James Joyce was a modernist. He was influenced by French authors as Flaubert and Baudelaire who believed in the impersonality of the artist. In Joyce geographical and sociological details are very important. His novels open in “medias res”, with the analysis of particular movement and the portrait of the characters is based on introspection rather than a description. He believed in impersonality of the author, so he use the DIRECT INTERIOR MONOLOGUE, the adoption of the characters thought is a monologue, the INDIRECT INTERIOR MONOLOGUE, present thoughts as seen from within the characters mind, but narrated in 3° person, and the STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS, a flow of thought free associates without apparent logical links.
In the Joyce’s books, the style is realistic, whit a lot of details and moments. He called this moments “EPIPHANIES”, when details or moment buried (seppelliti) for years in one’s memory suddenly surface in one’s mind.
Stephen has the rebellious attitude to his teachers and school. Ireland was extremely conservative society. Stephen comes into conflict with key aspect of Irish life and culture. Romanic Catholic Church is described as physically repressive. Stephen has to struggle long and hard to free himself Ireland’s history and culture attract him, but in second time he realise that was only an other way to suffocated the individual.