From the origin to the middle ages
Edward I wanted to discuss the question of taxation with the gentry and the merchants. Each shire and each town had to sent two representatives to the council and in this way there was no taxation without representation. The council became the House of Commons. Edward III, because the royal courts could not cover all the minor crimes, he appointed justices of the peace and gave them local powers.
In the 14th century rivalry with France was strong and France was trying to spoil England's wool trade with Flanders. The Hundred years' war had begun.
The first phase of the war went to the English, who used a new weapon, the long bow. In the same years the Black Death reached southern England and quickly spread to the north. The war was stopped but a third of the population died for the plague. The heavy taxes which finaced the war caused discontent among the rural labourers. The tension reached its climax with the Peasants's Revolt.
The rebels reached London and demanded the abolition of the feudal system. They obtained a rent instead of feudal service. France defeated on the English in 1453 and the war was over. From 1455 to 1485 England was the scene of a series of civil wars, known as the wars of the Roses. In the end, Tudor rule had begun in England.