The industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution took place in England between the end of the 18 century and the beginning of the 19century.It caused a fundamental change in the industrial,commercial,political and social life of the western world.The chief characteristic of the Revolution was the development of machinery of every kind,and, above all of power driven machinery.The most important inventions of the period were:
-John Kay's flying shuttle which made it possible for a weaver to speed up the process of weaving;
-James Hargreaves's spinning jenny by which eight spindles could be worked at the same time;
-Richard Arkwright's water frame which applied water power to spinning;
-Samuel Crompton's spinning mule which combined the principles of the spinning jenny and that of the water frame;
-James Watt's steam engime by which the power of steam could be applied to all kinds of machinery.
The first industry which was affected by these inventions was the texile industry,followed by iron industry.The introduction of machinery in manufacturing mining transport and agriculture brought about great changes in the economic and social life of England.The effects of these changes were that England’s population doubled and drifted from the agricultural south east to the industrial north west. Thousand of farmers moved to the industrial centres,where they were employed in the factories.They worked about 16 hours a day for low wages.Working conditions were difficult,dirty and dangerous.Women and children worked in factories and mines too, and were paid less than the men.Life conditions were also very difficult lots of diseases caused death above all among children.Another change brought about by industial Revolution was the growth of the cities,which soon became overcrowded as there were not enough houses for all the people who were compelled to live in slums and rooms whitout windows. The industrial Revolution was responsible for many social evils; however thanks to reformers,who began by bulding schools and hospitals for the poor classes,improvements,even if they were slow, made life better for the working class.
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