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Around 700 BC Celts arrived in England from North-West Germany. Their society was based on working iron, fishing, hunting and agriculture. The most influential Celts were the Druids which introduced the worship of natural elements such as the Sun, the Moon, the rivers… . The Celtic language was Gaelic which characterized the modern languages of Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
In 55-54 BC the Romans attempted to invade Britain, but the real conquest of that land took place in AD 43-47. They brought their civilization (typical Roman towns and roads) and language (Latin affected English).
Around AD 409 some Germanic tribes invaded Britain and destroyed Roman colonies. These ones were the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. Few years later they gave the name of England, which means “the land of the Angles”, to this area. The Anglo-Saxons brought their social system: their families were organized in groups called clans. They exalted physical courage, personal freedom and sense of beauty, and they gave importance to religion. They also promoted to write the history of England, “The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle”. During Anglo-Saxon age we can find the first form of English literature: the epic poem “Beowulf”. It is the clearest example of the language of this period, which is named Old English.
This language is also influenced by the Vikings, a population of warriors and pirates from Norway and Denmark who raided and colonized a large parte of England between the 8th and the 9th century. They introduced in English words such as “skeleton”, “skull”, “sky”, “leg” and “they”. They also were important due to their naval culture: nowadays in England we can find the remains of typical Viking ships.