostered highcost, inefficient production. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-9 Import-Substituting Industrialization • Why not encourage both import substitution and exports? – A tariff that reduces imports also necessarily reduces exports. – Until the 1970s many developing countries were skeptical about the possibility of exporting manufactured goods. – In many cases, import-substituting industrialization policies dovetailed naturally with existing political biases. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-10 Import-Substituting Industrialization Table 10-2: Exports as a Percentage of National Income, 1999 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10-11 Import-Substituting Industrialization Results of Favoring Manufacturing: Problems of Import-Substituting Industrialization • Many countries that have pursued import substitution have not shown any signs of catching up with the advanced countries. – Example: In India, after 20 years of economic plans between the early 1950s and the early 1970s, its...