George Orwell is Eric Blair’s pseudonym, he was born in India, but he was educated at Eton, where he developed an independent personality, with atheistic and socialist ideas. He wished to “escape from every form of man’s dominion over man” (“The Road to Wigan Pier”) because he experienced poverty and the inefficiency of the institutions. His masterpieces are “Animal Farm” (1945) and “1984” (1948) that show a vision of the impoverishment caused by poverty and deprivation. Orwell’s style is simple and clear, very different from J.Joyce and V.Woolf, he simplifies concept to create effect, for example in “Animal Farm” there’s an allegorical structure that conceals the Russian Government. For example, each animal symbolizes an historical character (Old Major is Marx, Farmer Jones is Czar Nicolas II, Snowball is Trotsky, Napoleon is Stalin, Boxer is Stackhanov, and so on). Then, there’s a sarcastic tone and a painful atmosphere.
Animal Farm (1943)
“Animal Farm: A Fairy Story” recreates the events of the Russian Revolution, because Orwell’s hopes for the creation of a socialist utopia dissolved whit the rise of Stalin. The story describes the happenings on a farm, where animals dispossessed Farmer Jones and staged a Revolution. Pigs are the most intelligent species, and they draw up a series of fundamental “laws” called “The seven commandments”, that are gradually changed and abandoned. Napoleon is the leader, and its coadjutants are Squealer (the minister of propaganda) and the killer-dogs (the secret police): Napoleon drives out the rivals, first of all Snowball and at the end it is worse than is predecessor Farmer Jones. (The novel criticizes the Stalinism –called “animalism”- in particular, and revolutions in general!, the passage shows the animals while the experience Napoleon’s brutal methods and in particular Boxer thinks that the only solution is to work harder, while Clover reflects upon the situation and it’s very sad).