In 1914 the relations between the European nations were tense and difficult: there were rivalries, feelings of revenge and independence, desires expansion and nationalism turned World War in 1914 the relations between the European nations were tense and difficult: c 'were rivalry, feelings of revenge and independence, desires expansion and nationalism on. The various countries were united by alliances: the Triple Alliance formed by Germany, Austria and Italy and the Triple Entente formed by England, Russia and France. The killing of the heir to the Austrian Sarajevo marked the beginning of the war: Austria declared war on Serbia; Russia mobilized the army; Germany began the hostilities with France and Russia, which joined England and Japan. Alongside the Germans entered the war on the Ottoman Empire. The war took on global dimensions. The warring nations used the most advanced technologies and the efficiency of their industries to build deadly weapons. They were destroyed many cities and countries and the cost of living skyrocketed. The German plans foresaw a rapid war of movement but it turned into a tremendous war of position. Italy, ke had split from the alliance, was divided into: neutralist (socialists, Catholics and liberal) ke were opposed to war and interventionist (nationalist, revolutionary socialists, irrendisti business owners and military) who were in favor of the war . The Italian government was agreed secretly with the powers of the cartel: Italy would enter the war against Austria and Germany and in case of victory he would receive the Trentino, South Tyrol and Dalmatia. May 24, 1915 Italy began hostilities against Austria. In 1917 Germany began submarine warfare using the submarine. The German offensive had resulted in the indiscriminate entry into the US war alongside the cartel; Russia abandoned the conflict for the outbreak of the socialist revolution. Italy suffered a defeat at Caporetto. In 1918 the Germans were defeated by the forces of the Entente on the Western Front and in Italy the Austrians, who were advancing, they were stopped in Vittorio Veneto. The signing of the armistice marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, replaced by a Republic of Austria. Even the German and Ottoman empires became republics.