The Restoration of the Monarchy:In 1660 marked the end of an age of fanaticism. Charles II’s court was the most immoral of the English history. His exile to France had given him French tastes and sympathies; he admire the magnificent. The Convention Parliament was replaced in 1661 by the first Parliament of the new reign and this was so royalist that it became known as the Cavalier Parliament. In this period there were two catastrophes: London was struck by an outbreak of bubonic plague and a year later a fire destroyed the city in four days. In this period was born the first political parties in Britain, the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs were the descendants of the Parliamentarians; they did not believe in absolute power , either of Church or State. The Tories were the descendants of the Royalists; they supported the cause of Church of England, the Crown and the landed gentry.