The Iberians and the Celts - Historical and social Nackgrounds
About 2000 years B.C. pre-celtic people had already settled in Great Britain. These were called the Iberians. Probably the came from Spain, which was also called the Iberian penisula. They lived during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Physically speaking, they had dark hair and a strong body. They lived in wooden huts (capanne di legno) and were artisans, infact they produced stone (pietra) and metal objects. They were also fermers (agricoltori) and they starter breeding (paticare l’allevamento).
Between the 7th and the 4th century B.C., many Germanic ribes moved towards central and south Europe. Some of these ribes settled in the southern, eastern and western part of Great Britain. These were calle the Celts, who imposed themselves on the Iberians and had a more sophisticated culture. Physically sppeaking the Celts were generally fair-haired (biondi), very strong and tall. They were artisans, farmers, fishers and exellent warriors. They worked iron (fetto), silver (argento), gold (oro) and clay (argilla) and they used to decorate their tools (utensili) and armamento (armi). Socially they were organized in ribes and clans and each tribe and a king and it was composed by rwo social classes: the farmers and the nobles.
The Celts never created their own (il proprio) empire (impero), but they spead (si sparsero) all over Europe durino the 300 A.C.. This was due to the fact that (ciò è dovuto al fatto che) the different Celtic ribes didn’t have a strong politica organization, even though (sebbene) they were linked (legati) by the same culture.
In 7th A.C., they reached Rome, they sacked it (la saccheggiarono), but they never were able (non furono mai in grado) to conquer it. In Italy the Celts settled in the Padana Plain and the central part of Italy. They also had contacts with the Etruscans, from who they learnt to work golden objects. The Celts didn’t have their own writing (una propria scrittura) and all the news about them were told by the Greeks and the Romans who called them Gauls. The Celts were exellent warriors (guerrieri) and bifore fighting, they used to tatoo their bodies, they used to sing, screma (urlare) and use offensive gestures (gesti offensivi) to frighten (spaventare) their enemies (nemici). They faught with naked bodies (a corpo nudo) for two reasons: to show thei tatoos and to offer themselves totally to their gods. After a victory or a battle, they used to cut the enemie’s heads and hang them on their doors to shoe them to the people.
They also were the inventore of the meral robe (cotta di maglia) and of the scabbard (guaina per la spada), which were used then (poi) by the Romans.