In 1558 Elizabet I ascended the throne, she was a daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She re-established the Protestant religion, because she wanted to create a modern stronger England.
In 1559 Parliament passed the second Act of Supremacy and she maned herself “Governor” and not “ supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England” as her father had done. From 1559 thanks to the Act of Uniformity, English people could use the Cranmer’s Prayer Book.
The Elizabeth’s greater rival was Mary Queen of Scots, in fact they were many different. Mary was the grand-daughter of Henry VIII’s sister, Margaret. Since, in 1548 was sent to France, she knew and in 1558 married the Dauphin of France, Fancis II. Since then Scotland was still a Catholic country. When Francis died, she returned to her country in 1561 and thus found a Protestant country. In this situation John Knox preached the Protestant doctrines, helped of Queen Elizabeth, who was afraid of a Catholic Scotland and of many of the nobles. Mary in 1567 married a descendant of the Tudors, Lord Darnley, who was murdered after three months, and she married a Scottish lord who was suspected of the murder of Darney. For this reason all abandoned the Queen. And after in 1568 was taken prisoner, up to 1587, when the 8th February was beheaded.
The balance of power in Europe would have been tilted in favour of Spain, the succession to the English throne was claimed by Philip of Spain, England’s independence, its trade, its potential for playing colonies were now threatened by the power of Spain.
In 1588 the Spanish Invincible Armada was met by the English fleet, sailing for England. Even if the English fleet were inferior in number, defeated the Spanish. This war continued till 1603.
The monopoly of colonization and commerce in Africa, Asia and America to the hands of Queen Elizabeth, in the 15th century passed in the hands of Portugal and Spain. Nevertheless, in the Tudor Period, the English seamen crossed the ocean and reached to rich lands. Then it was necessary to fight a private war with the Spanish, in which English sailors were pirates, who attacked Spanish ships with cargoes of precious metals.