THE FIRST TUDOR KING: HENRY VII
In 1485 the Wars of the Roses came to an end with the victory of Henry Tudor in the battle of Bosworth. Henry was crowned King Henry VII of England (1485-1509), the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Under his rule England enjoyed a fairly long spell of unbroken peace and prosperity: the army, the navy, and the whole machine of the State administration were organized and put under the direct and strict control of the king; a mercantile fleet was created. In his search for powerful political alliances, Henry VII married his eldest son, Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, the aunt of the future Emperor Charles V of Spain, who later became the most important ruler of Europe, and his daughter Margaret to James IV of Scotland. Both decisions within a few years would prove fundamental to future English history.
Henry VII also laid the foundations of English Humanism and promoted an artistic programme of Renaissance character.