The term Enlightenment denotes an intellectual movement which began in England in 17th century and developed in France and Germany in 18th century (even if all European territory, as every sphere of the life, was influences by it). Such Age in which the movement developed, it known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of the Reason, because it appealed to “lights” of the reason of man and science, like instruments of fight against ignorance and superstition of the Middle age. Really, this peculiarity in fact, characterizes the Enlightenment. One of the greatest thinkers of this period, Immanuel Kant, said that the operative word of this movement is Sapere aude! Have the courage to use one’s own reason! Which stressed the faith in man’s reason and its importance in that period. Among main themes of this period there were the tolerance, which should be extended to other creeds and ways and the Equality that should be ensured to all men. It is uncertain when Enlightenment ended, probably during the French Revolution, which was its result and by which were stated popular ideals.
The Age of Enlightenment