The Industrial Revolution and The French Revolution changed completely the England: in fact, the first transformed what was mainly an agricultural nation into a powerful capitalistic country; the second had for-reaching effects(EFFETTI DI PORTATA ESTREMA) on every aspect of lige.
Both the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution had foregrounded (Evidenziato) the idea of change: in fact the minds of intellectuals and writers were occupied with the notion of revolution. But the ugliness caused by machines, the new class-conflicts and the pollution(INQUINAMENTO) of the enviroment( AMBIENTE) prompted( SPINSE) them to refused the reason and the progress and to rediscover the beauty and the value of Nature and the power of Feelings. These are the principal themes of Romanticism, a cultural moviment, which valued the uniquennes(UNICITÀ) of the individual and asserted( AFFERMÒ) the desire to go beyound humans limits.
The first Romantic poets were William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, who created the Romantic Manifesto, the "Preface to the Lyrical Ballads". But they understood Romanticism in two entirerly( COMPLETAMENTE) different ways: while Coleridge sought to make the supernatural "real", Wordsworth sought to stir the imagination of readers through character taken from real life.
There was a "Second Generation" of Romantic poets, that included Mary SHelley and John Keats. Mary Shelley didn't go down in hystory for her poetry, but for giving birth to Science Fiction( FANTASCIENZA): the plot( TRAMA) for the novel is said to have come from a nightmare(INCUBO) during stormy nights. Her idea of making a body with human parts of stolen(RUBATI) from different corpses and then animating it with eletricity was influenced by Alessandro Volta's inventiones. But the creaure od Frankestein is incredibly romantic as well: in fact, although "the creature" is intelligent, good and loving, he is shunned by everyone because of his ugliness and deformity and the desperation and envy that result from social exclusion turn him aganist the very man who created him.
John Keats, instead, didn't share( CONDIVIDEVA) revolutionary ideals, but the cult of pantheism. Keats was in love with the Art and Beauty and demonstrated( DIMOSTRÒ) that in his "Ode on a Grecian Urn".
Finally,there was Jane Austen who wrote novels about the life of the landed gentry(NOBILTÀ TERRIERA) and wryle(IRONICAMENTE) focused on pratical social issues, especially marriage and choosing the right partner in life. Her most important and popular Novel, Pride and Prejiudice, is seen as "realist" and not romantic sense: in fact, Jane Austen brings to light the hardshirps women focused( I DISAGI DELLE DONNE) and what was expected of men and the careers they had to follow. Jane Austen, so, created "Novel of Manners".
He was both a poet and visual artist: in fact, when he was only a baby, he had almost many visions. So Blake was a revolutionary in spirit who spent his life in rebellion: he violently attacked the rationalism and exalt the Imagination, rejected the dogmas of the established Church and developed a personal religion with a visionary style.
He attacked the rationalism because, in his opinion, it limited itselfcompetence( CIRCOSCRIVONO LE LORO COMPETENZE) only in fenomenical sphere( SFERA FENOMENICA) and didn't go too far: it didn't open itself to essential world(MONDO DELLE ESSENZE). Instead the Imagination let the man to rejoin himself with "Universal"(UNIVERSALE), recognizing the affinity with own nature(CON LA PROPRIA NATURA). So Blake was agreed with Platone's philosophy, but, differently from Platone, he said that the man with Imagination could arrive to real knowledge. The strongh of Imagination is be able to superate. The fight between Good and Evil: the first to Blake is the passivity of the reason; instead the second is the activity of energy.
Songs of Experience and Song of Innocence clarify Blake's view of the world: in fact, the "Lamb" and the "Tyger" are two complementary works which deal with contrasting states of human innocence and experience and explore two contrasting ideas of creation.Blake used symbols to express that: only with the eyes of child it's possible to interpreted them because the child has a great imagination.
The Victorian Era, spanning from 1837 to 1901, was a period of drammatic change: this was an era of scientific, mechanical and medical progress(in fact a great invention of this period was photography), an era of prodigius energy and success and of an enormous increase in wealth and world influence. The prosperity of the Victorian age was generated by Industrial Revolution, but it generated also enemployment(DISOCCUPAZIONE), poverty and urban squallor: Britain was divided in the "rich" and the "poor". So in this context the women took an roles that challenged( SFIDÒ) traditional ideas about their nature and Religious faith was discredited( SCREDITATA) by Darwin's discoveres, which caused an immense uproar in man's soul.
The double standards of success and exploitation( SFRUTTAMENTO) and philanthrophy and repression constitued just some of paradoxes of the age characterized by a compromise of them, called "Victorian Compromise".
It was affected by the "Victorian Compromise" that characterized Novel, Poetry and Theatre. In fact, Novel, or also "Realistic Novel", depicted( DESCRISSE) a large social world with a variety of classes and social settings: it entertained( DIVERTIVA) and edified( EDUCAVA), but it also made intelligible(CHIARO) the harsh( DURE) conditions of Victorian Life.
Differently, the poetry was generally submised(SOTTOMESSA) to Novel and influenced by Romantic themes.
Finally Theatre was a popular form of entertainment, but occupied no central position in litterature.
He was an important writer: he had written eleven novels and had acquired as much social influence as any politician. He captured the spirit of his age like no other novelist before or since using(USANDO) types and caricatures with sentimentality.
Dickens worked in close collaboration with many illustrators because in Victorian Age the justapposition of the text and illustration is very diffused. But Dickens with illustration wanted to anticiped developments and provided comic or serius comments on the event and the characters.
He composed "Oliver Twist" that set in London, represented as a place of squallidmystery and terror. Dickens describe the conditions of poor children who were sent to the workhouse. The workhouse were places of hardship and degradation where families were split up(VERSARSI), food was scarce and where the conditions are uncomfortable and hard.
Then he composed "David Copperfild": it is a novel centred on the progress of a single protagonist, who starts out as an undisciplined character but who slowly became responsible. It is a biography of novellist that pictured all the author suffred as a child including his childhood humilation in the blacking factory.
"Hard Times", instead, is set in Coketown where people exist to keep the great machine of industry rolling and to enrich the factory owners. It depicted the harshness of existence in the industrial towns and provided sharp criticism both of the explottation to imaginative litterature.
Dickens describe accurately the landscape and the physic and phycological characteristic of his character: He's the "Painter" of English Litterature.
His novel expressed his strongh sense of social commitment but don't said how Victorian society should be altered.
Inde,class and money become the sources of salvation for many of his characters:this is the Happy Ending.
He is a great aesthete.The word"aesthete" mean percepition of something with senses and is used to indicate a person that is dedicated to Beauty of Art,Music and Litterature.The Art isn't considered something to instruct and haven't moral objects(that is contrary to Victorian principles)Art have only a presupposte:it has to be Beautiful
For aestetes the appearence has more importance than contenent of Art:so Aesteticism is not only an artistic theory but also a style of life
The picture of Dorian Gray
This novel is about Dorian Gray which has a friend,Basilio Halleward:he make a Dorian's picture.So Dorian guess to be young forever,while his picture make old in stead of him.With a magic he can make that the early picture became the expression of his soul. and in stead to understand the degradation of his soul,Dorian became more amoralist.In fact he killed Basilio and rend his picture.But immedietly he became ugly and old and died.Instead the picture is beautiful.
Dorian incarnated the younger generation and express the dissappointments tawards contemporany society and civil the Victorian society
The importance of Being Earnest
It's wilde's last play and the typical mid Victorian world "EARNEST" is uded as a pun and make the key joke (chiave scherzosa)of a comedy where humor is criticism of victorian valves of middle class.
The plot is about two aristocratic men who wanted to married Fairfax and lardew:The men meet them with an "alter ego"named Hernest.So at finally the two girls discovered to be in love with a fantasy person and only at the end they decided to married the aristocratic men.
"EARNEST"evoked "HONEST"but noone be that in the comedy:there is another criticism to vistorian values.
It's a letter for "Bosie" in which wilde wanted to forgoed(perdonare)his lover to have pur him in prison .He accusated Wilde to be homosexual but Wilde wasn't angry to him!In the prison,he said,the struments that could hel Wilde are imagination and memories.
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